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1.
Trials ; 22(1): 245, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: These 2 parallel studies (K031 and K032) aim to evaluate the safety of KB109 in addition to supportive self-care (SSC) compared with SSC alone in outpatients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). KB109 is a novel synthetic glycan that was formulated to modulate the gut microbiome composition and metabolic output in order to increase beneficial short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in the gut. The K031 study is designed to evaluate the safety of KB109 and characterize its impact on the natural progression of COVID-19 in patients with mild to moderate disease. The K032 study is evaluating the effect of KB109 on the gut microbiota structure and function in this same patient population. Additionally, both studies are evaluating measures of health care utilization, quality of life (QOL), laboratory indices, biomarkers of inflammation, and serological measures of immunity in patients who received SSC alone or with KB109. Noteworthy aspects of these outpatient studies include study design measures aimed at limiting in-person interactions to minimize the risk of infection spread, such as use of online diaries, telemedicine, and at-home sample collection. STUDY DESIGN: K031 and K032 are randomized, controlled, open-label, clinical food studies. PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion Criteria: • Adults ≥18 years of age • Patients willing and able to give informed consent • Screening/randomization telemedicine visit within 2 days of testing positive test for COVID-19 ○ In K031 study, symptomatic patients at COVID-19 testing must report new or worsening symptoms at baseline that have not been present for more than 5 days ▪ Cardinal COVID-19 symptoms include fever, chills/repeated shaking with chills, cough, shortness of breath, headache, muscle pain, anosmia/ageusia, and sore throat. The 5 additional symptoms include gastrointestinal (GI) disturbance/symptoms (other than diarrhea), diarrhea, fatigue, nasal congestion, and chest tightness ○ In K031, at COVID-19 testing, pre-symptomatic patients must report new cardinal COVID-19 symptoms within 7 days of a positive test and they must be screened and randomized within 5 days of developing symptoms • Mild to moderate COVID-19 and self-reported outpatient management ○ In K032, mild to moderate COVID-19 was defined as having the following symptoms for no more than 72 hours before COVID-19 testing: a self- reported fever or cough (new or exacerbated) or presence of at least 2 of the following: anosmia, sore throat, or nasal congestion • Ability to adhere to the study visit schedule and other protocol requirements • Consistent internet or cell phone access with a data plan and access to a smartphone, tablet, or computer • The K031 and K032 studies are currently being conducted at 17 clinical institutions throughout the United States. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: • In the primary investigator's (PI) judgement, patients likely to require hospitalization for COVID-19 • Patients who are hospitalized for in-patient treatment or currently being evaluated for potential hospitalization at the time of informed consent for conditions other than COVID-19 • History of chronic lung disease with chronic hypoxia • History of documented cirrhosis or end-stage liver disease • Ongoing requirement for oxygen therapy • Shortness of breath in resting position • Diagnosis of sleep apnea requiring bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP)/continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) • Female patients who are pregnant, trying to become pregnant, or lactating • Concurrent use of immunomodulatory agent within 12 months; systemic antibiotics, antifungals, or antivirals for treatment of active infection within 28 days; systemic immunosuppressive therapy within 3 months; or drugs or other compounds that modulate GI motility (eg, stool softeners, laxatives, or fiber supplements) taken currently, or within 7 days. Antacid (histamine 2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors) and antidiarrheal agents are not prohibited • History of GI surgery (6 months prior to randomization), including but not limited to bariatric surgery and bowel resection, or history of, or active GI disease(s) that may affect assessment of tolerability, including but not limited to inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, autoimmune disease, or GI malignancy • Participation in an interventional clinical trial or use of any investigational agent within 30 days before randomization • Clinically significant or uncontrolled concomitant medical condition that would put the patient at risk or jeopardize the objectives of the study in the opinion of the PI • In the opinion of the PI, patient unlikely for any reason to be able to comply with study procedures • Contraindications, sensitivities, or known allergy to the use of the study product or its components INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients will be randomized (1,1) to receive either SSC and KB109 or SSC alone. During SSC, patients should follow the steps as instructed by their healthcare provider to care for themselves and protect other people in the home and community from potentially contracting COVID-19. Management of COVID-19-related symptoms with over-the-counter cough, cold, and anti-pyretic medications by patients is permitted in accordance with the medications' respective drug facts label or as instructed by the patient's healthcare provider. Following randomization, patients assigned to receive KB109 and SSC will receive a Kaleido Biosciences, Inc at-home study kit including a thermometer, pulse oximeter, and KB109. During the Intake Period (days 1-14), KB109 will be reconstituted in water by the patient and consumed by the patient twice daily (at least 8 hours apart), following an up-titration dosing schedule: Days 1 to 2: 9 g twice daily for a total daily dose of 18 g Days 3 to 4: 18 g twice daily for a total daily dose of 36 g Days 5 to 14: 36 g twice daily for a total daily dose of 72 g During the intake period, patients will record their daily COVID-19-related symptoms, selected COVID-19 signs (as self-measured using the provided thermometer and pulse oximeter), responses to questions related to QOL measures, health care use measures, and concomitant medications taken in the previous 24 hours. Wellness visits by telephone will be conducted between days 1 and 14 to follow up on patient's health status and to ascertain compliance with KB109 and completion of questions. On day 14, all patients will undergo a telemedicine visit where the following will be conducted: abbreviated physical examination, assessment of safety and other protocol-specified measures of health, and an evaluation of whether follow-up treatment is recommended owing to a progression of COVID-19 symptoms. If feasible, blood samples for clinical chemistries, biomarkers and serological measure of immunity, and nasal/oropharyngeal swabs for quantitative viral load assessments will be collected. Beginning on day 15, patients in both groups will enter the follow-up period (days 15-35) where COVID-19 signs, symptoms, and health care use indices will be collected. Wellness visits by telephone will be conducted on days 21, 28, and 35 to follow-up on the patient's health status. On day 35, all patients will undergo a telemedicine visit where the same information as the day 14 telemedicine visit will be collected, including any blood samples. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome for the K031 and K032 studies is to evaluate the safety of KB109 in addition to SSC compared with SSC alone in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19 by assessing the number of patients experiencing KB109-related treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) during the study. K031 will also evaluate duration of symptoms among outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19. This will be as an assessment made during the intake and/or follow-up periods of the following: • Time to resolution of the 13 overall and the 8 cardinal COVID-19-related symptoms from day 1 until the day at which the composite score of the 13 overall and 8 cardinal COVID-19-related symptoms becomes 0 or 1 and remains at 0 or 1 for the rest of the intake period and for the follow-up period • Proportion of patients with a reduction from baseline in each of the 13 overall COVID-19-related symptoms • Proportion of patients in whom symptoms (present at baseline) become absent for each of the 13 overall COVID-19-related symptoms • Change from baseline in the overall composite score of the 13 overall COVID-19-related symptoms and the 8 cardinal COVID-19-related symptoms • Time to resolution of fever (defined as from day 1 until the day at which a patient's daily maximum temperature achieves and remains below 100.4°F without antipyretic medication) • Proportion of patients with oxygen saturation <95% and <98% on days 14 and 35 • Measures collected from the health care provider wellness visits • Proportion of patients experiencing hospital admissions (all cause and COVID-19-related) • Health care use K032 will evaluate the effect of KB109 in addition to SSC compared with SSC alone on the gut microbiota structure and function in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Before days 1, 14, and 35, microbiota structure (eg, magnitude of change in gut microbiome structure, composition of gut microbiome) will be analysed by methods such as nucleic acid sequencing and gut microbiome function will be analysed via levels of stool inflammatory biomarkers (eg, lipocalin) and gut microbiome metabolites (eg, SCFA). The health of outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19 will be evaluated during the intake and follow- up periods by: measures of QOL; measures collected from the healthcare provider wellness visits; the proportion of patients experiencing hospital admissions; health care use, the proportions of patients with oxygen saturation <95% and <98%, and the proportionof patients with temperature below 100.4 °F without an anti-pyretic medication. Potential exploratory outcome measures may include: changes from baseline (day 1) in laboratory measures, specific biomarkers of infection, serology, inflammation (eg, D-dimer, lipocalin, cytokines, IgM/IgG sero-conversion, and neutralization assays), and viral load in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19 in the presence and absence of KB109. RANDOMISATION: All patients deemed eligible for the studies will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to KB109 in addition to SSC or SSC alone group using an interactive response technology system. Randomization will be stratified by study site/center, age groups (≥18-<45 years, ≥45-<65 years, ≥65 years), and comorbidity status (yes, no). BLINDING (MASKING): These studies are open-label; therefore, no blinding is necessary. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): K031 will enroll approximately 350 to 400 (175-200 patients per group) whereas K032 will enroll approximately 50 patients (25 per group). STUDY STATUS: K031 protocol version 4, December 9, 2020; recruitment started in August, 2020, and the study is estimated to be completed in March 2021. This study is active and enrollment was completed in January, 2021. K032 protocol version 2, June 30, 2020; recruitment is estimated to start in July, 2020. This study is recruiting and the study is estimated to be completed in March 2021. STUDY REGISTRATION: K031 is registered with the US National Library of Medicine, Identifier NCT04414124 as of June 4, 2020. K032 is registered with the US National Library of Medicine, Identifier NCT04486482 as of July 24, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocols are attached as additional files (Additional files 1 and 2), accessible from the ClinicalTrials.gov website. In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocols. The study protocols have been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional files 3 and 4).


Assuntos
/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Assistência Ambulatorial , /microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Humanos , Autocuidado , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Telemedicina , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800916

RESUMO

Gut microbiota-derived metabolites, in particular short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and their receptors, are linked to hypertension. Fructose and antibiotics are commonly used worldwide, and they have a negative impact on the gut microbiota. Our previous study revealed that maternal high-fructose (HF) diet-induced hypertension in adult offspring is relevant to altered gut microbiome and its metabolites. We, therefore, intended to examine whether minocycline administration during pregnancy and lactation may further affect blood pressure (BP) programmed by maternal HF intake via mediating gut microbiota and SCFAs. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received a normal diet or diet containing 60% fructose throughout pregnancy and lactation periods. Additionally, pregnant dams received minocycline (50 mg/kg/day) via oral gavage or a vehicle during pregnancy and lactation periods. Four groups of male offspring were studied (n = 8 per group): normal diet (ND), high-fructose diet (HF), normal diet + minocycline (NDM), and HF + minocycline (HFM). Male offspring were killed at 12 weeks of age. We observed that the HF diet and minocycline administration, both individually and together, causes the elevation of BP in adult male offspring, while there is no synergistic effect between them. Four groups displayed distinct enterotypes. Minocycline treatment leads to an increase in the F/B ratio, but decreased abundance of genera Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Odoribacter. Additionally, minocycline treatment decreases plasma acetic acid and butyric acid levels. Hypertension programmed by maternal HF diet plus minocycline exposure is related to the increased expression of several SCFA receptors. Moreover, minocycline- and HF-induced hypertension, individually or together, is associated with the aberrant activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Conclusively, our results provide a new insight into the support of gut microbiota and its metabolite SCAFs in the developmental programming of hypertension and cast new light on the role of RAS in this process, which will help prevent hypertension programmed by maternal high-fructose and antibiotic exposure.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Frutose/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hipertensão/microbiologia , Minociclina/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/metabolismo , Hipertensão/etiologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Lactação , Masculino , Minociclina/administração & dosagem , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Superfície Celular/biossíntese , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(4): 4875-4892, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663833

RESUMO

Salivary secretions are essential for the regulation of digestive processes, as well as rumen and cow health. This research evaluated the effects of the duration of high-grain feeding, and of the time relative to a meal, on salivation, saliva properties, feed bolus characteristics, chewing activity, ruminal and reticular volatile fatty acids, as well as salivary and ruminal pH. Nine nonlactating cannulated Holstein cows were sampled at 1 and 23 d after transition to a 65% grain diet (short term and long term, respectively). Both before and after a controlled meal (2.5 kg of dry matter, offered over 4 h), unstimulated saliva was taken orally for composition analysis. Stimulated salivation and feed boli characteristics were evaluated by collection of ingesta from cardia during 30 min. Chewing and ruminal pH were measured during the controlled meal and for a total of 6 h thereafter. Results from unstimulated saliva showed no effect of the duration of high-grain feeding on bicarbonate, phosphate, total proteins, mucins, lysozyme, and buffer capacity, but increased osmolality at the long term. Lysozyme activity did not differ with high-grain feeding duration, but tended to be lower after the meal. In contrast to short-term-fed cows, the long-term-fed cows increased both meal consumption and feed bolus size, but decreased chewing and feed ensalivation (5.2 vs. 4.6 ± 0.50 g of saliva/g of dry matter), and had lower pH of the stimulated saliva (7.00 vs. 6.67 ± 0.076). These cows also had decreased chewing index (66.5 vs. 45.4 min/kg of neutral detergent fiber), and despite the increase in stimulated saliva buffer capacity (0.027 vs. 0.039 ± 0.006), mean ruminal pH decreased (6.31 vs. 6.11 ± 0.065) during ad libitum feeding. Both in the rumen and reticulum, the concentration of total volatile fatty acids was lower and propionate proportion was higher at the long term. Linear regression analyses revealed a positive influence of the flow rates of salivary bicarbonate and phosphate on ruminal pH during the short term. For every 1-mol increment in the flow of bicarbonate or phosphate, ruminal pH increased by 0.062 or 0.439 units, respectively. Overall, salivary buffers are key determinants of ruminal pH regulation, especially during short-term grain feeding. However, in the long term, ruminal pH drop during ad libitum feeding was stronger, and this effect seems to be exacerbated by increased feed bolus size, accompanied by reductions in feed ensalivation, stimulated saliva pH, and chewing index.


Assuntos
Rúmen , Salivação , Ração Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactação , Leite , Rúmen/metabolismo
4.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 59, 2021 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients display disruption of gut microbiome, and gut dysbiosis exacerbate neurological impairment in SCI models. Cumulative data support an important role of gut microbiome in SCI. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy uninjured mice into SCI mice may exert a neuroprotective effect. RESULTS: FMT facilitated functional recovery, promoted neuronal axonal regeneration, improved animal weight gain and metabolic profiling, and enhanced intestinal barrier integrity and GI motility in SCI mice. High-throughput sequencing revealed that levels of phylum Firmicutes, family Christensenellaceae, and genus Butyricimonas were reduced in fecal samples of SCI mice, and FMT remarkably reshaped gut microbiome. Also, FMT-treated SCI mice showed increased amount of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which correlated with alteration of intestinal permeability and locomotor recovery. Furthermore, FMT downregulated IL-1ß/NF-κB signaling in spinal cord and NF-κB signaling in gut following SCI. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that reprogramming of gut microbiota by FMT improves locomotor and GI functions in SCI mice, possibly through the anti-inflammatory functions of SCFAs. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Neuroproteção/fisiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Feminino , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Locomoção , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia
5.
Food Funct ; 12(5): 1983-1995, 2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537688

RESUMO

To evaluate the effect of young apple polyphenols (YAP) on starch digestion and gut microbiota, complexes of native wheat starch (NWS) with YAP, and their main components chlorogenic acid (CA) and phlorizin (P) were fabricated and gelatinized. Through XRD and FTIR analysis, it was found that the partial crystalline structure of NWS was destroyed during gelatinization, and the addition of P decreased the extent of destruction. Then, the gelatinized starchy samples were subjected to in vitro digestion. The wheat starch (WS)-phenolic compound complexes significantly suppressed the digestion rate and increased the proportion of resistant starch (RS) in WS. Furthermore, the residual starchy components after digestion were fermented by human fecal samples for 24 h. The WS-YAP complex greatly increased the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially acetic and propionic acids, and enhanced the growth of health-promoting gut microbiota such as Prevotella. Conclusively, YAP was shown to play a positive role in maintaining blood glucose balance and intestinal health.


Assuntos
Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Amido/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Cristalização , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Gelatina/química , Humanos , Amido/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
6.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525625

RESUMO

Worldwide obesity is a public health concern that has reached pandemic levels. Obesity is the major predisposing factor to comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The common forms of obesity are multifactorial and derive from a complex interplay of environmental changes and the individual genetic predisposition. Increasing evidence suggest a pivotal role played by alterations of gut microbiota (GM) that could represent the causative link between environmental factors and onset of obesity. The beneficial effects of GM are mainly mediated by the secretion of various metabolites. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate are small organic metabolites produced by fermentation of dietary fibers and resistant starch with vast beneficial effects in energy metabolism, intestinal homeostasis and immune responses regulation. An aberrant production of SCFAs has emerged in obesity and metabolic diseases. Among SCFAs, butyrate emerged because it might have a potential in alleviating obesity and related comorbidities. Here we reviewed the preclinical and clinical data that contribute to explain the role of butyrate in this context, highlighting its crucial contribute in the diet-GM-host health axis.


Assuntos
Butiratos/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Acetatos/farmacologia , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Propionatos/farmacologia
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(4): 4326-4340, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589262

RESUMO

Dietary supplementation of alfalfa hay or calf starter during the preweaning period was beneficial to the gastrointestinal development in dairy calves and lambs. In the present study, we designed 2 experiments using weaning with calf starter and alfalfa hay to investigate the diet-ruminal microbiome-host crosstalk in yak calves by analyzing the ruminal microbiota and rumen epithelial transcriptome. During the preweaning period, supplementation with either alfalfa hay or the starter significantly promoted animal growth and organ development in yak calves, including increases in body weight, body height, body length, chest girth, and development of liver, spleen, and thymus. These improvements could be attributed to increased dry matter intake, rumen fermentation, and development. Butyrate concentration increased in yak calves fed alfalfa hay or the starter, which could further promote ruminal epithelium development. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we determined that butyrate-producing genera were increased by the supplementation with alfalfa hay or the starter. Transcriptomic analysis of the rumen epithelia revealed that the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, which is critical in mediating many aspects of cellular function such as cell growth, was upregulated in response to alfalfa hay or the starter supplementation. The starter supplementation also increased the jejunal α-amylase activity, whereas alfalfa hay supplementation reduced the ileal α-amylase activity. Furthermore, the co-supplementation of both the starter and alfalfa hay reduced intestinal α-amylase activity. The starter increased ruminal propionate concentration, whereas alfalfa hay exhibited the opposite trend. The observed opposite effects of the starter and alfalfa hay on rumen propionate concentration corresponded with up- and downregulation, respectively, of the ruminal cholecystokinin involved in pancreatic secretion pathway, and thereby increased and decreased pancreatic α-amylase activity. In conclusion, both alfalfa hay and the starter could promote the growth and ruminal epithelial development of yak calves. The starter and alfalfa hay also differentially affected the intestinal α-amylase activities due to their different chemical components and different effects on ruminal fermentation, especially the ruminal propionate production.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Medicago sativa , alfa-Amilases Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ovinos , Desmame
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(4): 4271-4289, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612222

RESUMO

In cattle, proper rumen functioning and digestion are intimately linked to chewing behavior. Yet, high grain feeding impairs chewing activity, increasing the risk of subacute ruminal acidosis and dysfermentation. This study aimed to screen 9 different phytogenic compounds for their potential to modulate chewing activity, meal size, rumino-reticular short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and pH during consumption in a first daily meal and shortly thereafter in cattle fed a grain-rich diet. Treatments were control (total mixed ration without phytogenic) or addition of a phytogenic compound at a low or high dose. Phytogenic compounds and doses (all in mg/kg) were angelica root (6.6 and 66), capsaicin (10 and 100), gentian root (6.6 and 66), garlic oil (0.3 and 3), ginger extract (40 and 400), L-menthol (6.7 and 67), mint oil (15.3 and 153), thyme oil (9.4 and 94), and thymol (5 and 50), for the low and high groups, respectively. Before the start of the screening experiment, cows were fed to reach subacute ruminal acidosis conditions, confirmed with the time of ruminal pH <5.8 being 655 ± 148.2 min/d. During the screening experiment, the treatments were offered in a controlled meal (2.5 kg of DM for 4 h) as part of the daily diet with 65% concentrate. Each treatment was tested in 4 of the 9 cannulated Holstein cows using an incomplete Latin square design. Ruminal and reticular fluids were sampled before and after each treatment, and data collected before the meal were used as covariates. Chewing and ruminal pH were monitored during the treatment, followed by 2 h of complete feed restriction, and then 4 h of ad libitum feed intake without phytogenic. Data showed that supplementation of angelica root tended to linearly increase rumination time immediately after the first meal when feed was restricted (27.3, 41.9, and 42.6 ± 5.99 min for control, low and high groups, respectively). Capsaicin increased eating time (43.6, 49.4, and 66.4 ± 4.93 min) during consumption but did not affect ruminal total SCFA or mean ruminal pH. Garlic oil reduced the concentration of reticular total SCFA (75.7, 71.3, and 60.1 mM) and tended to decrease ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio (2.50, 1.78, and 1.87 ± 0.177) with no effect on ruminal pH. The L-menthol affected reticular total SCFA quadratically (76.1, 64.9, and 81.0 ± 4.22%), and ruminal pH responded quadratically when feed was reintroduced ad libitum (6.0, 6.3, and 6.1 ± 0.07). Mint oil did not affect chewing or total SCFA during consumption, but the low dose increased ruminal pH (6.5, 6.7, and 6.5 ± 0.08). Thyme oil tended to lower the severity of ruminal acidosis. Overall, phytogenic compounds demonstrated distinct dose-dependent effects to beneficially influence chewing behavior, modulate fermentation, and mitigate ruminal acidosis in dairy cows under a high-grain challenge diet.


Assuntos
Mastigação , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactação , Leite , Rúmen/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530464

RESUMO

The gut microbiome has emerged as a major character in the context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The biology underpinning this relationship is still to be defined. Recently, mounting evidence has suggested a role for microbiome-derived metabolites in mediating crosstalk between intestinal microbial communities and the host. Some of these metabolites, such as fiber-derived short-chain fatty acids or amino acid-derived compounds, were found to have a role also in the transplant setting. New interesting data have been published on this topic, posing a new intriguing perspective on comprehension and treatment. This review provides an updated comprehensive overview of the available evidence in the field of gut microbiome-derived metabolites and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Metaboloma , Microbiota , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Riboflavina/metabolismo , Transplante Homólogo
10.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-9, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550892

RESUMO

Microbiota-derived molecules called short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play a key role in the maintenance of the intestinal barrier and regulation of immune response during infectious conditions. Recent reports indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection changes microbiota and SCFAs production. However, the relevance of this effect is unknown. In this study, we used human intestinal biopsies and intestinal epithelial cells to investigate the impact of SCFAs in the infection by SARS-CoV-2. SCFAs did not change the entry or replication of SARS-CoV-2 in intestinal cells. These metabolites had no effect on intestinal cells' permeability and presented only minor effects on the production of anti-viral and inflammatory mediators. Together our findings indicate that the changes in microbiota composition of patients with COVID-19 and, particularly, of SCFAs do not interfere with the SARS-CoV-2 infection in the intestine.


Assuntos
/virologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Células CACO-2 , Colo/virologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , /fisiologia , Carga Viral , Internalização do Vírus , Adulto Jovem
11.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100875, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516466

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary addition of α-glyceryl monolaurate (α-GML) on growth performance, immune function, volatile fatty acids production and cecal microbiota in broiler chickens. A total of 480 1-day-old yellow-feathered broilers were randomly assigned in equal numbers to 4 dietary treatments: basal diet (NCO) or supplementations with 30 mg/kg bacitracin (ANT), 500 mg/kg α-GML, or 1,000 mg/kg α-GML (GML2). And, each treatment contained 8 replicates with 15 chickens per replicate. After supplementation with α-GML, the total BW gain and average daily weight gain of broilers increased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the broilers on the NCO diet. Moreover, compared with the NCO group, higher levels of immune globulin M and immune globulin Y were observed in both GML groups and the ANT group. Concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, and isovalerate in GML2 were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in the NCO group on day 28. However, acetate, propionate, valerate, and isovalerate concentrations were reduced to significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those in the NCO group on day 56. The abundance and diversity of microbiota were found to be improved in broilers that were supplemented with GML, using operational taxonomic unit and diversity analyses. Furthermore, the GML treatments increased favorable microbiota, particularly acid-producing bacteria, on day 28 and, also, reduced opportunistic pathogens, such as Alistipes tidjanibacter and Bacteroides dorei by day 56. These results suggest that α-GML supplementation modulates cecal microbiota and broiler immunity and improves volatile fatty acid levels during the early growth stages of broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glicerídeos , Imunidade , Animais , Biodiversidade , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicerídeos/farmacologia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 72, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400015

RESUMO

Eighteen 4-month-old lambs, with a mean live weight (LW) of 19.47 ± 0.20 kg, were used to evaluate the nutritive value of date palm leaves (DPL) ensiled with different additives in a completely randomized design. Lambs were stratified into three groups of 6 lambs each and fed a control diet comprising 60% concentrate feed mixture (CFM) and 40% DPL silage (T1). In other treatments, the DPL silage (DPLS) of the control treatment was replaced with EM1 additive-treated DPLS (T2) or El-Mofeed additive-treated DPLS (T3). Apparent digestibility, total digestible nutrient, digestible crude protein, dry matter intake, daily weight gain (DWG), price of DWG, daily profit, and economics of feed efficiency were higher (P < 0.05) for the additives-treated DPLS relative to the control, with T2 enhancing these parameters compared with T3. With exception of ruminal pH, which was reduced, concentrations of ruminal NH3-N and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased 4 h post feeding. However, ruminal NH3-N and total VFA were greater (P < 0.05) for the additives-treated DPLS, with T2 producing higher values than T3. Ruminal pH and feed cost/kg LW gain were lower for T2 relative to other treatments. Blood constituents were within the normal ranges for lambs, though slightly altered by treatments. Whereas serum total protein, albumin, and globulin were affected (P < 0.05) in this rank order, T1 < T3 < T2, other serum parameters were not affected. Relative feed cost and relative daily profit were lower and higher respectively for T2 than for T3. It is concluded that additives-treated DPLS is nutritionally superior to untreated DPLS as a roughage source in total mixed rations fed to growing lambs. However, for improved performance of the lambs and economic benefits, EM1-treated DPLS is recommended.


Assuntos
Phoeniceae/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Silagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Valor Nutritivo , Phoeniceae/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Rúmen/química , Rúmen/metabolismo , Soro/química , Ovinos/sangue , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silagem/análise
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(5): 1524-1535, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497213

RESUMO

Mushrooms are a rich source of dietary fiber. This study aimed to characterize the modulation of colonic microbiota in Zucker rats after supplementing their diet with a biotechnologically produced oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju). Microbiota composition and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon and bile acids in the plasma of the rats were analyzed to assess the effects of P. sajor-caju supplementation on the microbiota in the colon and its interplay with the host in the event of hepatic steatosis. Microbiota profiles were distinctly modulated by P. sajor-caju supplementation between the obese control rats and the obese rats fed the 5% P. sajor-caju-supplemented diet. P. sajor-caju enhanced the growth of SCFAs-producing bacterial genera, including Faecalibaculum, Bifidobacterium, Roseburia, and Blautia, and decreased the relative abundance of the pathogenic genus Escherichia-Shigella. This was also accompanied by distinct changes in the concentrations of bile acids in the plasma and concentrations of SCFAs in the colon, supporting the initial potentiality of P. sajor-caju as a prebiotic in cases of hepatic steatosis and liver inflammation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pleurotus/química , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Fibras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Masculino , Prebióticos/análise , Ratos , Ratos Zucker
14.
Epilepsia ; 62(2): 529-541, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A large number of studies have highlighted the important role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders, suggesting that its manipulation might serve as a treatment strategy. We hypothesized that the gut microbiota participates in absence seizure development and maintenance in the WAG/Rij rat model and tested this hypothesis by evaluating potential gut microbiota and intestinal alterations in the model, as well as measuring the impact of microbiota manipulation using fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). METHODS: Initially, gut microbiota composition and intestinal histology of WAG/Rij rats (a well-recognized genetic model of absence epilepsy) were studied at 1, 4, and 8 months of age in comparison to nonepileptic Wistar rats. Subsequently, in a second set of experiments, at 6 months of age, untreated Wistar or WAG/Rij rats treated with ethosuximide (ETH) were used as gut microbiota donors for FMT in WAG/Rij rats, and electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were obtained over 4 weeks. At the end of FMT, stool and gut samples were collected, absence seizures were measured on EEG recordings, and microbiota analysis and histopathological examinations were performed. RESULTS: Gut microbiota analysis showed differences in beta diversity and specific phylotypes at all ages considered and significant variances in the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio between Wistar and WAG/Rij rats. FMT, from both Wistar and ETH-treated WAG/Rij donors to WAG/Rij rats, significantly decreased the number and duration of seizures. Histological results indicated that WAG/Rij rats were characterized by intestinal villi disruption and inflammatory infiltrates already at 1 month of age, before seizure occurrence; FMT partially restored intestinal morphology while also significantly modifying gut microbiota and concomitantly reducing absence seizures. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate for the first time that the gut microbiota is modified and contributes to seizure occurrence in a genetic animal model of absence epilepsy and that its manipulation may be a suitable therapeutic target for absence seizure management.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/microbiologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Animais , Bacteroidetes , Butiratos/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/genética , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/terapia , Etossuximida/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Firmicutes , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Íleo/patologia , Propionatos/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteobactérias , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Convulsões/genética , Convulsões/microbiologia , Convulsões/fisiopatologia
15.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430497

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal tract contains multiple types of immune cells that maintain the balance between tolerance and activation at the first line of host defense facing non-self antigens, including dietary antigens, commensal bacteria, and sometimes unexpected pathogens. The maintenance of homeostasis at the gastrointestinal tract requires stringent regulation of immune responses against various environmental conditions. Dietary components can be converted into gut metabolites with unique functional activities through host as well as microbial enzymatic activities. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that gastrointestinal metabolites have significant impacts on the regulation of intestinal immunity and are further integrated into the immune response of distal mucosal tissue. Metabolites, especially those derived from the microbiota, regulate immune cell functions in various ways, including the recognition and activation of cell surface receptors, the control of gene expression by epigenetic regulation, and the integration of cellular metabolism. These mucosal immune regulations are key to understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of gastrointestinal disorders. Here, we review recent advancements in our understanding of the role of gut metabolites in the regulation of gastrointestinal immunity, highlighting the cellular and molecular regulatory mechanisms by macronutrient-derived metabolites.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Colo/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(3): 3098-3108, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455786

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of crude protein (CP) content of starter feed and wheat straw (WS) processing on growth performance, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and behavior of Holstein calves. Sixty calves (28 male and 32 female) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design. Treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement were (1) lower-CP ground starter feed mixed with alkali-processed WS (LP-PWS), (2) lower-CP ground starter feed mixed with unprocessed WS (LP-WS), (3) higher-CP ground starter feed mixed with alkali-processed WS (HP-PWS), and (4) higher-CP ground starter feed mixed with unprocessed WS (HP-WS). Wheat straw was fed at 4.75% of dry matter (DM), and low-protein (LP) and high-protein (HP) starter feed contained 19.5 and 23.5% CP, respectively. The calves were weaned on d 60 and remained in the study until d 75. During the experiment, the calves received 4.2 kg of whole milk per day and had free access to fresh water and starter feed. The interaction between WS processing and protein content of starter tended to be significant for starter feed intake, average daily gain (ADG), and body weight (BW); calves fed HP-PWS tended to have greater ADG and final BW than other treatments. The results showed that feeding HP ground starter feed increased ADG and feed efficiency compared with LP groups during the preweaning and the overall periods. Moreover, weaning and final BW were higher in HP-fed calves than in LP-fed calves. Apparent digestibilities of acid detergent fiber (ADF), starch, and CP were greater in calves fed HP than in calves fed LP starter feed. The HP ground starter feed increased rumen propionate and ammonia concentrations. Wheat straw processing had no effect on intake and growth of calves but increased DM, ADF, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities and decreased ruminal pH. Using processed wheat straw (PWS) mixed with starter feed tended to decrease rumination time and ruminal acetate concentration in calves. Final body barrel and withers height tended to be greater in calves fed PWS. Overall, the results indicated that HP content of ground starter feed (23.5%) could be recommended for Holstein calves. Furthermore, PWS inclusion in the ground starter diet increased fiber digestibility but had no effect on calf performance. Moreover, calves fed HP-PWS had greater ADG and final BW than other treatments.


Assuntos
Rúmen , Triticum , Álcalis , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Masculino , Rúmen/metabolismo , Desmame
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 187, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420074

RESUMO

The gut microbiota is reported to modulate the immune response in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we employ metagenomic and metabolomic studies to characterise gut microbiota in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) related cirrhosis, with or without HCC, and evaluate its effect on the peripheral immune response in an ex vivo model. We find that dysbiosis characterises the microbiota of patients with NAFLD-cirrhosis, with compositional and functional shifts occurring with HCC development. Gene function of the microbiota in NAFLD-HCC supports short chain fatty acid production, and this is confirmed by metabolomic studies. Ex vivo studies show that bacterial extracts from the NAFLD-HCC microbiota, but not from the control groups, elicit a T cell immunosuppressive phenotype, characterised by expansion of regulatory T cells and attenuation of CD8 + T cells. Our study suggest that the gut microbiota in NAFLD-HCC is characterised by a distinctive microbiome/metabolomic profile, and can modulate the peripheral immune response.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Imunidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/imunologia , Idoso , Bactérias/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Citocinas , Fibras na Dieta , Disbiose/imunologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Metabolômica , Metagenômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Fenótipo
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 134: 111156, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401080

RESUMO

Cardiac disorders contribute to one of the major causes of fatality across the world. Hypertensive patients, even well maintained on drugs, possess a high risk to cardiovascular diseases. It is, therefore, highly important to identify different factors and pathways that lead to risk and progression of cardiovascular disorders. Several animals and human studies suggest that taxonomical alterations in the gut are involved in the cardiovascular physiology. In this article, with the help of various experimental evidences, we suggest that the host gut-microbiota plays an important in this pathway. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and Trimethyl Amine -n-Oxide (TMAO) are the two major products of gut microbiome. SCFAs present a crucial role in regulating the blood pressure, while TMAO is involved in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and other coronary artery diseases, including hypertension. We prove that there exists a triangular bridge connecting the gap between dietary salt, hypertension and gut microbiome. We also present some of the dietary interventions which can regulate and control microbiota that can prevent cardiovascular complications.We strongly believe that this article would improve the understanding the role of gut microbiota in hypertension, and will be helpful in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for prevention of hypertension through restoring gut microbiome homeostasis in the near future.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão/etiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Animais , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Hipossódica , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Disbiose , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Hipertensão/microbiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
Animal ; 15(1): 100061, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516026

RESUMO

The use of antibiotics as supplements in animal feed is restricted due to possible health hazards associated with them. Consequently, there is increasing interest in exploiting natural products to improve health and production of livestock with no detrimental side effects. In this study, we examined the effect of Astragalus membranaceus root (AMT) supplementation on DM intake, growth performance, rumen fermentation and immunity of Tibetan sheep. Twenty-four male Tibetan sheep (31 ±â€¯1.4 kg; 9 months old) were assigned randomly to one of four dietary treatments with different levels of AMT: 0, 20, 50 and 80 g/kg DM (A0, A2, A5 and A8, respectively) in addition to their basal diets. A0 acted as a control group, and measurements were recorded over a 56-d feeding period. Sheep fed with AMT had a higher average daily gain and a lower feed:gain ratio than controls (P < 0.001). Rumen concentrations of NH3-N (P < 0.001), total volatile fatty acids (P = 0.028), acetate (P = 0.017) and propionate (P = 0.031) in A5 and A8 were higher than those in A0. The addition of AMT in the feed significantly increased serum antioxidant and immunity factors of the sheep and increased the concentrations of serum interleukin, immunoglobulin and tumour necrosis factor-α (P = 0.010). We concluded that AMT can be used as a feed additive to improve growth performance and rumen fermentation and enhance the immunity of Tibetan sheep. Some responses exhibited a dose-dependent response, whereas other did not exhibit a pattern, with an increase in AMT. The addition of 50 and 80 g/kg AMT of total DM intake showed the most promising results.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Masculino , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ovinos , Tibet
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 64, 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392866

RESUMO

Ruminal fermentation efficiency has been shown to be closely related with milk production in dairy cows. This investigation aimed at the utilization of sweet grass and bamboo grass pellet supplementation on ruminal fermentation, feed utilization efficiency, milk quantity, and quality in lactating dairy cows. Four lactating Holstein Friesian crossbreds were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of roughage sources and bamboo grass (Tiliacora triandra, Diels) pellet (BP) supplementation on voluntary feed intake, digestibility of nutrients, fermentation characteristics of the rumen, and milk quantity and quality. Sweet grass (SG) (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mahasarakham) and rice straw (RS) were fed as roughage sources as the first factor, while the second factor was supplementation levels of BP (0 and 150 g/cow/day). The results revealed that SG (P < 0.01) and BP supplementation (P < 0.05) improved feed intake, digestibility of nutrients, especially roughage intake and digestibility of DM and NDF. Ruminal pH (P < 0.05), bacterial (P < 0.01), and fungal population (P < 0.01) were increased with SG feeding, enhancing the concentration of total VFAs (P < 0.01) and propionic acid (P < 0.01), while both SG and BP decreased methane production (P < 0.01). While milk yield (P < 0.01) and milk composition (P < 0.01), especially unsaturated fatty acids including those of conjugated linoleic acid (P < 0.001), were enhanced. Supplementation of BP containing bioactive compounds such as condensed tannins (CT) enhanced rumen bacterial population with increased total VFAs (P < 0.05) and propionic acid (P < 0.05) concentrations, while decreased methane production (P < 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that SG would be beneficial to improved rumen fermentation, feed utilization, and milk production of dairy cows, while bamboo grass pellet supplementation tended to additionally improve rumen fermentation and feed intake without negative effects on milk production.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Lactação , Leite/química , Pennisetum , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Nutrientes , Rúmen/microbiologia
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