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1.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(2): 289-302, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961431

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE) is regarded as a pregnancy-associated hypertension disorder that is related to excessive inflammatory responses. Although the gut microbiota (GM) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been related to hypertension, their effects on PE remain unknown. We determined the GM abundance and faecal SCFA levels by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing and gas chromatography, respectively, using faecal samples from 27 patients with severe PE and 36 healthy, pregnant control subjects. We found that patients with PE had significantly decreased GM diversity and altered GM abundance. At the phylum level, patients with PE exhibited decreased abundance of Firmicutes albeit increased abundance of Proteobacteria; at the genus level, patients with PE had lower abundance of Blautia, Eubacterium_rectale, Eubacterium_hallii, Streptococcus, Bifidobacterium, Collinsella, Alistipes, and Subdoligranulum, albeit higher abundance of Enterobacter and Escherichia_Shigella. The faecal levels of butyric and valeric acids were significantly decreased in patients with PE and significantly correlated with the above-mentioned differential GM abundance. We predicted significantly increased abundance of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-synthesis pathway and significantly decreased abundance of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pathway in patients with PE, based on phylogenetic reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt). Finally, we evaluated the effects of oral butyrate on LPS-induced hypertension in pregnant rats. We found that butyrate significantly reduced the blood pressure (BP) in these rats. In summary, we provide the first evidence linking GM dysbiosis and reduced faecal SCFA to PE and demonstrate that butyrate can directly regulate BP in vivo, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic agent for PE.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Butiratos/administração & dosagem , Butiratos/análise , Butiratos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/microbiologia , Ácidos Pentanoicos/análise , Ácidos Pentanoicos/metabolismo , Dinâmica Populacional , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/microbiologia , Gravidez , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
2.
Food Chem ; 312: 126040, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896457

RESUMO

This study's objective was to investigate how legume type and processing method affected digestibility, and subsequent gut microbiota and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) formation. After autoclaving and germinating-cooking, pinto bean and soybean were subjected to in vitro digestion. The digestion residues were fractionated into soluble and insoluble fiber, and fermented by microbiota from pig feces. Results showed the in vitro digestibility was affected significantly by processing method and legume type. Autoclaving resulted in higher digestibility. The in-vitro digested bean residues caused a rapid pH decrease in the first 12 h during the fermentation with pig feces, and a significant increse in the formation of SCFAs. A positive modulation of the gut microbiota by the in-vitro digested bean residues was observed. Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus exhibited the highest relative abundance in the treatments with germinated bean's soluble residues. Phascolarctobacterium succinatutens was increased by the insoluble residues.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fezes/microbiologia , Fermentação , Soja , Suínos
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 396-409, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733854

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pretreatment with reducing sugars or with an enzymatic cocktail before extrusion of fava bean on intake, milk yield and composition, N partitioning, and plasma and ruminal parameters. The main hypothesis was that these pretreatment conditions would allow better N protection in the rumen compared with classic pretreatment before extrusion, thanks to an increase of sugar proportion, either exogenous or endogenous with enzymatic actions. Sixteen Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment. Cow were fed a diet with a 56:44 forage to concentrate ratio and containing 16.2% of crude protein (CP; dry matter basis). Concentrate consisted of fava bean:linseed blends (90:10%, raw basis) distributed either raw, extruded after pretreatment without additive, extruded after pretreatment with reducing sugars, or extruded after pretreatment with an enzymatic cocktail. The experimental blends provided 53% of total CP in the diet. Intake, milk yield and composition, ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids and ammonia kinetics, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibilities and N partitioning, Maillard compounds in feed and feces, plasma AA, and 15N natural enrichment were measured. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance according to the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Extrusion without additive during pretreatment led to higher contents of Maillard compounds in the blend, a lower enzymatic CP degradability, a numerically lower ammonia content in ruminal fluid, and a trend of higher plasma EAA concentration, all suggesting a decrease in degradability of proteins in the rumen, and a subsequent increase in metabolizable protein supply. Compared with pretreatment without additive, adding reducing sugars or an enzymatic cocktail during pretreatment led to an increase in Maillard compound contents in the extruded blends, and to an increase (+50 mg/L) in rumen ammonia content. With reducing sugars, digestibility of Nɛ-carboxymethyl-lysine was numerically lower, and plasma EAA concentration tended to decrease, suggesting an overprotection of proteins in the intestine. With the enzymatic cocktail, plasma EAA concentration was similar than without additive during pretreatment, suggesting a similar metabolizable protein supply with both treatments. Finally, no change in N partitioning between milk, urine, and feces was observed whatever the diet.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Vicia faba , Amônia/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Enzimas , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/química , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/química , Rúmen/metabolismo , Açúcares
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 439-446, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733869

RESUMO

In early-weaning programs, dietary effects on calf rumen development have been studied extensively, but very little information is available about the effects of a solid diet on hepatic metabolism in preweaned dairy calves. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of physical form of oats in calf starter on the expression of key hepatic gluconeogenic, ß-oxidation, and acute phase protein genes in preweaned dairy calves. Samples were analyzed from 3 experiments that fed either ground or whole oats in calf starters. Briefly, 7 calves were slaughtered at 5 wk of age in experiment 1, 6 were slaughtered at 6 wk in experiment 2, and 7 were slaughtered at 7 wk in experiment 3, and liver tissue was collected for gene expression analysis. Calves from experiments 1 and 2 were cannulated, and their rumen pH and volatile fatty acids were measured during treatment periods. The mRNA expression of gluconeogenic enzymes pyruvate carboxylase (PC), cytosolic and mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1 and PCK2), fatty acid oxidation enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT1), and positive acute phase protein haptoglobin (HPT) was measured by real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR. Expression of HPT was greater in calves fed whole oats than in calves fed ground oats; however, PC, PCK1, PCK2, and CPT1 were not affected by the physical form of oats. All enzymes (PCK1, PCK2, HPT, and CPT1) except PC were affected by experiment; PCK1 and CPT1 had greater expression in experiment 2 than in experiments 1 and 3. Expression of PCK2 was similar in experiments 2 and 3 but greater than experiment 1. Expression of HPT was similar in experiments 1 and 2 but greater than experiment 3. The mRNA expression of enzymes PCK1, PCK2, and CPT1 differed between experiments 1 and 2 and was negatively correlated with rumen propionate and butyrate but had a positive relationship with rumen acetate. Similarly, rumen pH was different in experiments 1 and 2, averaging 5.69 in experiment 1 and 4.81 in experiment 2, and there was a negative correlation between mRNA expression of rate-limiting gluconeogenic PCK1, PCK2, and ß-oxidation CPT1 enzymes and rumen pH of calves in experiments 1 and 2. We concluded that the physical form of oats in calf starter did not affect gene expression of gluconeogenic and ß-oxidation enzymes in preweaned dairy calves. However, lower rumen pH may be related to the upregulation of these enzymes.


Assuntos
Avena , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Inflamação/veterinária , Fígado/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (ATP)/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , Piruvato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Rúmen/química , Rúmen/metabolismo , Desmame
5.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112867, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614303

RESUMO

Gut microbiota, the specific microbial community of the gastrointestinal tract, by means of the production of microbial metabolites provides the host with several functions affecting metabolic and immunological homeostasis. Insights into the intricate relationships between gut microbiota and the host require not only the understanding of its structure and function but also the measurement of effector molecules acting along the gut microbiota axis. This article reviews the literature on targeted chromatographic approaches in analysis of gut microbiota specific metabolites in feces as the most accessible biological matrix which can directly probe the connection between intestinal bacteria and the (patho)physiology of the holobiont. Together with a discussion on sample collection and preparation, the chromatographic methods targeted to determination of some classes of microbiota-derived metabolites (e.g., short-chain fatty acids, bile acids, low molecular masses amines and polyamines, vitamins, neurotransmitters and related compounds) are discussed and their main characteristics, summarized in Tables.


Assuntos
Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Metabolômica/métodos , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/análise , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Cromatografia/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Neurotransmissores/análise , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Poliaminas/análise , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Vitaminas/análise , Vitaminas/metabolismo
6.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 64(11): 644-648, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747490

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess the information content of volatile fatty acid parameters for the differential diagnosis of infected and sterile pancreatic necrosis. The work is based on the results of examination and treatment of 34 patients with pancreatic necrosis. The analysis of concentrations of volatile fatty acids: acetic, propionic, butyric and isovaleric was carried out on an automated gas chromatograph «Crystallux-4000¼ with a capillary column «HP-FFAP¼ and flame ionization detector. The indicators of acetic, propionic, butyric, isovaleric acid and the sum of volatile fatty acids are statistically significantly higher in patients with infected pancreatic necrosis compared with the indicators of volatile fatty acids in patients with sterile pancreatic necrosis. Volatile fatty acid values can be used for the differential diagnosis of infected and sterile pancreatic necrosis.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Necrose/diagnóstico , Pâncreas/patologia , Cromatografia Gasosa , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos
7.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(40): 6129-6144, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constipation is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder and its etiology is multifactorial. Growing evidence suggests that intestinal dysbiosis is associated with the development of constipation. Prebiotics are subjected to bacterial fermentation in the gut to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which can help relieve constipation symptoms. The prebiotic UG1601 consists of inulin, lactitol, and aloe vera gel, which are known laxatives, but randomized, controlled clinical trials that examine the effects of this supplement on gut microbiota composition are lacking. AIM: To assess the efficacy of the prebiotic UG1601 in suppressing constipation-related adverse events in subjects with mild constipation. METHODS: Adults with a stool frequency of less than thrice a week were randomized to receive either prebiotics or a placebo supplement for 4 wk. All participants provided their fecal and blood samples at baseline and at the end of intervention. Gastrointestinal symptoms and stool frequency were evaluated. The concentrations of serum endotoxemia markers and fecal SCFAs were determined. The relative abundance of SCFA-producing bacteria and the gut microbial community in the responders and non-responders in the prebiotics supplementation group were evaluated. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in gastrointestinal symptoms between groups, although the prebiotic group showed greater symptom improvement. However, after prebiotic usage, serum cluster of differentiation (CD) 14 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations were significantly decreased (CD14, P = 0.012; LPS, P < 0.001). The change in LPS concentration was significantly larger in the prebiotic group than in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Fecal SCFAs concentrations did not differ between groups, while the relative abundance of Roseburia hominis, a major butyrate producer, was significantly increased in the prebiotic group (P = 0.045). The abundances of the phylum Firmicutes and the family Lachnospiraceae (phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia) (P = 0.009) were decreased in the responders within the prebiotic group. In addition, the proportions of the phylum Firmicutes, the class Clostridia, and the order Clostridiales were inversely correlated with several fecal SCFAs (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Alterations in gut microbiota composition, including a decrease in the phylum Firmicutes and an increase in butyrate-producing bacteria, following prebiotic UG1601 supplementation might help alleviate symptom scores and endotoxemia.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/dietoterapia , Disbiose/dietoterapia , Endotoxemia/dietoterapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Clostridiales/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , Constipação Intestinal/complicações , Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Disbiose/diagnóstico , Disbiose/microbiologia , Endotoxemia/diagnóstico , Endotoxemia/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inulina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Álcoois Açúcares/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(12): 1452-1460, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586220

RESUMO

Pectin is a diverse polysaccharide comprising of polygalacturonic acid, rhamnogalactouronan, and neutral polysaccharides (arabinan and arabinogalactan) as side chains or branches. They are resistant to salivary amylase and gastric juice. In the present study the prebiotic potentials of different pectic derived substrates were performed by using intestinal cultures and measuring the growth, change in pH and short chain fatty acid, (SCFA) production. Arabinan, arabinogalactan, and rhamnogalacturonan were fermented by probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium breve, Bi. longum, Bi. bifidum, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (commensal bacteria). While, polygalacturonic acid was fermented by Ba. fragilis, Ba. thetaiotaomicron, and Ba. uniformis. All the screened bacteria significantly decreased the pH from 7 to 5 (pH difference of ≈ 2), which clearly indicated that the above bacteria produced the enzymes necessary for the digestion of the pectic derived polysaccharides. The SCFA profiles of the above screened bacteria clearly demonstrated the production of lactate, acetate and propionate which are the key metabolites involved in maintaining gut health and prevention of several intestinal diseases. Thus, pectic polysaccharides hold potential application in food industry as prebiotic ingredients or dietary fibers.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pectinas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Prebióticos/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pectinas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(36): 5543-5558, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An altered (dysbiosis) and unhealthy status of the gut microbiota is usually responsible for a reduction of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration. SCFAs obtained from the carbohydrate fermentation processes are crucial in maintaining gut homeostasis and their determination in stool samples could provide a faster, reliable and cheaper method to highlight the presence of an intestinal dysbiosis and a biomarker for various gut diseases. We hypothesize that different intestinal diseases, such as celiac disease (CD), adenomatous polyposis (AP) and colorectal cancer (CRC) could display a particular fecal SCFAs' signature. AIM: To compare the fecal SCFAs' profiles of CD, AP, CRC patients and healthy controls, using the same analytical method. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we defined and compared the SCFAs' concentration in fecal samples of 9 AP, 16 CD, 19 CRC patients and 16 healthy controls (HC). The SCFAs' analysis were performed using a gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method. Data analysis was carried out using Wilcoxon rank-sum test to assess pairwise differences of SCFAs' profiles, partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) to determine the status membership based on distinct SCFAs' profiles, and Dirichlet regression to determine factors influencing concentration levels of SCFAs. RESULTS: We have not observed any difference in the SCFAs' amount and composition between CD and healthy control. On the contrary, the total amount of SCFAs was significantly lower in CRC patients compared to HC (P = 0.044) and CD (P = 0.005). Moreover, the SCFAs' percentage composition was different in CRC and AP compared to HC. In detail, HC displayed higher percentage of acetic acid (P value = 1.3 × 10-6) and a lower amount of butyric (P value = 0.02192), isobutyric (P value = 7.4 × 10-5), isovaleric (P value = 0.00012) and valeric (P value = 0.00014) acids compared to CRC patients. AP showed a lower abundance of acetic acid (P value = 0.00062) and higher percentages of propionic (P value = 0.00433) and isovaleric (P value = 0.00433) acids compared to HC. Moreover, AP showed higher levels of propionic acid (P value = 0.03251) and a lower level of isobutyric acid (P value = 0.00427) in comparison to CRC. The PLS-DA model demonstrated a significant separation of CRC and AP groups from HC, although some degree of overlap was observed between CRC and AP. CONCLUSION: Analysis of fecal SCFAs shows the potential to provide a non-invasive means of diagnosis to detect patients with CRC and AP, while CD patients cannot be discriminated from healthy subjects.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/diagnóstico , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Disbiose/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/metabolismo , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Celíaca/metabolismo , Doença Celíaca/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Disbiose/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618992

RESUMO

The health benefits of dietary amylase resistant starch (RS) arise from intestinal microbial fermentation and generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). We compared the intestinal fermentative capability of stunted and nonstunted ('healthy') children in southern India using two types of RS: high amylose maize starch (HAMS) and acetylated HAMS (HAMSA). Twenty children (10 stunted and 10 healthy) aged 2 to 5 years were fed biscuits containing HAMS (10 g/day) for two weeks followed by a 2-week washout and then HAMSA biscuits (10 g/day) for 2 weeks. Fecal samples were collected at 3-4 day intervals and pH and SCFA analyzed. At entry, stunted children had lower SCFA concentrations compared to healthy children. Both types of RS led to a significant decrease in fecal pH and increase in fecal acetate and propionate in both healthy and stunted children. However, while HAMS increased fecal butyrate in both groups of children, HAMSA increased butyrate in healthy but not stunted children. Furthermore, healthy children showed a significantly greater increase than stunted children in both acetate and butyrate when fed either RS. No adverse effects were reported with either RS. Stunted children have impaired capacity to ferment certain types of RS which has implications for choice of RS in formulations aimed at improving microbial function in stunted children.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Transtornos do Crescimento/microbiologia , Acetilação , Pré-Escolar , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/química , Feminino , Fermentação , Transtornos do Crescimento/metabolismo , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Zea mays
11.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4532-4539, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560750

RESUMO

Dietary fibers can influence a dog's overall health, but high concentrations of soluble dietary fibers can cause soft stools. An in vitro model could be useful to predict the rate fibers are fermented once they reach the colon. Pet food companies are constantly searching for new ingredients to differentiate their products from competitors. Miscanthus grass (MG), pea fiber (PF), and sorghum bran (SB) are novel fiber sources that could be alternatives to standards like cellulose (CE) and beet pulp (BP). The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of fiber source on organic matter disappearance (OMD), estimated organic matter disappearance (EOMD), and fermentation end-product concentrations using an in vitro fermentation procedure and dog fecal inoculum. Total dietary fiber (TDF) residues from MG, CE, BP, PF, and SB were fermented in vitro with buffered dog feces. Fecal samples were collected and maintained in anaerobic conditions until the dilution and inoculation. Test tubes containing the fibrous substrates were incubated for 4, 8, and 12 h at 39 °C. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), OMD, and EOMD were determined for each fiber source and time point. Beet pulp had the highest OMD, EOMD, and SCFA production of all tested fiber sources (38.6% OMD, 26.2% EOMD, 2.72 mmol SCFA/g of substrate). Sorghum bran led to greater concentrations of BCFA (59.86 µmol/g of substrate) and intermediate OMD and EOMD compared to the other tested fibers. Cellulose and MG were poorly fermented with the lowest OMD, EOMD, SCFA, and BCFA compared to other fibers. In conclusion, MG could be used as an insoluble minimally fermentable replacement fiber for CE in dog foods.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Cães/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Poaceae , Animais , Beta vulgaris , Celulose/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fermentação , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 8850-8861, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378500

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were (1) to predict ruminal pH and ruminal ammonia and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations by developing artificial neural networks (ANN) using dietary nutrient compositions, dry matter intake, and body weight as input variables; and (2) to compare accuracy and precision of ANN model predictions with that of a multiple linear regression model (MLR). Data were collected from 229 published papers with 938 treatment means. The data set was randomly split into a training data set containing 70% of the observations and a test data set with the remaining observations. A series of ANN with a range of 1 to 9 artificial neurons in 1 hidden layer were examined, and the best one was selected to compare with the best-fitted MLR model. The performance of model predictions was evaluated by root mean square errors (RMSE) and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) using cross-evaluations with 100 iterations. When using the ANN to predict ruminal pH and concentrations of ammonia, total VFA, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, the RMSE were 4.2, 41.4, 20.9, 22.3, 32.9, and 29.7% of observed means, respectively. The RMSE for the MLR were 4.2, 37.8, 18.3, 19.9, 29.8, and 26.6% of the observed means. The CCC for ruminal pH, ruminal concentrations of ammonia, total VFA, acetate, propionate, and butyrate were 0.57, 0.49, 0.45, 0.40, 0.52, and 0.40, using the ANN, and 0.37, 0.48, 0.40, 0.29, 0.43, and 0.35, using the MLR. Evaluations of the MLR and the ANN indicated that these 2 model forms exhibited similar prediction errors, with 4.2, 39.6, 19.6, 21.1, 31.3, and 28.1% of observed means for pH, ammonia, total VFA, acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Although the ANN increased the precision of predictions related to ruminal metabolism, it failed to improve the accuracy compared with the linear regression model.


Assuntos
Amônia/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Rúmen/química , Acetatos/análise , Animais , Butiratos/análise , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Propionatos/análise
13.
Animal ; 13(12): 2811-2820, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270003

RESUMO

Rubber seed oil (RO) that is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) can improve milk production and milk FA profiles of dairy cows; however, the responses of digestion and ruminal fermentation to RO supplementation in vivo are still unknown. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of RO and flaxseed oil (FO) supplementation on nutrients digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters and rumen FA profile of dairy cows. Forty-eight mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of four treatments for 8 weeks, including basal diet (CON) or the basal dietary supplemented with 4% RO, 4% FO or 2% RO plus 2% FO on a DM basis. Compared with CON, dietary oil supplementation improved the total tract apparent digestibility of DM, neutral detergent fibre and ether extracts ( P < 0.05). Oil treatment groups had no effects on ruminal digesta pH value, ammonia N and microbial crude protein ( P > 0.05), whereas oil groups significantly changed the volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile by increasing the proportion of propionate whilst decreasing total VFA concentration, the proportion of acetate and the ratio of acetate to propionate ( P < 0.05). However, there were no differences in VFA proportions between the three oil groups (P > 0.05). In addition, dietary oil supplementation increased the total unsaturated FA proportion in the rumen by enhancing the proportion of trans-11 C18:1 vaccenic acid (VA), cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) ( P < 0.05). These results indicate that dietary supplementation with RO and FO could improve nutrients digestibility, ruminal fermentation and ruminal FA profile by enhancing the VA, cis-9, trans-11 CLA and ALA composition of lactating dairy cows. These findings provide a theoretical basis for the application of RO in livestock production.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Gorduras Insaturadas/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Óleo de Semente do Linho/farmacologia , Leite/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/análise , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/análise
14.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 4304-4314, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270523

RESUMO

Accumulating studies showed that the beneficial actions of polysaccharides were closely associated with an improvement of the gut microbiota, but mechanisms that link polysaccharides and gut microbiota alterations are ill defined. Alginate from Laminaria japonica (LJP-A) can avoid being digested by the upper digestive tract and reach the colon where it can improve the gut microbiota community. LJP-A increased the relative abundance of some Bacteroidaceae members, e.g. Bacteroides species. The distribution of Bacteroides species in the gut is specific to the individual, and the specific use of LJP-A by Bacteroides species can determine LJP-A-induced alterations of the intestinal Bacteroides community, in which carbon source-based syntrophic interactions occur in Bacteroides species of the human gut microbial ecosystem. Compared to other species, Bacteroides finegoldii responded more positively to LJP-A intervention, and its properties may have a close connection with the bioactivities of LJP-A. This study provides a rationale for personalized treatment with dietary polysaccharides that were optimally fermented within a particular individual.


Assuntos
Alginatos/farmacologia , Bacteroides/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Laminaria/química , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Carbono/metabolismo , Digestão , Ecossistema , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/microbiologia , Fermentação , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8513-8526, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255268

RESUMO

Intensive milk feeding and butyrate supplementation in calves stimulate body growth and affect gastrointestinal development. The aim of the present study was to investigate the synergistic effects of ad libitum milk replacer (MR) feeding and butyrate supplementation of MR on rumen and small intestinal growth and on gene expression in the small intestine related to growth and energy metabolism at weaning. Male Holstein calves (n = 32) received colostrum from birth to d 3 of age and MR either ad libitum (Adl) or restrictively (Res; 6 L of MR/d; 12.5% solids) with (AdlB+, ResB+) or without (AdlB-, ResB-) 0.24% butyrate from d 4 until wk 8 of age. From wk 9 to 10, all calves were weaned and were fed 2 L/d until the end of the trial. Concentrate, hay, and water were freely available. At d 80, calves were slaughtered, volatile fatty acids were measured in rumen fluid, and rumen and small intestine samples were taken for histomorphometric measurements. The expression of mRNA associated with the local insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and glucose metabolism as well as lactase and maltase activities were measured in the intestinal mucosa. The small intestine was 3 m longer in Adl than in Res. In the atrium ruminis, papilla width was greater in Res than in Adl. Villus circumference, cut surface, and height in the duodenum, proximal jejunum, and ileum were greater in Adl than in Res and in the proximal, mid, and distal jejunum and ileum were greater in calves treated with butyrate. Crypt depth in the duodenum and proximal jejunum was greater in Adl than in Res and in the ileum was smaller in calves treated with butyrate. The villus height:crypt depth ratio was greatest in AdlB+ calves. In the proximal and mid jejunum, IGF1 mRNA abundance was lower in calves treated with butyrate. In the proximal jejunum, INSR mRNA abundance was greater in Res than in Adl. The abundance of PCK2 mRNA was greater in Res than in Adl in the duodenum and was greatest in ResB- in the mid jejunum. Lactase activity tended to be greater in Res than in Adl and after butyrate treatment in the proximal jejunum. The results indicated an elevated growth of the small intestinal mucosa at weaning due to intensive milk feeding and butyrate supplementation, and the local IGF system was involved in intestinal growth regulation. Rumen development was not affected by butyrate supplementation of MR and was slightly delayed due to ad libitum MR feeding.


Assuntos
Butiratos/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Trato Gastrointestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Substitutos do Leite/administração & dosagem , Rúmen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Colostro , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/química , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Lactase/metabolismo , Masculino , Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Proteínas Recombinantes , Rúmen/química , Somatomedinas/genética , Desmame
16.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 1005-1013, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352822

RESUMO

Gut microbiota may influence blood pressure (BP), namely via end products of carbohydrate fermentation. After informed consent, male volunteers were prospectively categorized into 3 groups upon European Society of Hypertension criteria based on 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements: (1) hypertension, (2) borderline hypertension, and (3) normotension. Stool, urine and serum samples were collected in fasting conditions. Gut microbiota was characterized by 16S amplicon sequencing. Metabolomics, including quantification of short-chain fatty acids, was conducted using nuclear magnetic resonance. Two-way ANOVA combined with Tukey post hoc test, as well as multiple permutation test and Benjamini-Hochberg-Yekutieli false discovery rate procedure, was used. The cohort included 54 males: 38 hypertensive (including 21 under treatment), 7 borderline, and 9 normotensive. No significant difference was observed between groups concerning age, body mass index, smoking habits, and weekly alcohol consumption. The genus Clostridium sensu stricto 1 positively correlated with BP levels in nontreated patients (n=33). This correlation was significant after multiple permutation tests but was not substantiated following false discovery rate adjustment. Short-chain fatty acid levels were significantly different among groups, with higher stool levels of acetate, butyrate, and propionate in hypertensive versus normotensive individuals. No difference was observed in serum and urine metabolomes. Correlation between stool metabolome and 24-hour BP levels was evidenced, with R2 reaching 0.9. Our pilot study based on 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements, 16S amplicon sequencing, and metabolomics supports an association between gut microbiota and BP homeostasis, with changes in stool abundance of short-chain fatty acids.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Humanos , Hipertensão/microbiologia , Masculino , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
17.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(5): 345-356, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the molecular mechanisms of the adverse effects of exposure to sulfamonomethoxin (SMM) in pregnancy on the neurobehavioral development of male offspring. METHODS: Pregnant mice were randomly divided into four groups: control- (normal saline), low- [10 mg/(kg•day)], middle- [50 mg/(kg•day)], and high-dose [200 mg/(kg•day)] groups, which received SMM by gavage daily during gestational days 1-18. We measured the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces from dams and male pups. Furthermore, we analyzed the mRNA and protein levels of genes involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in the hippocampus of male pups by RT-PCR or Western blotting. RESULTS: Fecal SCFA concentrations were significantly decreased in dams. Moreover, the production of individual fecal SCFAs was unbalanced, with a tendency for an increased level of total fecal SCFAs in male pups on postnatal day (PND) 22 and 56. Furthermore, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mTOR or mTOR/ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1)/4EBP1 signaling pathway was continuously upregulated until PND 56 in male offspring. In addition, the expression of Sepiapterin Reductase (SPR), a potential target of mTOR, was inhibited. CONCLUSION: In utero exposure to SMM, persistent upregulation of the hippocampal mTOR pathway related to dysfunction of the gut (SCFA)-brain axis may contribute to cognitive deficits in male offspring.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Sulfamonometoxina/toxicidade , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/química , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Gravidez , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
18.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 4046-4061, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225554

RESUMO

Gallic acid (GA), a plant phenol found in fruits and vegetables, has been recently reported to attenuate ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the mechanism of GA in UC remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of GA on UC from the perspective of gut microbiota and supervised the metabolic alterations in vivo with 1H NMR-based metabolomics, which can provide a holistic view to understand the functions of GA in UC. Rats with dextra sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis were rectally administrated with GA (6 mg kg-1) for 8 consecutive days. 16S gene sequencing was performed on feces samples to obtain bacterial community information. Urine and feces samples were analyzed with 1H NMR spectroscopy, and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces and colon contents were detected with gas chromatography. Our results showed that UC syndromes in the GA group were significantly attenuated. The microbial alterations in the DSS group were characterized by a decrease of probiotic bacteria, such as Lactobacillaceae and Prevotellaceae, and an increase of some pathogenic species, mainly in the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla. GA treatment could modulate the microbiota composition towards a similar proportion to the control group. Metabolic data further revealed that the GA-induced metabolic changes focus on increasing carbohydrate metabolism (gluco-related metabolism) and bile acid (BA) metabolism and decreasing amino acid metabolism, which also provides evidence for alteration of the microbiota because these feces metabolites are by-products of interactions between the host and the microbiota. These findings demonstrate GA-induced alterations in metabolic and bacterial profiles in DSS-colitis, providing new insight into the attenuation of GA in UC.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Probióticos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Urina/química
19.
Food Chem ; 297: 124945, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253310

RESUMO

Almond shell, a by-product obtained from the nut industry, was valorised into low degree of polymerisation xylooligosaccharides using alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The effect of particle size on hemicellulose recovery upon pretreatment was studied using 1 and 2 M NaOH. It was observed that particle size significantly influences hemicellulose recovery, as particles below 120 µm resulted in near complete recovery at 2 M NaOH. Enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose was optimised using response surface methodology, to obtain efficient xylooligosaccharides production at low enzyme dose and high substrate concentration. For higher XOS yield, an enzyme dose of 10 U and substrate concentration <2% was optimal. The in-vitro human faecal fermentation study revealed no significant difference in gas and short chain fatty acid level among substrates evaluated. It was observed that short chain oligosaccharides produce higher level of acetate than medium chain oligosaccharides.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Pentoses/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Biomassa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Gases/química , Glucuronatos/análise , Glucuronatos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrólise , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Polissacarídeos/química , Hidróxido de Sódio/química
20.
Chemosphere ; 233: 462-471, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181493

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of granular activated carbon (GAC) on the digestion of blackwater collected from different collection systems, by monitoring the biochemical methane production (BMP), adsorption of molecules to GAC and their impacts on the microbial community. Without GAC-amendment, BMP reached 35.6, 42.6 and 50.4% in 1L, 5L and 9L water-flushed blackwater, respectively. When 33.3 gL-1 GAC was added to the cultures, methane potential increased up to 53.1% in 1L water-flushed blackwater, while in 5L and 9L water-flushed conditions the BMP drastically decreased to 16.1 and 9.6%, respectively. The concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in 5L and 9L water-flushed blackwater with GAC-amended cultures was not enhanced, in contrast with 1L water-flushed blackwater. Further tests showed 29.8% (±1.9%) of VFA and 86.0% of soluble chemical oxygen demand were removed by GAC adsorption in 9L water-flushed blackwater. A decrease in biomass density in 5L and 9L GAC-amended cultures was also observed, corroborated by a significant decrease in gene copy numbers of methanogenic archaeal communities. This study gives an insight on the effect of GAC on different strengths of blackwater, which is of relevance for further tests of long-time and full-scale application.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Metano/biossíntese , Esgotos/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Anaerobiose , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Biomassa , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Esgotos/química , Águas Residuárias/química
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