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1.
Food Chem ; 334: 127555, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711268

RESUMO

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of ruminant milk reported in published research papers (n = 65) from January 1995 to March 2020 around the world were analyzed to estimate the overall mean CLA value. The CLA content of ruminant milk samples was grouped according to geographical regions (Europe, South America, North America, Oceania, Asia, and Africa). The total CLA content of milk samples from cows, sheep, goats, yaks, and llama retrieved from the collected data ranged between 0.06 and 2.96% of total fatty acids. There is a wide variation of pooled estimated mean content of CLA in milk among the study regions and were highest in Oceania with 1.33% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16 - 1.49%) of total fatty acids. Though several factors have been reported to influence the CLA content of milk, the effect of the "geographical origin" was only considered in the present manuscript as one of the main factors in this respect.


Assuntos
Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/análise , Leite/química , África , Animais , Ásia , Bovinos , Europa (Continente) , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Cabras , América do Norte , Oceania , Ruminantes , Ovinos , América do Sul
2.
Food Chem ; 334: 127601, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712491

RESUMO

Quantitative labeling of oil compositions has become a trend to ensure the quality and safety of blended oils in the market. However, methods for rapid and reliable quantitation of blended oils are still not available. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was used to profile triacylglycerols in blended oils, and partial least squares regression (PLS-R) was applied to establish quantitative models based on the acquired MALDI-MS spectra. We demonstrated that this new method allowed simultaneous quantitation of multiple compositions, and provided good quantitative results of binary, ternary and quaternary blended oils, enabling good limits of detection (e.g., detectability of 1.5% olive oil in sunflower seed oil). Compared with the conventional GC-FID method, this new method could allow direct analysis of blended oils, analysis of one blended oil sample within minutes, and accurate quantitation of low-abundance oil compositions and blended oils with similar fatty acid contents.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/estatística & dados numéricos , Óleo de Girassol/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 334: 127612, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731121

RESUMO

The study objective was to assess the impact of soybean (SO) and linseed oil (LO) added to feed mixture for laying hens upon the quality characteristics of table eggs, their fatty acid (FA) profile and cholesterol level. The material consisted of eggs from hens fed with a mixture without oil and with the addition of LO or SO in a dose of 2.5%. Eggs were subjected to quality assessment. FA profile and cholesterol content in yolks were determined. The results indicate no negative changes in eggs' quality caused by supplementation. An increase was observed in the n3 FA content in egg yolk in experimental groups, as well as all PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) proportions. No negative impact of these oils on the level of cholesterol was noted. As a consequence, the analysed feed additives can be safely applied as an appropriate material in poultry nutrition to enrich eggs with PUFA.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Ovos/análise , Óleo de Semente do Linho/farmacologia , Óleo de Soja/farmacologia , Animais , Colesterol/análise , Gema de Ovo/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino
4.
Gene ; 764: 145094, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860898

RESUMO

Long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs), which drive the conversion of long chain fatty acid into acyl-CoA, an ingredient of lipid synthesis, have been well-acknowledged to exert an indispensable role in many metabolic processes in mammals, especially lipid metabolism. However, in chicken, the evolutionary characteristics, expression profiles and regulatory mechanisms of ACSL gene family are rarely understood. Here, we analyzed the genomic synteny, gene structure, evolutionary event and functional domains of the ACSL gene family members using bioinformatics methods. The spatiotemporal expression profiles of ACSL gene family, and their regulatory mechanism were investigated via bioinformatics analysis incorporated with in vivo and in vitro estrogen-treated experiments. Our results indicated that ACSL2 gene was indeed evolutionarily lost in the genome of chicken. Chicken ACSLs shared an AMP-binding functional domain, as well as highly conversed ATP/AMP and FACS signature motifs, and were clustered into two clades, ACSL1/5/6 and ACSL3/4, based on high sequence similarity, similar gene features and conversed motifs. Chicken ACSLs showed differential tissue expression distributions, wherein the significantly decreased expression level of ACSL1 and the significantly increased expression level of ACSL5 were found, respectively, the expression levels of the other ACSL members remained unchanged in the liver of peak-laying hens versus pre-laying hens. Moreover, the transcription activity of ACSL1, ACSL3 and ACSL4 was silenced and ACSL6 was activated by estrogen, but no response to ACSL5. In conclusion, though having highly conversed functional domains, chicken ACSL gene family is organized into two separate groups, ACSL1/5/6 and ACSL3/4, and exhibits varying expression profiles and estrogen effects. These results not only pave the way for better understanding the specific functions of ACSL genes in avian lipid metabolism, but also provide a valuable evidence for gene family characteristics.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Coenzima A Ligases/genética , Evolução Molecular , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Família Multigênica/genética , Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Coenzima A Ligases/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Hepatócitos , Cultura Primária de Células , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Sintenia
5.
Food Chem ; 334: 127511, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707367

RESUMO

The sustainable exploitation of fruit and cereal processing is being conducted to produce novel food products with promising nutritional properties and high content in added value compounds. Herein, three bilberry fruit-based snacks supplemented with edible petals and fruits were characterized for their nutritional properties and chemical composition. The phenolic profile, antioxidant, antibacterial and hepatotoxic properties were analyzed. Protein (3-4 g/100 g dw) and carbohydrates (94.3-94.8 g/100 g dw) represented the major macronutrients. The combination of bilberry fruits with edible petals, calendula and rose, improved the nutritional and phytochemical input in organic acids and tocopherols content, respectively. Also, the supplementation with apple and goji fruits provided higher content in phenolic acids and anthocyanins (up to a 9-fold higher concentration, 199.7 µg/g of extract), also resulting in a higher antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The results obtained can contribute for the development of novel sustainable and healthier snacks for the food industry.


Assuntos
Valor Nutritivo , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Antocianinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Carboidratos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Lanches , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Tocoferóis/análise , Vaccinium myrtillus/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 336: 127679, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768903

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of aqueous fat separation and defatting using organic solvents (99% methanol, ethanol, and n-hexane) on the characteristics and functionality of proteins extracted from Protaetia brevitarsis. The defatting efficiency, amino acid composition, protein solubility, and technical properties were the highest when proteins were defatted using n-hexane. Proteins defatted using ethanol were similar in foam capacity and emulsifying capacity. Surface hydrophobicity decreased when using organic solvents, and excessive fat content disrupted the functional properties of the extracted proteins. Proteins extracted using the different solvents displayed different pH values. The pH of the aqueous extract was the lowest. CIE L* a* b* color values also differed using the different extraction methods. Although n-hexane might be the most efficient solvent for defatting the proteins extracted from edible insects, ethanol could also be used to obtain similar foam and emulsifying capacities.


Assuntos
Besouros/química , Proteínas de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/química , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Solventes/química , Aminoácidos/química , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Solubilidade
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5521, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139748

RESUMO

A grand challenge of biological chemical production is the competition between synthetic circuits and host genes for limited cellular resources. Quorum sensing (QS)-based dynamic pathway regulations provide a pathway-independent way to rebalance metabolic flux over the course of the fermentation. Most cases, however, these pathway-independent strategies only have capacity for a single QS circuit functional in one cell. Furthermore, current dynamic regulations mainly provide localized control of metabolic flux. Here, with the aid of engineering synthetic orthogonal quorum-related circuits and global mRNA decay, we report a pathway-independent dynamic resource allocation strategy, which allows us to independently controlling two different phenotypic states to globally redistribute cellular resources toward synthetic circuits. The strategy which could pathway-independently and globally self-regulate two desired cell phenotypes including growth and production phenotypes could totally eliminate the need for human supervision of the entire fermentation.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Percepção de Quorum/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Biocatálise , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fermentação/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica
8.
Phytochemistry ; 179: 112510, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002658

RESUMO

The specialization of parasitic plants from the Orobanchaceae family to the heterotrophic lifestyle caused several morphological, physiological and molecular changes. One of the adaptations to the parasitic lifestyle is the production of a large number of the smallest seeds in world flora, also called "dust-seeds". Seeds of 34 holoparasitic species from the Cistanche, Orobanche, Phelipanche, and Phelypaea genera were collected in the Caucasus region (54 samples) and their fatty acid content and compositions analysed. Of these seeds, 28 were investigated for the first time, and 12 are endemic to the Caucasus (one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the world). The influence of different hosts, populations, habitats, and climatic conditions on the fatty acid content and composition, as well as some connections of taxonomic classification are discussed. The fatty acid content in the species varied between 0.9 and 42.5%, and showed quantitative differences at generic and infrageneric levels, while displaying uniform fatty acid composition. Thirteen fatty acids were identified, of which nine were undescribed for Orobanchaceae. The fatty acid composition of the Orobanchaceae seeds represented a mixture of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) (average 7.8%) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) (average 92.2%). The fatty acid content in the Orobanchaceae seeds was directly unrelated to taxonomy, while the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio supported the clear separation of the Orobanche and Phelipanche genera. Orobanchaceae seeds contained mainly linoleic and oleic acids, thus they could be a potential nutritional source of the unsaturated fatty acids. Additionally, the studies confirmed the hypothesis that the degree of seed oil fatty acid unsaturation increased in colder climatic conditions, especially for the Orobanche genus.


Assuntos
Orobanchaceae , Orobanche , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Óleos Vegetais , Sementes/química
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5353, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097723

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that each edible oil type has its own characteristic fatty acid profile; however, no method has yet been described allowing the identification of oil types simply based on this characteristic. Moreover, the fatty acid profile of a specific oil type can be mimicked by a mixture of 2 or more oil types. This has led to fraudulent oil adulteration and intentional mislabeling of edible oils threatening food safety and endangering public health. Here, we present a machine learning method to uncover fatty acid patterns discriminative for ten different plant oil types and their intra-variability. We also describe a supervised end-to-end learning method that can be generalized to oil composition of any given mixtures. Trained on a large number of simulated oil mixtures, independent test dataset validation demonstrates that the model has a 50th percentile absolute error between 1.4-1.8% and a 90th percentile error of 4-5.4% for any 3-way mixtures of the ten oil types. The deep learning model can also be further refined with on-line training. Because oil-producing plants have diverse geographical origins and hence slightly varying fatty acid profiles, an online-training method provides also a way to capture useful knowledge presently unavailable. Our method allows the ability to control product quality, determining the fair price of purchased oils and in-turn allowing health-conscious consumers the future of accurate labeling.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Aprendizado de Máquina , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Óleos Vegetais/classificação
10.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 56(9): 573-582, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025951

RESUMO

Bempedoic acid is a new, first-in-class oral ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) inhibitor that has to be converted to its CoA thioester before it inhibits ACLY. This conversion only occurs in the liver and not in skeletal muscle. This may explain why, unlike the statins, bempedoic acid does not cause myalgia. Bempedoic acid given at a dosage of 180 mg orally once daily produces a highly significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and importantly also in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. It has recently been approved by both the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Commission for use in adult patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease who require additional lowering of LDL-C, and for the treatment of adults with primary hypercholesterolemia (heterozygous familial and nonfamilial) or mixed dyslipidemia, respectively.


Assuntos
ATP Citrato (pro-S)-Liase/antagonistas & inibidores , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos/sangue , Humanos
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 748: 142464, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113682

RESUMO

Nannochloropsis sp. has received increased attention by researchers in recent years due to its complexity and abundance of lipid structures. The lipids of this microalgae species have been identified to contain large quantities of neutral lipids which are capable of producing raw materials for nutraceuticals, food additives and biofuels. The production of biodiesel has received the greatest attention as there is an increase in global demand for both more fuel and more environmentally sustainable methods to produce such resources. The greatest challenges facing industries to mass produce viable products from microalgae involve the degradation of the cell wall and extracting the fatty acid of interest due to high costs. Various studies have shown that the extraction lipids from the microalgae can greatly influence the overall fatty acid composition. Different extraction methods can result in recovering higher quantities of either saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids or polyunsaturated fatty acids. Biodiesel production requires higher quantities of saturated fatty acids and monosaturated fatty acids as increased quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids result in oxidation which decreases the performance of the biodiesel. Whereas, polyunsaturated fatty acids are required in order to produce pharmaceuticals and food additives such as omega 3. This review will focus on how different in-situ extraction methods for lipid and fatty acid recovery, influence the fatty acid composition of various Nannochloropsis species (oculate, gaditana, salina and oceanica). The mechanical methods (microwave, ultrasonic and supercritical­carbon dioxide) of extraction for Nannochloropsis sp. will be critically evaluated. The use of enzymes will also be addressed, for their ability to extract fatty acids in a more environmentally friendly manner. This paper will report on the viable by-products which can be produced using different extraction methods.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Estramenópilas , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Ácidos Graxos , Lipídeos
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5036, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028818

RESUMO

Alkyl carboxylic acids as well as primary amines are ubiquitous in all facets of biological science, pharmaceutical science, chemical science and materials science. By chemical conversion to redox-active esters (RAE) and Katritzky's N-alkylpyridinium salts, respectively, alkyl carboxylic acids and primary amines serve as ideal starting materials to forge new connections. In this work, a Mn-mediated reductive decarboxylative/deaminative functionalization of activated aliphatic acids and primary amines is disclosed. A series of C-X (X = S, Se, Te, H, P) and C-C bonds are efficiently constructed under simple and mild reaction conditions. The protocol is applicable to the late-stage modification of some structurally complex natural products or drugs. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest the involvement of radicals in the reaction pathway.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Manganês/química , Catálise , Estudos de Viabilidade , Oxirredução
13.
Science ; 370(6514)2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060333

RESUMO

Lipid droplets (LDs) are the major lipid storage organelles of eukaryotic cells and a source of nutrients for intracellular pathogens. We demonstrate that mammalian LDs are endowed with a protein-mediated antimicrobial capacity, which is up-regulated by danger signals. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), multiple host defense proteins, including interferon-inducible guanosine triphosphatases and the antimicrobial cathelicidin, assemble into complex clusters on LDs. LPS additionally promotes the physical and functional uncoupling of LDs from mitochondria, reducing fatty acid metabolism while increasing LD-bacterial contacts. Thus, LDs actively participate in mammalian innate immunity at two levels: They are both cell-autonomous organelles that organize and use immune proteins to kill intracellular pathogens as well as central players in the local and systemic metabolic adaptation to infection.


Assuntos
Bactérias/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Gotículas Lipídicas/imunologia , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/imunologia
14.
Science ; 370(6514): 364-368, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060364

RESUMO

The heart consumes circulating nutrients to fuel lifelong contraction, but a comprehensive mapping of human cardiac fuel use is lacking. We used metabolomics on blood from artery, coronary sinus, and femoral vein in 110 patients with or without heart failure to quantify the uptake and release of 277 metabolites, including all major nutrients, by the human heart and leg. The heart primarily consumed fatty acids and, unexpectedly, little glucose; secreted glutamine and other nitrogen-rich amino acids, indicating active protein breakdown, at a rate ~10 times that of the leg; and released intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, balancing anaplerosis from amino acid breakdown. Both heart and leg consumed ketones, glutamate, and acetate in direct proportionality to circulating levels, indicating that availability is a key driver for consumption of these substrates. The failing heart consumed more ketones and lactate and had higher rates of proteolysis. These data provide a comprehensive and quantitative picture of human cardiac fuel use.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Cetonas/metabolismo , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Miocárdica , Proteólise
15.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2020-10-01. (OPAS/NMH/RF/20-0034).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52792

RESUMO

A Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) convocou um workshop regional de dois dias sobre análise de impacto regulatório para a elaboração de políticas visando eliminar os ácidos graxos trans de produção industrial nas Américas, a fim de discutir as análises pré-regulatórias que respaldam e orientam o processo de elaboração de uma política de eliminação dos ácidos graxos trans de produção industrial (AGT-PI). Os objetivos específicos do workshop incluíram identificar a necessidade de realizar uma análise de pré-regulamentação para respaldar e orientar as políticas de eliminação de AGT-PI; discutir possíveis modelos de análise de pré-regulamentação relativos a políticas de eliminação de AGT-PI ou políticas semelhantes de regulamentação alimentar; e definir elementos essenciais e lacunas de informação referentes à preparação de análises pré-regulamentação. Funcionários encarregados da regulamentação de alimentos, realização da análise de impacto regulatório e formulação de políticas nutricionais dos governos da Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica, Guiana, Jamaica, México e Paraguai participaram do workshop. Além disso, funcionários da Fundação Anaas, da Organização Regional de Normas e Qualidade da CARICOM (CROSQ), da Global Health Advocacy Incubator (GHAI), da NCD Alliance, da Resolve to Save Lives (RTSL, uma iniciativa da Vital Strategies) e da Salud Justa-México também participaram da reunião.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Alimentos Industrializados , Programas e Políticas de Nutrição e Alimentação
16.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2020-10-01. (OPAS/NMH/RF/20-0031).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52791

RESUMO

A Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) organizou um workshop visando ajudar os países a identificar elementos-chave a serem incluídos em suas políticas para eliminar os ácidos graxos trans de produção industrial (AGT-PI). Os objetivos específicos do workshop foram: apresentar as várias vias regulatórias existentes para eliminar os AGT-PI e discutir sua eficácia; considerar opções de políticas para sua eliminação; e delinear roteiros para orientar o desenvolvimento de políticas. Funcionários dos governos da Bolívia, Colômbia, Costa Rica, Guiana, Jamaica, México, Paraguai e Peru participaram da reunião. Os outros participantes incluíram representantes da Associação Brasileira de Nutrição (ASBRAN), Organização Regional de Normas e Qualidade da CARICOM (CROSQ), Instituto de Nutrição da América Central e Panamá (INCAP), Global Health Advocacy Incubator (GHAI), NCD Alliance, escritórios sub-regionais da OPAS, Resolve to Save Lives (RTSL, uma iniciativa da Vital Strategies) e Salud Justa-México. A política de eliminação recomendada pela OPAS/OMS consiste em limitar o teor de AGT-PI a não mais de 2% do total de gorduras em todos os alimentos e/ou proibir o uso ou produção de óleos parcialmente hidrogenados (OPH) como ingrediente em todos os alimentos.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Programas e Políticas de Nutrição e Alimentação , Fatores de Risco
17.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the content and role of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in lipid metabolism disorder in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 123 men were examined: 44 patients with ADS and 79 healthy people. The patients were examined on the 5-6 day after admission to the hospital. The content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (caproic, caprylic, capric, undecyl, lauric, tridecane, myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, margarine, stearic, arachin, eicosanoic, behenic) was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Quantitative calculation of SFA levels was carried out by the AgilentChemStationB.03.01 program (USA). The ratio of stearic to palmitic acid (C18:0/C16:0) was calculated. The study of the enzymatic activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) was carried out by generally accepted standardized methods on a Cobas Mirra automated analyzer. RESULTS: In ADS patients, changes in the composition of SFA were found with an increase in the number of short-chain fatty acids (caproic acid by 52.2%, caprylic acid by 75.5%); medium-chain acids (capric acid by 47.9%, undecyl acid by 74.7%, lauric acid), but with a decrease in the concentration of long-chain acids (pentadecanoic by 5.1%, margarine by 34.7%, arachinic by 19.58%, eicosanoic by 26.6%, behenic by 5.1%). Less correlations between the fatty acid content and the parameters of the lipid transport system of blood serum were established in ADS patients compared to the controls. This indicates deep disorders of lipid metabolism. CONCLUSION: The results expand the understanding of the complex mechanisms of lipid metabolism disorders in ASD, which is important for secondary prevention. They also substantiate the need for a purposeful study of lipid metabolism disorders in patients with ADS at an earlier stage of the disease.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Ácidos Graxos , Alcoolismo/complicações , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4981, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020469

RESUMO

Antagonism or agonism of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor (GIPR) prevents weight gain and leads to dramatic weight loss in combination with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in preclinical models. Based on the genetic evidence supporting GIPR antagonism, we previously developed a mouse anti-murine GIPR antibody (muGIPR-Ab) that protected diet-induced obese (DIO) mice against body weight gain and improved multiple metabolic parameters. This work reconciles the similar preclinical body weight effects of GIPR antagonists and agonists in vivo, and here we show that chronic GIPR agonism desensitizes GIPR activity in primary adipocytes, both differentiated in vitro and adipose tissue in vivo, and functions like a GIPR antagonist. Additionally, GIPR activity in adipocytes is partially responsible for muGIPR-Ab to prevent weight gain in DIO mice, demonstrating a role of adipocyte GIPR in the regulation of adiposity in vivo.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/agonistas , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/antagonistas & inibidores , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos/farmacologia , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/deficiência , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1274: 5-27, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894505

RESUMO

Biophysical properties of membranes are dependent on their glycerophospholipid compositions. Lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) selectively incorporate fatty chains into lysophospholipids to affect the fatty acid composition of membrane glycerophospholipids. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAATs) of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (AGPAT) family incorporate fatty chains into phosphatidic acid during the de novo glycerophospholipid synthesis in the Kennedy pathway. Other LPLATs of both the AGPAT and the membrane bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) families further modify the fatty chain compositions of membrane glycerophospholipids in the remodeling pathway known as the Lands' cycle. The LPLATs functioning in these pathways possess unique characteristics in terms of their biochemical activities, regulation of expressions, and functions in various biological contexts. Essential physiological functions for LPLATs have been revealed in studies using gene-deficient mice, and important roles for several enzymes are also indicated in human diseases where their mutation or dysregulation causes or contributes to the pathological condition. Now several LPLATs are emerging as attractive therapeutic targets, and further understanding of the mechanisms underlying their physiological and pathological roles will aid in the development of novel therapies to treat several diseases that involve altered glycerophospholipid metabolism.


Assuntos
1-Acilglicerofosfocolina O-Aciltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Aciltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Glicerofosfolipídeos/biossíntese , Glicerofosfolipídeos/química , 1-Acilglicerofosfocolina O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Animais , Membrana Celular/química , Membrana Celular/enzimologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Humanos
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1274: 71-99, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894508

RESUMO

Bioactive lipid mediators resulting from the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are controlled by many pathways that regulate the levels of these mediators and maintain homeostasis to prevent disease. PUFA metabolism is driven primarily through three pathways. Two pathways, the cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LO) enzymatic pathways, form metabolites that are mostly inflammatory, while the third route of metabolism results from the oxidation by the cytochrome P450 enzymes to form hydroxylated PUFA and epoxide metabolites. These epoxygenated fatty acids (EpFA) demonstrate largely anti-inflammatory and beneficial properties, in contrast to the other metabolites formed from the degradation of PUFA. Dysregulation of these systems often leads to chronic disease. Pharmaceutical targets of disease focus on preventing the formation of inflammatory metabolites from the COX and LO pathways, while maintaining the EpFA and increasing their concentration in the body is seen as beneficial to treating and preventing disease. The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is the major route of metabolism of EpFA. Inhibiting its activity increases concentrations of beneficial EpFA, and often disease states correlate to mutations in the sEH enzyme that increase its activity and decrease the concentrations of EpFA in the body. Recent approaches to increasing EpFA include synthetic mimics that replicate biological activity of EpFA while preventing their metabolism, while other approaches focus on developing small molecule inhibitors to the sEH. Increasing EpFA concentrations in the body has demonstrated multiple beneficial effects in treating many diseases, including inflammatory and painful conditions, cardiovascular disease, neurological and disease of the central nervous system. Demonstration of efficacy in so many disease states can be explained by the fundamental mechanism that EpFA have of maintaining healthy microvasculature and preventing mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress. While there are no FDA approved methods that target the sEH or other enzymes responsible for metabolizing EpFA, current clinical efforts to test for efficacy by increasing EpFA that include inhibiting the sEH or administration of EpFA mimics that block metabolism are in progress.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Manejo da Dor , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Dor
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