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1.
Waste Manag ; 129: 20-25, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020372

RESUMO

A novel approach of using two stage anaerobic digestion coupled with electrodialysis technology has been investigated. This approach was used to improving bio hydrogen and methane yields from food waste while simultaneously producing a green chemical feedstock. The first digester was used for hydrogen production and the second digester was used for methane production. The first digester was combined with continuous separation of volatile fatty acids using electrodialysis. The concentrations of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in the prepared food waste were 22.7%, 5.7% and 5.2% respectively. Continuous removal of volatile fatty acids during fermentation in the hydrogen digester not only increased hydrogen yields but also increased the production rate of volatile fatty acids. As a result of continuous VFA separation, hydrogen yields increased from 17.3 mL H2/g VS fermenter to 33.68 mL H2/g VS fermenter. Methane yields also increased from 28.94 mL CH4/g VS fermenter to 43.94 mL CH4/g VS fermenter. This represents a total increase in bio-energy yields of 77.1%. COD reduced by 73% after using two stage anaerobic digestion, however, this reduction increased to 86.7% after using electrodialysis technology for separation of volatile fatty acids. Electrodialysis technology coupled with anaerobic digestion improved substrate utilization, increased bioenergy yields and looks to be promising for treating complex wastes such as food waste.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Hidrogênio , Metano
2.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 4105-4116, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977918

RESUMO

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and caffeine constitute the most effective ingredients of weight loss in tea. However, whether combination of EGCG and caffeine exhibits anti-obesity synergy remains unclear. Here, we showed low-doses of EGCG and caffeine used in combination led to synergistic anti-obesity effects equivalent to those of high-dose EGCG. Furthermore, combination treatment exhibited a synergistic effect on altering gut microbiota, including decreased Firmicutes level and increased Bifidobacterium level. Other notable effects of combination treatment included synergistic effects on: increasing fecal acetic acid, propionic acid, and total SCFAs; decreasing expression of GPR43; and increasing microbial bile salt hydrolase gene copies in the gut, facilitating generation of unconjugated BAs and enhancing fecal BA loss. Additionally, combination treatment demonstrated synergistic effects toward increasing the expression of hepatic TGR5 and decreasing the expression of intestinal FXR-FGF15, resulting in increased expression of hepatic CYP7A1. Thus, the synergistic effect may be attributed to regulation of gut microbiota and BA metabolism.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/análise , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo
3.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 4152-4164, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977942

RESUMO

The human gut is a highly diverse microbial ecosystem. Although showing a well-defined core of dominant taxa, an interindividual variability exists in microbiome arrangement patterns, and the presence and proportion of specific species, determining individual metabolic features-metabotypes-which govern the health effects of dietary interventions (i.e. polyphenol consumption). Starting with a 19-volunteer human intervention study, divided into low, medium, and high wine-polyphenol-metabolizers, we detected interindividual discrepancies on the effect of wine consumption in gut bacterial alpha-diversity, but a significant homogenization of beta-diversity among moderate wine consumers, independently of their metabotype. In addition, the abundance of key health-related taxa such as Akkermansia sp. increased after moderate wine intake in the group of high polyphenol-metabolizers. Regarding the metabolic activity, significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations in the production of SCFAs were observed after wine intake. Finally, we were able to correlate the microbiome and the metabolome of the three metabotypes, and to identify some metabolites-biomarker species, highlighting the genera Phascolarctobacterium, Pelotomaculum and Prevotella, as positively correlated with polyphenol concentration, and Prevotella, Zymophilus and Eubacterium as positively correlated with SCFAs concentration in faeces. Our results contribute to the evidence of the need of including the microbiome variable in personalized nutrition programs, as different metabotyes respond differently to dietary interventions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/fisiologia , Metaboloma , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Vinho , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Variação Biológica da População , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 3919-3930, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977963

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome, which includes a series of metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and obesity, has become a catastrophic disease worldwide. Accordingly, probiotic intervention is a new strategy to alleviate metabolic syndrome, which can adjust the gut microbiota to a certain extent. The aim of the current work was to explore the alleviation of metabolic syndrome by Lactobacillus reuteri and L. rhamnosus. Two L. reuteri and two L. rhamnosus strains were administered to mice with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. All Lactobacillus strains tested significantly slowed weight gain in the mice. Among four strains, L. reuteri FGSZY33L6 and L. rhamnosus FJSYC4-1 showed the strongest ability to relieve blood glucose disorders, blood lipid disorders, tissue damage, and particularly gut microbiota disorders. Thus, our findings indicate that these strains can regulate the gut microbiota and produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which can induce satiety hormones, inhibit food intake and increase satiety, and thus improve metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus reuteri , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Probióticos , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/microbiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ganho de Peso
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 335: 125283, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015564

RESUMO

In this study, the anaerobic digestion (AD) applications of early & late biochar dosage were compared for municipal leachate treatment, with the objective of studying the flexible use of biochar as a mitigation measure for biomethane recovery. In two experimental phases, biochar was favourable for the immediate promotion of AD performances, as revealed by Gompertz's model of reduced lag phases, higher biomethane generation rates, and increased biomethane yields. Irrespective of late biochar dosage, it could still retrieve 89% of the ultimate biomethane potential. Comparing the residual VFAs (volatile fatty acids) compositions, it was found that the fraction of long-chain VFAs accounted for 81% of total VFAs in reactor set of early biochar dosage, while it was only 38% in the reactor of late one. Parallel evidence suggested that the schedule of biochar dosage not only could affect methanogenic responses but also the VFAs conversion pathways.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Anaerobiose , Carvão Vegetal , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 335: 125289, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015569

RESUMO

This research investigated for the first time the influence of the single fractions (proteins, lipids, starch, cellulose, fibers and sugars) composing Household Food Wastes on Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA). A production at different pH (uncontrolled, 5.5 and 7.0): both the amount and profile of VFA were investigated. It was found that fractions rich in proteins and starch led to the greatest VFA productions (12-15 g/L), especially at neutral pH condition. On the contrary, fractions rich in cellulose, fibers, and sugars showed a very low VFA production (<2 g/L). The chemical nature of HFW influenced the speciation of the microbial communities too. Lactobacillaceae family was highly represented in proteins-, starch-, fibers and sugars-rich substrates and Atopobiaceae, Eggerthellaceae, Acidaminococcaceae and Veillonellaceae displayed positive correlation to VFAs production. Instead, Comamonadaceae showed high relative abundance in lipids- and cellulose-rich fraction and was negatively correlated to the VFAs generation.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
7.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 66(5): 310-314, 2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047518

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess the informative value of volatile fatty acid parameters for the differential diagnosis of infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN), complicated by retroperitoneal cellulitis. The work was based on the results of examination and treatment of 44 patients with infected pancreatic necrosis. The analysis of concentrations of volatile fatty acids: acetic, propionic, butyric and isovalerianic was carried out on a Kristallux-4000 automated gas chromatograph with an HP-FFAP capillary column and a flame ionization detector. The indicators of acetic acid and the amount of volatile fatty acids were statistically significantly higher in patients with infected pancreatic necrosis with total retroperitoneal phlegmons in comparison with the indicators of volatile fatty acids in patients with infected pancreatic necrosis with paracolic phlegmons and in comparison with indicators of volatile fatty acids in patients with infected pancreatic necrosis phlegmons. The indicators of acetic acid and the amount of VFA can be used as additional criteria for the differential diagnosis of IPN complicated by phlegmons of the retroperitoneal tissue.


Assuntos
Celulite (Flegmão) , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda , Ácido Acético , Celulite (Flegmão)/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Humanos
8.
Water Res ; 199: 117184, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984586

RESUMO

Methane bioconversion to value-added liquid chemicals has been proposed as a promising solution to augment the petroleum-dominated chemical market. Recent investigations have reported that various electron acceptors (e.g., nitrite and nitrate) are available to drive methane bioconversion to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). However, little is known about effects of the rate electron acceptor supplied on liquid chemical production from methane. Herein, three independent membrane biofilm reactors (MBfRs) feeding with respective nitrate, nitrite, combined nitrate and nitrite were operated under high and low rate condition in succession, to study whether feeding rate of electron acceptors could impact the methane bioconversion to SCFAs and the associated microbiological features. Long-term operation showed that all tested electron acceptors with a high supply rate were favorable for methane bioconversion to SCFAs (990.9 mg L-1d-1, 1695.7 mg L-1d-1, and 2425.7 mg L-1d-1), while under a low electron acceptor feeding rate, the SCFA production rate decreased to 8.9 mg L-1d-1, 16.8 mg L-1d-1, and 260.1 mg L-1d-1, respectively. Microbial community characterization showed that the biofilm was predominated by Methanosarcina, Methanobacterium, Propionispora and Clostridium. On the basis of the known metabolism characteristics of these microorganisms, it was assumed that these methanogens and fermenters contributed jointly to methane bioconversion to SCFAs. The findings could be helpful to understand the role of electron acceptor rate in methane bioconversion to liquid chemicals.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Biofilmes , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Nitritos , Oxirredução
9.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(5): 597-607, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033301

RESUMO

Objective: Yacon flour is rich in bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds and fructooligosaccharides (FOS)), and may therefore reduce the risk of diseases associated with excess body weight. However, its effect on fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA), intestinal permeability, oxidative stress and inflammation markers has not been studied in adult humans with excess body weight. Thus, we evaluated the effect of the consumption of yacon flour on these variables. Methods: Twenty-six excess body weight (30.4 ± 2.4 kg/m2) adults (31.3 ± 8.5y) were randomized to one of two groups (yacon flour or control; n = 13) on a double blind clinical trial. Subjects received a breakfast drink containing or not yacon flour (25g) associated with an energy restricted diet, for six weeks. The flour chemical characterization, FOS and total phenolics contents were evaluated. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo (plasma). Intestinal permeability, fecal SCFA, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers also were evaluated in vivo. Results: Yacon flour was well tolerated. It presented an in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity, increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (ΔYAC: 49.16 (-4.20; 156.63)) and reduced protein carbonyl concentrations (ΔYAC: -0.98 (-1.54; -0.42)). A reduction in SCFAs was observed in both groups (Δacetic: -3.16 (-5.07; -0.95) vs. -1.05 (-2.65; 1.11); Δpropionic: -1.05 (-2.60;-0.38) vs. -0.41 (-2.08; 0.09); Δbutyric -0.75 (-1.38; -0.04) vs. -0.28 (-0.98; 0.11), for YAC and CON, respectively). Other variables did not change. Conclusion: The yacon flour increased the plasma antioxidant capacity, decreased oxidative stress and SCFAs in adults with obesity or overweight.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Farinha , Adulto , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Humanos , Inflamação , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Estresse Oxidativo , Permeabilidade
10.
J Environ Manage ; 291: 112631, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932835

RESUMO

Energy recovery from lignocellulosic waste has been studied as an alternative to the problem of inappropriate waste disposal. The present study aimed at characterizing the microbial community and the functional activity of reactors applied to H2 production through lignocellulosic waste fermentation in optimized conditions. The latter were identified by means of Rotational Central Composite Design (RCCD), applied to optimize allochthonous inoculum concentration (2.32-5.68 gTVS/L of granular anaerobic sludge), pH (4.32-7.68) and Citrus Peel Waste (CPW) concentration (1.55-28.45 g/L). After validation, the conditions identified for optimal H2 production were 4 gSTV/L of allochthonous inoculum, 29.8 g/L of CPW (substrate) and initial pH of 8.98. In these conditions, 48.47 mmol/L of H2 was obtained, which is 3.64 times higher than the concentration in unoptimized conditions (13.31 mmol H2/L using 15 g/L of CPW, 2 gTVS/L of allochthonous inoculum, pH 7.0). Acetogenesis was the predominant pathway, and maximal concentrations of 3,731 mg/L of butyric acid and 3,516 mg/L of acetic acid were observed. Regarding the metataxonomic profile, Clostridium genus was dramatically favored in the optimized condition (79.78%) when compared to the allochthonous inoculum (0.43%). It was possible to identify several genes related to H2 (i.e dehydrogenases) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and with cellulose degradation, especially some CAZymes from the classes Auxiliary Activities, Glycoside Hydrolases and Glycosyl Transferase. By means of differential gene expression it was observed that cellulose degradation and acetic acid production pathways were overabundant in samples from the optimized reactors, highlighting endo-ß-1,4-glucanase/cellulose, endo-ß-1,4-xylanase, ß-glucosidase, ß-mannosidase, cellulose ß-1,4-cellobiosidase, cellobiohydrolase, and others, as main the functions.


Assuntos
Citrus , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fermentação , Hidrogênio/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Esgotos
11.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 4221-4230, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876796

RESUMO

One polysaccharide, designated as WPEP-A, was isolated from Passiflora edulis Sims peel and its hypoglycemic effects on diabetic db/db mice were evaluated. Physicochemical characterization showed that WPEP-A was composed of galactose, glucose, xylose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid and glucuronic acid with a molecular weight of 9.51 × 104 Da. We observed an inhibition in weight gain and blood glucose levels. Glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance improved after the administration of WPEP-A. In addition, our data showed increased antioxidant enzyme activities. Furthermore, the levels of serum insulin and triglyceride decreased with the recovery of liver damage. Meanwhile, positive changes in short chain fatty acid content were observed, and the mRNA levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor, glucagon and prohormone convertase 3 were up-regulated in the intestinal tract. In summary, our results showed that WPEP-A had hypoglycemic activity and improved intestinal function in diabetic mice, which may contribute to the attenuation of the hypoglycemia effects.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Passiflora/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glicemia/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Glucagon/genética , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/genética , Insulina/sangue , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Pró-Proteína Convertase 1/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Regulação para Cima , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(6): 6739-6755, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814156

RESUMO

Three experiments assessed branched-chain volatile fatty acid (BCVFA) stimulation of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) disappearance after 24 h of incubation in batch cultures derived from ruminal fluid inocula that were enriched with particulate-phase bacteria. In experiment 1, a control was compared with 3 treatments with isomolar doses of all 3 BCVFA (plus valerate), all 3 branched-chain AA (BCAA), or half of each BCVFA and BCAA mix with either alfalfa or grass hays (50%) and ground corn grain (50%). A portion of the BCAA and BCVFA doses were enriched with 13C, and valerate (also enriched with 13C) was added with BCVFA. Although BCAA yielded a similar production of BCVFA compared with dosing BCVFA, equimolar substitution of BCVFA for BCAA decreased the percentage of N in bacterial pellets when alfalfa hay was fed but increased N when grass hay was fed. Substituting BCVFA for BCAA increased total fatty acid (FA) concentration with alfalfa hay. Dosing of BCAA or BCVFA did not affect total branched-chain FA, iso-FA, or anteiso-FA percentages in bacterial total FA, whereas numerous individual FA isomers and their 13C enrichments were affected by these treatments. Increasing recovery of the 13C dose from respective labeled BCVFA primers indicated facilitated BCVFA uptake and incorporation into FA compared with BCAA, whereas increased recovery of 13C from labeled BCAA in the bacteria pellet but not in the FA fraction suggested direct assimilation into bacterial protein. The BCVFA and valerate were dosed in varying combinations that either summed to 4 mM (experiment 2) or had only 1 mM no matter what combination (experiment 3). In general, grass hay was more responsive to stimulation in NDF digestibility by BCVFA than was alfalfa hay, which was attributed to the higher degradable protein in the latter. The net production of the BCVFA (after subtracting dose) was affected by source and combination of BCVFA. Isovalerate dosing tended to increase its own net production; in contrast, isobutyrate seemed to be used more when it was added alone, but 2-methylbutyrate seemed to be preferred over isobutyrate when 2-methylbutyrate was added. Results supported potential interactions, including potential feedback in production from feed BCAA or increased concentration-dependent competition for dosed BCVFA into cellular products. Under our conditions, the BCVFA appear to be more readily available than BCAA, probably because of regulated BCAA transport and metabolism. Valerate consistently provided no benefit. Using nonparametric ranking, all 3 BCVFA or either isovalerate or isobutyrate (both yielding iso-FA) should be combined with 2-methylbutyrate (yielding anteiso-FA) as a potential opportunity to improve NDF digestibility when rumen-degraded BCAA are limited in diets to decrease environmental impact from N in waste.


Assuntos
Detergentes , Rúmen , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes/veterinária , Detergentes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Rúmen/metabolismo
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 333: 125196, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901909

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion, as an eco-friendly waste treatment technology, is facing the problem of low stability and low product value. Harvesting value-added products beyond methane and removing the inhibitory compounds will unleash new vitality of anaerobic digestion, which need to be achieved by selective separation of certain compounds. Various methods are reviewed in this study for separating valuable products (volatile fatty acids, medium-chain carboxylic acids, lactic acid) and inhibitory substance (ammonia) from the liquid fraction of digestate, including their performance, applicability, corresponding limitations and roadmaps for improvement. In-situ extraction that allows simultaneous production and extraction is seen as promising approach which carries good potential to overcome the barriers for continuous production. The prospects and challenges of the future development are further analyzed based on in-situ extraction and economics.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Amônia , Anaerobiose , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 333: 125149, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901914

RESUMO

The effects of temperature (35 °C and 55 °C) and pH (uncontrolled, 7 and 10) on volatile fatty acid (VFA) yields from anaerobic codigestion of food waste, and thermal-hydrolysed sewage sludge were investigated in this study. The results revealed that optimal conditions for VFA production occurred at 35 °C at pH 7 and at 10 and 55 °C at pH 7. The dominant bacterial genera associated with VFA production significantly differed when the temperature and pH were altered, including Prevotella, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium Megasphaera, Clostridium XlVa, and Coprothermobacter. A temperature of 35 °C at pH 7 favoured mixed acid-type fermentation, while a temperature of 35 °C at pH 10 and 55 °C at pH 7 favoured butyric acid-type fermentation. The maximal polyhydroxyalkanoate content accounted for 54.8% of the dry cell at 35 °C with pH 7 fermentative liquids and comprised 58.9% 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 41.1% 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV).


Assuntos
Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Reatores Biológicos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fermentação , Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/metabolismo , Esgotos , Temperatura
15.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802455

RESUMO

In recent years, nonalcoholic fatty liver disorders have become one of the most common liver pathologies; therefore, it is necessary to investigate the dietary compounds that may support the regulation of liver metabolism and related inflammatory processes. The present study examines the effect of raspberry polyphenolic extract (RE) combined with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs) or pectins (PECs) on caecal microbial fermentation, liver lipid metabolism and inflammation in rats with fatty liver induced by an obesogenic diet. The combination of RE with FOSs or PECs reduced the production of short-chain fatty acids in the caecum. RE combined with FOSs exerted the most favourable effects on liver lipid metabolism by decreasing liver fat, cholesterol, triglyceride content and hepatic steatosis. RE and FOSs reduced lobular and portal inflammatory cell infiltration and IL-6 plasma levels. These effects might be related to a decrease in the hepatic expressions of PPARγ and ANGPTL4. In conclusion, PECs and FOSs enhanced the effects of RE against disorders related to nonalcoholic fatty liver; however, the most effective dietary treatment in the regulation of liver lipid metabolism and inflammation caused by an obesogenic diet was the combination of RE with FOSs.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Pectinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Rubus/química , Proteína 4 Semelhante a Angiopoietina/metabolismo , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/biossíntese , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
16.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consuming a diet high in prebiotic fiber has been associated with improved metabolic and gut microbial parameters intergenerationally, although studies have been limited to maternal intake with no studies examining this effect in a paternal model. METHOD: Male Sprague Dawley rats were allocated to either (1) control or (2) oligofructose-supplemented diet for nine weeks and then mated. Offspring consumed control diet until 16 weeks of age. Bodyweight, body composition, glycemia, hepatic triglycerides, gastrointestinal hormones, and gut microbiota composition were measured in fathers and offspring. RESULTS: Paternal energy intake was reduced, while satiety inducing peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) gut hormone was increased in prebiotic versus control fathers. Increased serum PYY persisted in female prebiotic adult offspring. Hepatic triglycerides were decreased in prebiotic fathers with a similar trend (p = 0.07) seen in female offspring. Gut microbial composition showed significantly reduced alpha diversity in prebiotic fathers at 9 and 12 weeks of age (p < 0.001), as well as concurrent differences in beta diversity (p < 0.001), characterized by differences in Bifidobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae, and particularly Bifidobacterium animalis. Female prebiotic offspring had higher alpha diversity at 3 and 9 weeks of age (p < 0.002) and differences in beta diversity at 15 weeks of age (p = 0.04). Increases in Bacteroidetes in female offspring and Christensenellaceae in male offspring were seen at nine weeks of age. CONCLUSIONS: Although paternal prebiotic intake before conception improves metabolic and microbiota outcomes in fathers, effects on offspring were limited with increased serum satiety hormone levels and changes to only select gut bacteria.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Prebióticos , Animais , Glicemia , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Pai , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Feminino , Hormônios Gastrointestinais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Homeostase , Masculino , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeo YY , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 781: 146685, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798880

RESUMO

Anaerobic fermentation is an eco-friendly technology for waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment, during which resource recycle can be achieved. However, traditional sludge anaerobic fermentation is limited by the poor efficiency. We herein reported a novel high-efficiency technology by combining freezing with potassium ferrate (PF) for sludge pretreatment to promote hydrogen production from anaerobic fermentation. Experimental results demonstrated that freezing coupled with PF pretreatment exerted positively synergetic effect on hydrogen production. The maximal hydrogen production of 12.50 mL/g VSS (volatile suspended solids) was detected in the fermenter pretreated by freezing (-12 °C for 24 h) coupled with PF at 0.15 g/g TSS (total suspended solids), which was 1.34, 2.33, and 7.91 times of that from the individual PF, individual freezing, and control fermenters, respectively. The simulation results based on the modified Gompertz model indicated that both the hydrogen production potential and rate were promoted by freezing coupled with 0.15 g/g TSS PF pretreatment, from 2.14 to 13.52 mL/g VSS and 0.012 to 0.163 mL/g VSS/h, respectively. Thorough mechanism investigations revealed that the sludge EPS (extracellular polymeric substances) and microbial cells were both effectively damaged by combined freezing and PF pretreatment, resulting in the acceleration of sludge disintegration. Further investigations demonstrated that except for the acidogenesis, the other biochemical processes were all inhibited by freezing coupled with PF pretreatment, but the inhibitory extent for hydrogen consuming processes was more serious than that responsible for its generation. Gene sequencing analysis illuminated that both of the hydrolytic and hydrogen generating bacteria were largely enriched in the combined pretreatment fermenter. Moreover, the dewatering performances of fermented sludge were found to be notably enhanced by freezing coupled with PF pretreatment.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fermentação , Congelamento , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Compostos de Ferro , Compostos de Potássio
18.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799580

RESUMO

Postbiotics are health-promoting microbial metabolites delivered as a functional food or a food supplement. They either directly influence signaling pathways of the body or indirectly manipulate metabolism and the composition of intestinal microflora. Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide and even though the prognosis of patients is improving, it is still poor in the substantial part of the cases. The preventable nature of cancer and the importance of a complex multi-level approach in anticancer therapy motivate the search for novel avenues of establishing the anticancer environment in the human body. This review summarizes the principal findings demonstrating the usefulness of both natural and synthetic sources of postbotics in the prevention and therapy of cancer. Specifically, the effects of crude cell-free supernatants, the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, lactic acid, hydrogen sulfide, and ß-glucans are described. Contradictory roles of postbiotics in healthy and tumor tissues are highlighted. In conclusion, the application of postbiotics is an efficient complementary strategy to combat cancer.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Butiratos/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/farmacologia , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Metaboloma , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Prebióticos/microbiologia , Probióticos/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
19.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800983

RESUMO

Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is widely studied as a medicinal and edible fungus. Recent studies have shown that H. erinaceus has protective effects for diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and cancer, which are related to gut microbiota. To investigate the benefits of H. erinaceus intake on gut microbiota and blood indices in adulthood, we recruited 13 healthy adults to consume H. erinaceus powder as a dietary supplement. Blood changes due to H. erinaceus consumption were determined by routine hematological examination and characterized by serum biochemical markers. Microbiota composition was profiled by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Results showed that daily H. erinaceus supplementation increased the alpha diversity within the gut microbiota community, upregulated the relative abundance of some short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producing bacteria (Kineothrix alysoides, Gemmiger formicilis, Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans, Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii), and downregulated some pathobionts (Streptococcus thermophilus, Bacteroides caccae, Romboutsia timonensis). Changes within the gut microbiota were correlated with blood chemical indices including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), uric acid (UA), and creatinine (CREA). Thus, we found that the gut microbiota alterations may be part of physiological adaptations to a seven-day H. erinaceus supplementation, potentially influencing beneficial health effects.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Alimentos Fortificados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Creatinina/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Gota/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/prevenção & controle , Cálculos Renais/prevenção & controle , Lipoproteínas LDL , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ácido Úrico
20.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801023

RESUMO

Metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a new concept where the presence of both fatty liver and metabolic abnormality are necessary for diagnosis. Several studies have reported that altered gut microbiome is closely associated with metabolic diseases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the studies on MAFLD population are scarce. This prospective study aimed to identify differences in gut microbiome between patients with MAFLD and healthy controls in Korean population. In this study, patients with MAFLD and age, sex-matched healthy controls were included, and their stool samples were collected. Taxonomic composition of gut microbiota was analyzed using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid pyrosequencing. Twenty-two MAFLD patients and 44 healthy controls were included. Taxonomic diversity was lower in patients with MAFLD in the aspect of alpha and beta diversity. The differences were also found at phylum, class, family, and genus levels between the two groups. Phylum Proteobacteria, family Enterobactereriaceae, genus Citrobacter abundance was significantly increased and genus Faecalibacterium was significantly decreased in patients with MAFLD. In addition, butyrate-producing bacteria were decreased and ethanol-producing bacteria were increased in patients with MAFLD. The composition of gut microbiome was different between MAFLD and healthy controls in Korean population. This could offer potential targets for therapeutic intervention in MAFLD.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodiversidade , Butiratos/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Fígado , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , República da Coreia
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