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1.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(2): 289-302, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961431

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE) is regarded as a pregnancy-associated hypertension disorder that is related to excessive inflammatory responses. Although the gut microbiota (GM) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been related to hypertension, their effects on PE remain unknown. We determined the GM abundance and faecal SCFA levels by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing and gas chromatography, respectively, using faecal samples from 27 patients with severe PE and 36 healthy, pregnant control subjects. We found that patients with PE had significantly decreased GM diversity and altered GM abundance. At the phylum level, patients with PE exhibited decreased abundance of Firmicutes albeit increased abundance of Proteobacteria; at the genus level, patients with PE had lower abundance of Blautia, Eubacterium_rectale, Eubacterium_hallii, Streptococcus, Bifidobacterium, Collinsella, Alistipes, and Subdoligranulum, albeit higher abundance of Enterobacter and Escherichia_Shigella. The faecal levels of butyric and valeric acids were significantly decreased in patients with PE and significantly correlated with the above-mentioned differential GM abundance. We predicted significantly increased abundance of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-synthesis pathway and significantly decreased abundance of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pathway in patients with PE, based on phylogenetic reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt). Finally, we evaluated the effects of oral butyrate on LPS-induced hypertension in pregnant rats. We found that butyrate significantly reduced the blood pressure (BP) in these rats. In summary, we provide the first evidence linking GM dysbiosis and reduced faecal SCFA to PE and demonstrate that butyrate can directly regulate BP in vivo, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic agent for PE.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Butiratos/administração & dosagem , Butiratos/análise , Butiratos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/microbiologia , Ácidos Pentanoicos/análise , Ácidos Pentanoicos/metabolismo , Dinâmica Populacional , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/microbiologia , Gravidez , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 128-137, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825613

RESUMO

Salmonellosis is a world-wide epidemic, and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) possess various health benefits. This study is aimed to investigate the preventive effects of n-3 LCPUFAs against Salmonella infection. By pretreatment with n-3 LCPUFAs, but not n-6 LCPUFAs, the survival rate of the infected mice was increased. Further studies showed that n-3 LCPUFAs significantly increased the fecal contents of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The cytokine expression in the liver and production in serum were both modulated by n-3 LCPUFAs into an anti-inflammatory profile against infection. Moreover, the changes in gut microbiota by n-3 LCPUFAs favored the host against pathogens, closely related to the modified SCFA production and immune responses. In conclusion, n-3 LCPUFAs prevented Salmonella infection through multiple mechanisms, especially by the interaction with gut microbiota and host immunology. Our results suggested great perspectives for n-3 LCPUFAs and their related products to control the prevalence of Salmonella, a most predominant food-borne pathogen.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Salmonella/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/fisiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia
3.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110937, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682932

RESUMO

Large prospective cohort studies suggested an important role of cereal insoluble fiber in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, which challenge the traditional view that viscosity and solubility are the main driving factors for these beneficial effects of dietary fiber. To evaluate the anti-diabetic effects of insoluble- (BIF) and soluble fibers (BSF) enzymatically isolated from barley, a conventional rat model and a type 2 diabetes rat model were used. Our results showed that 4-week treatment of BIF or BSF effectively reduced FBG in the diabetic condition, with caecal level of propionic acid and minor SCFAs increased by BIF and that of butyric acid and insulin sensitivity improved by BSF, respectively. The two treatments further ameliorated liver function, judged by the recovered serum level of ALT, albumin and total protein levels. BIF and BSF also increased HDL-C and decreased serum MDA. In normal rats, BIF and BSF showed a hypolipidaemic effect in triglycerides and LDL-C, reduced body weight and enhanced the caecal production of minor SCFAs. Furthermore, the two treatments reduced the caecal level of butyric acid while BSF increased that of propionic acid. In conclusion, BIF could exert anti-diabetic effects that might via a different mechanism from BSF.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ceco/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Ratos Wistar , Solubilidade
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 4-16, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829005

RESUMO

Obesity has an important influence on health conditions, causing a multitude of complications and comorbidities, and drug therapy is considered to be one of the treatment strategies. Nowadays, there is increasing interest in the study of intestinal microbiota regulation of obesity; also, an increasing number of agricultural and sideline products have been found to have anti-obesity potential. In the present review, we summarize an overview of current known and potential anti-obesity oligosaccharides and their molecular structures. We describe their anti-obesity potential activity and the molecular structure associated with this activity, the regulation of intestinal microbiota composition and its mechanism of action, including regulation of the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) pathway and altering bile acid (BA) pathway. This review will provide new ideas for us to develop new anti-obesity functional foods.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Oligossacarídeos/química , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Prebióticos/análise
5.
Food Chem ; 309: 125717, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699559

RESUMO

The feasibility of using celery cellulose hydrogels as carriers was explored for controlled release of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) triggered by ultrasound. The hydrogels were prepared with the phase inversion method and further characterized using FT-IR, SEM and XRD techniques. At the optimal cellulose concentration (8.33 and 6.25 mg/mL), the hydrogels (F4 and F5) exhibited the swelling ratio of 185%, and Young's modulus of the F4 and F5 was lower than that of others. The hydrogels were loaded with SCFAs owing to its hydrophilicity and swelling properties, and the maximum loading capacity of SCFAs achieved nearly 80%. Interestingly, the loaded SCFAs within hydrogel carrier could be readily released if an ultrasound trigger is exerted. Our results indicate that the ultrasound-triggered strategy for the SCFAs delivery system could provide a promising basis to achieve on-demand, reproducible, repeated, and tunable dosing of bioactive molecules.


Assuntos
Apium/metabolismo , Celulose/química , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/química , Hidrogéis/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Módulo de Elasticidade , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Sonicação
6.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(11): 807-812, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747759

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The gut microbiome is regarded as an essential dynamic organ that functions in nourishment, epithelial development and innate immunity. One important benefit of the dietary polysaccharides to human health is due to its fermentability in gut. It is been known quite well that dietary fiber is able of impacting colon microbiota. Fermented products from these polysaccharides, especially short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are bioactive molecules with health benefits. It is proposed that the dietary polysaccharide-deriving SCFAs could be converted into glucose and /or directly signal intestinal receptors and therefore contribute the benefits via gut-brain neural circuits. In addition, fermented polysaccharides can facilitate the beneficial bacteria to generate bioactive molecules important for the normal maturation of the host immune system. Manipulation of the microbiota and metabolites from intestinal microbiota might be a promising new approach for the prevention or treatment diseases (Fig. 2, Ref. 30).


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Humanos
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(45): 12428-12440, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668067

RESUMO

In the present study, the digestion and fermentation of blackberry polysaccharides (BBPs) with different molecular weights (Mw) were investigated. The results showed that the Mw decrease rates of BBP, BBP-8, BBP-16, and BBP-24 were 77.48, 69.61, 56.87, and 52.89%, respectively. The antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of BBPs were decreased under gastrointestinal condition, which might be due to the variation of Mw during digestion. The bile acid-binding ability of BBPs showed an Mw-dependent manner for higher Mw polysaccharides with higher viscosity. Through fermentation, the BBPs affected the ecosystem of the intestinal tract by promoting the production of short-chain fatty acids, lowering the pH of colon, and decreasing the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes. All BBPs showed almost a similar modulation effect on the gut bacteria, but the lower Mw polysaccharide was more easily utilized by bacteria.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Rubus/metabolismo , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Peso Molecular , Rubus/química , Estômago/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(49): 13635-13647, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736303

RESUMO

Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. We compared the potency of fish oil with flaxseed oil in reducing TMAO-exacerbated atherogenesis. Five groups of ApoE-/- mice were given one of five diets, namely, a low-fat diet, a Western high fat diet (WD), a WD plus 0.2% TMAO, and two WDs containing 0.2% TMAO with 50% lard being replaced by flaxseed oil or fish oil. TMAO accelerated atherosclerosis and disturbed cholesterol homeostasis. Compared with flaxseed oil, fish oil was more effective in inhibiting TMAO-induced atherogenesis by lowering plasma cholesterol and inflammatory cytokines. Both oils could reverse TMAO-induced decrease in fecal acidic sterols. Fish oil promoted fecal output of neutral sterols and downregulated hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis. Fish oil was more effective than flaxseed oil in promoting the growth of short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria and lowering microbial generation of lipopolysaccharide. In conclusion, fish oil is more potent than flaxseed oil to ameliorate TMAO-exacerbated atherogenesis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/dietoterapia , Aterosclerose/microbiologia , Óleos de Peixe/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Óleo de Semente do Linho/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Metilaminas/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(49): 13728-13736, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617357

RESUMO

A slow fermentation rate of dietary fiber could result in a steady metabolite production release and even distribution in the entire colon, increasing the likelihood of meeting the energy requirements of the distal colon. In the present study, we modulated the fermentation rate in an in vitro human fecal fermentation model by applying chemical cross-linking modification to a type 2 resistant starch [i.e., high-amylose maize starch (HAMS)]. Cross-linking modification decreased the gas production (an indicator of the fermentation rate) of HAMS throughout the whole fermentation progress. The butyrate production rate of cross-linked starches decreased gradually with the increase of the cross-linking degree. Certain beneficial gut microbiota such as genera of Blautia and Clostridiales members were remarkably promoted by starches with low and medium cross-linking degrees, whereas HAMS with a high cross-linking degree obviously promoted the abundance of Bacteroides uniformis and Ruminococcus bromii. This finding reveals that cross-linking modification effectively controls the fermentation rate and highlights the modulation metabolite profiles and gut microbiota composition through chemical modification.


Assuntos
Amilose/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Zea mays/metabolismo , Amilose/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Intestino Grosso/metabolismo , Intestino Grosso/microbiologia , Masculino , Zea mays/química
10.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(12): 1452-1460, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586220

RESUMO

Pectin is a diverse polysaccharide comprising of polygalacturonic acid, rhamnogalactouronan, and neutral polysaccharides (arabinan and arabinogalactan) as side chains or branches. They are resistant to salivary amylase and gastric juice. In the present study the prebiotic potentials of different pectic derived substrates were performed by using intestinal cultures and measuring the growth, change in pH and short chain fatty acid, (SCFA) production. Arabinan, arabinogalactan, and rhamnogalacturonan were fermented by probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium breve, Bi. longum, Bi. bifidum, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (commensal bacteria). While, polygalacturonic acid was fermented by Ba. fragilis, Ba. thetaiotaomicron, and Ba. uniformis. All the screened bacteria significantly decreased the pH from 7 to 5 (pH difference of ≈ 2), which clearly indicated that the above bacteria produced the enzymes necessary for the digestion of the pectic derived polysaccharides. The SCFA profiles of the above screened bacteria clearly demonstrated the production of lactate, acetate and propionate which are the key metabolites involved in maintaining gut health and prevention of several intestinal diseases. Thus, pectic polysaccharides hold potential application in food industry as prebiotic ingredients or dietary fibers.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pectinas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Prebióticos/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pectinas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(43): 11922-11930, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576748

RESUMO

We investigated the regulatory effects of citrus pectin oligosaccharides (POS) from an innovative, chemically controllable degradation process on cholesterol metabolism and the gut microbial composition. The modulatory role of the intestinal flora was explored. Four-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet; a high-fat (HF) diet; or a HF diet with 0.15, 0.45, and 0.9 g/kg body weight POS for 30 days. POS reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner. The relative abundances of specific bacterial groups in the feces and the concentrations of their metabolites were higher in the POS groups. There were significant correlations among Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides and short-chain fatty acids, as well as among serum TC, LDL-C, fecal bile acids, and liver cholesterol 7-α-hydroxylase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. These findings indicate that the prepared POS exhibited hypocholesterolemic effects and that the potential regulatory mechanisms of citrus POS on cholesterol metabolism are modulated by specific bacterial groups together with their metabolites.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Colesterol/metabolismo , Citrus/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Pectinas/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(43): 12094-12104, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566978

RESUMO

A large portion of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) cannot be absorbed in the upper gut and therefore may be further decomposed and utilized by colonic microbiota (CM). This work reported the stability of UV-absorbent MRPs, fluorescent MRPs and peptide-bound N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML) in high molecular weight (HMW, >10 kDa), medium molecular weight (MMW, 1-10 kDa), and low molecular weight (LMW, <1 kDa) gastrointestinal digests of glyoxal-glycated casein in the presence of CM. Fluorescent MRPs showed high stability, whereas UV-absorbent MRPs may be partially decomposed. A higher depletion rate of CML was found in the LMW fraction (38.7%) than in the MMW (21.7%) and HMW (9.6%) fractions. The 16S rRNA sequencing results revealed both beneficial and detrimental changes in CM composition induced by the glycated fractions. Generation of short-chain and branched-chain fatty acids in fermentation solutions with glycated fractions was significantly suppressed compared with that in fermentation solution with unglycated digests. This work revealed the possible interplay between peptide-bound MRPs and CM.


Assuntos
Caseínas/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Glioxal/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Caseínas/química , Colo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Glioxal/química , Humanos , Reação de Maillard , Masculino , Peptídeos/química , Adulto Jovem
13.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4659-4666, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) inhibit human colorectal cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity. We investigated the mechanism of the anti-proliferative effects of SCFAs on human colorectal cancer cells by examining their effects on gene expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The DLD-1 cell line was cultured with different SCFAs. Gene groups whose expression levels decreased to <50% or increased >50% compared to untreated cells and the signalling pathways responsible for DLD-1 cell growth inhibition were identified and analyzed. RESULTS: Genes whose expression levels decreased to ≤50% (791 genes) showed remarkable changes in gene function compared to genes whose expression levels increased ≥50%. These genes encode proteins involved in DNA replication and cell cycle/proliferation that contribute to major pathways responsible for suppression of colorectal carcinogenesis pathways. CONCLUSION: SCFAs inhibited the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in DNA replication and cell cycle/proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells and exerted antiproliferative activity via different pathways.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
14.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4532-4539, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560750

RESUMO

Dietary fibers can influence a dog's overall health, but high concentrations of soluble dietary fibers can cause soft stools. An in vitro model could be useful to predict the rate fibers are fermented once they reach the colon. Pet food companies are constantly searching for new ingredients to differentiate their products from competitors. Miscanthus grass (MG), pea fiber (PF), and sorghum bran (SB) are novel fiber sources that could be alternatives to standards like cellulose (CE) and beet pulp (BP). The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of fiber source on organic matter disappearance (OMD), estimated organic matter disappearance (EOMD), and fermentation end-product concentrations using an in vitro fermentation procedure and dog fecal inoculum. Total dietary fiber (TDF) residues from MG, CE, BP, PF, and SB were fermented in vitro with buffered dog feces. Fecal samples were collected and maintained in anaerobic conditions until the dilution and inoculation. Test tubes containing the fibrous substrates were incubated for 4, 8, and 12 h at 39 °C. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), OMD, and EOMD were determined for each fiber source and time point. Beet pulp had the highest OMD, EOMD, and SCFA production of all tested fiber sources (38.6% OMD, 26.2% EOMD, 2.72 mmol SCFA/g of substrate). Sorghum bran led to greater concentrations of BCFA (59.86 µmol/g of substrate) and intermediate OMD and EOMD compared to the other tested fibers. Cellulose and MG were poorly fermented with the lowest OMD, EOMD, SCFA, and BCFA compared to other fibers. In conclusion, MG could be used as an insoluble minimally fermentable replacement fiber for CE in dog foods.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Cães/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Poaceae , Animais , Beta vulgaris , Celulose/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fermentação , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514281

RESUMO

The glycerol fermentation of probiotic Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) in the skin microbiome produced butyric acid in vitro at concentrations in the millimolar range. The exposure of dorsal skin of mice to ultraviolet B (UVB) light provoked a significant increased production of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 cytokine. Topical application of butyric acid alone or S. epidermidis with glycerol remarkably ameliorated the UVB-induced IL-6 production. In vivo knockdown of short-chain fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) in mouse skin considerably blocked the probiotic effect of S. epidermidis on suppression of UVB-induced IL-6 production. These results demonstrate that butyric acid in the metabolites of fermenting skin probiotic bacteria mediates FFAR2 to modulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by UVB.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Pele/microbiologia , Staphylococcus epidermidis/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Acetolactato Sintase/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos da radiação , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Glicerol/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Microbiota/efeitos da radiação , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação
16.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(9): 909-922, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484903

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of wheat gluten on gut microbiota from hamsters and also analyse whether alterations in microbiota could result in wheat gluten's lipid-lowering properties. Four weeks male hamsters were divided into 3 groups (n=10). Two hypercholesterolemic groups were fed for 35 days with hypercholesterolemic diet, containing 20% (w/w) wheat gluten or casein. Wheat gluten significantly reduced serum total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations, and also decreased the liver total cholesterol (TC), free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (CE), triglycerides (TG) concentrations. Wheat gluten group had a higher fecal lipids, total cholesterol (TC) and bile acids (BA) than that of casein group (p < 0.05). Moreover, wheat gluten significantly increased total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentrations in feces. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene revealed that intake of wheat gluten decreased the relative abundances of Firmicutes and Erysipelotrichaceae, but to increased the relative abundances of Bateroidetes, Bacteroidales_S24-7_group and Ruminococcaceae. The lipid lowering properties of wheat gluten was associated with the lower ratio of Firmicutes/Bateroidetes, the lower of the bacterial taxa Erysipelotrichaceae and the higher of the bacterial taxa Bacteroidales_S24-7_group and Ruminococcaceae. These results suggest that wheat gluten modulate cholesterol metabolism by altering intestinal microflora.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutens/farmacologia , Hiperlipidemias/microbiologia , Triticum/química , Animais , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Masculino , Mesocricetus , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
17.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(9): 1482-1490, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474709

RESUMO

Zhengganxifeng decoction (ZGXFD) is a traditional Chinese medicinal formula, from "Medical Zhong parameter West recorded" by Xichun Zhang, which has been applied to the treatment of clinical essential hypertension. Besides its effect in blood pressure reduction, ZGXFD is also known to be a radical therapy with little or no side effects. Compared with western medicines, Chinese medicinal formulas have the advantage of simultaneously attacking multiple targets. However, such a property brings trouble to the pharmacological studies of Chinese medicines. This study investigated the composition of gut microbiota in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated with ZGXFD. ZGXFD was shown to cause similar effects in the treatment group as benazepril: both were able to reduce in SHR the microbial diversity, Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio and coccus to bacillus (C/B) ratio. Meanwhile, ZGXFD can maintain the integrity of intestinal mechanistic barrier and elevate the percentage of bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA). By investigating renin-angiotensin system (RAS) system, we found that ZGXFD can decrease the expression of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) in lungs, which in turn causes a increase in AngI produces angiotensin1-7 (Ang1-7) and decrease in AngII. ZGXFD regulate blood pressure in SHR via RAS.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hipertensão/microbiologia , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
18.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(21-22): 9191-9203, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414161

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biological process that is acquiring increasing attention for both solid waste and wastewater treatment, as well as for the production of valuable chemicals. Despite the importance of the inoculum, the relationship between inoculum community composition, reactor performance, and reactor community composition remains vague. To understand the impact of the starting community on the composition and functioning of the AD microbiome, we studied three sets of biologically replicated AD reactors inoculated with different communities, but operated identically, targeting both total and active community compositions. All reactors performed highly similar regarding volatile fatty acid and methane production. The community analyses showed reproducible total and active community compositions in replicate reactors, indicating that particularly deterministic factors shaped the AD community. Moreover, strong variation in community composition between the differently seeded reactors was observed, indicating the role of inoculum composition in community shaping. In all three reactor sets, especially species that were low abundant or even not detected in the inoculum contributed to the reactor communities, supporting the importance of functional redundancy and high diversity in inocula used for AD seeding. The careful start-up of the AD process using initially low organic loading rates likely contributed to the successful assembly of initial low-abundance/rare species into a new cooperative AD community in the reactors.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Microbiota , Anaerobiose , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6850-6858, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transparent Testa8 (TT8) and Homeobox12 (HB12) are two transcriptional factors in plant phenylpropanoid pathways and were reported to be positively related to lignin content. Alfalfa with silenced TT8 (TT8i) and HB12 (HB12i) was therefore generated using the RNA interference (RNAi) technique. Although lignin was found to be high in HB12i, such gene-silencing of alfalfa resulted in nutrient profiles that might be suitable for grazing. To extend the nutritional evaluation of transformed alfalfa, ground samples of 11 HB12i, 5 TT8i and 4 wild type (WT) were incubated in rumen fluid : buffer solution for 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h at 39 °C. Dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradations at each time point, and production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) at 4, 12, 24 and 48 h were analyzed, as well as degradation and production kinetics. The correlations and regressions between nutritive profiles and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectral parameters were determined. RESULTS: Both transformed genotypes had lower DM degradation and HB12i had lower VFA production compared with WT. Structural carbohydrate (STC) parameters were found to be negatively correlated with DM degradation and VFA production. The kinetics of DM degradation and VFA production were predicted from spectral parameters with good estimation power. CONCLUSION: Silencing of HB12 and TT8 affected fermentation characteristics of alfalfa and some fermentation characteristics were predictable from spectral parameters using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , Medicago sativa/genética , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124453, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394439

RESUMO

In this study, the electrogenesis behaviors and mechanisms in multiple equilibrium microbial fuel cells (MEMFCs) which volatile fatty acids as multiple electron donors are investigated. The electrochemical property and energy recovery can be enhanced in propionic acid dominant systems (HPr-D-MEMFCs) which compares to butyric acid dominant systems (HBu-D-MEMFCs), increase power density from 0.04 to 0.43 W/m2 and energy recovery efficiency from 2.07 to 5.44%, respectively. With isotope experiment analysis, the fluctuation of electrode potentials induce diverse electrogenesis pathways that high utilization efficiencies and bioconversion efficiency of hybrid acids observed in HPr-D-MEMFCs which different with HAc-D-MEMFCs and HBu-D-MEMFCs. In addition, the electrochemical and microbial community variation of MEMFCs reveal that the direct interspecies electron transfer stimulated with higher electric double layer capacitance, and activities of exoelectrogens enhanced with high relative abundance in HPr-D-MEMFCs. The findings present an intensive study in electrogenesis, providing a promising way to promote energy recovery and further extend its application value.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica/microbiologia , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Microbiota , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica/normas , Eletrodos , Transporte de Elétrons , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Propionatos/química
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