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2.
Nutr. hosp ; 38(1): 5-10, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198833

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: las emulsiones lipídicas (EL) pueden asociar distintos efectos inmunomoduladores dependiendo de su composición de ácidos grasos. Las EL enriquecidas con aceite de pescado y las basadas en aceite de oliva (EBAO) han mostrado ventajas frente a las derivados del aceite de soja, aunque son muy escasos los estudios que las comparan entre sí y no existe ninguno en pacientes críticos quirúrgicos. OBJETIVOS: demostrar la no inferioridad de la eficacia terapéutica de SMOFlipid(R) (enriquecida con aceite de pescado) frente a Clinoleic(R) (EBAO) en relación con la aparición de infecciones nosocomiales y otros parámetros evolutivos. Demostrar la no inferioridad de la seguridad de SMOFlipid(R) frente a Clinoleic(R) expresada como aparición de mortalidad y acontecimientos adversos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: ensayo clínico de fase III, de no inferioridad, realizado en pacientes críticos posquirúrgicos. Los sujetos se aleatorizaron para recibir SMOFlipid(R) o Clinoleic(R). Para comparar variables cualitativas se obtuvieron la frecuencia y el porcentaje de casos, realizando la prueba del chi cuadrado o el test de Fisher. Las medias entre dos grupos se compararon empleando el test de la "t" de Student. Se consideró estadísticamente significativo un valor de p menor de 0,05. Para el análisis principal de no inferioridad de la variable principal se aplicaron los test de Farrington-Manning, Miettinen-Nurminen y Gart-Nam. RESULTADOS: se incluyeron 73 pacientes, de los cuales 37 recibieron Clinoleic(R) y 36 SMOFlipid(R). En la variable "disminución de infecciones nosocomiales", SMOFlipid(R) demostró no ser inferior a Clinoleic(R). En la variable principal "mortalidad", SMOFlipid(R) demostró no ser inferior a Clinoleic(R). Tampoco existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en cuanto a la aparición de efectos adversos. CONCLUSIONES: en nuestro estudio, SMOFlipid(R) demostró no ser inferior a Clinoleic(R) en términos de eficacia y seguridad


INTRODUCTION: a lipid emulsion (LE) may result in different immunomodulatory effects depending on its fatty acid composition. LEs enriched with fish oil and those based on olive oil (OOBE) have shown advantages over those derived from soybean oil, although very few studies have compared these with each other, and none was performed in critically ill surgical patients. OBJECTIVES: to demonstrate non-inferiority for the therapeutic efficacy of SMOFlipid(R) (enriched with fish oil) versus Clinoleic(R) (OOBE) in relation to the occurrence of nosocomial infection and other evolutionary parameters. To demonstrate non-inferiority in the safety profile of SMOFlipid(R) versus Clinoleic(R) in terms of mortality and adverse events. MATERIAL AND METHOD: a phase-III, non-inferiority clinical trial performed in critically ill postsurgical patients. The subjects were randomized to receive SMOFlipid(R) or Clinoleic(R). For comparison of qualitative variables case frequencies and percentages were obtained using the Chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test. Means were compared between groups using Student's t-test. A p-value lower than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The Farrington-Manning, Miettinen-Nurminen, and Gart-Nam tests were applied in the main non-inferiority analysis of the primary endpoint. RESULTS: during de inclusion period 73 patients were selected, 37 of whom received Clinoleic(R) and 36 SMOFlipid(R). Regarding the variable "decrease in nosocomial infections", SMOFlipid(R) proved to be non-inferior to Clinoleic(R). Regarding the main variable "mortality", SMOFlipid(R) proved to be non-inferior to Clinoleic(R). There were no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of adverse effects either. CONCLUSIONS: in our study, SMOFlipid(R) proved to be non-inferior to Clinoleic(R) in terms of efficacy and safety


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas , Cuidados Críticos , Resultado do Tratamento , Segurança do Paciente , Nutrição Parenteral/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Protocolos Clínicos
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467664

RESUMO

HFD (high-fat diet) induces obesity and metabolic disorders, which is associated with the alteration in gut microbiota profiles. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the processes are poorly understood. In this study, we used the simple model organism honey bee to explore how different amounts and types of dietary fats affect the host metabolism and the gut microbiota. Excess dietary fat, especially palm oil, elicited higher weight gain, lower survival rates, hyperglycemic, and fat accumulation in honey bees. However, microbiota-free honey bees reared on high-fat diets did not significantly change their phenotypes. Different fatty acid compositions in palm and soybean oil altered the lipid profiles of the honey bee body. Remarkably, dietary fats regulated lipid metabolism and immune-related gene expression at the transcriptional level. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that biological processes, including transcription factors, insulin secretion, and Toll and Imd signaling pathways, were significantly different in the gut of bees on different dietary fats. Moreover, a high-fat diet increased the relative abundance of Gilliamella, while the level of Bartonella was significantly decreased in palm oil groups. This study establishes a novel honey bee model of studying the crosstalk between dietary fat, gut microbiota, and host metabolism.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Abelhas/microbiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/química , Insulina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Fenótipo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Óleo de Soja/química , Trealose/química
4.
Clin Drug Investig ; 41(1): 19-28, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A limited number of trials have evaluated the efficacy of a fixed-dose combination of bempedoic acid and ezetimibe for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this meta-analysis of existing studies was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose bempedoic acid and ezetimibe combination therapy for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing bempedoic acid and ezetimibe, versus placebo or ezetimibe alone, to 30 August 2020. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the efficacy of bempedoic acid and ezetimibe on lipid parameters and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia or established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Mean differences (MDs) or relative risk (RR) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using random-effects models, were used to provide pooled estimates. RESULTS: A total of three phase II and III RCTs, comprising 388 patients, of whom 49.2% were treated with bempedoic acid and ezetimibe, and 197 controls, were identified. The duration of treatment was 12 weeks. Bempedoic acid and ezetimibe significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD - 29.14%, 95% CI - 39.52 to - 18.76; p < .001), total cholesterol (MD - 15.78%, 95% CI - 20.84 to - 10.72; p = 0.01), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD - 18.36%, 95% CI - 24.60 to - 12.12; p = 0.01), and hsCRP levels (MD - 30.48%, 95% CI - 44.69 to - 16.28; p = 0.04). No significant effects on triglycerides (MD - 8.35%, 95% CI - 16.08 to - 0.63; p = 0.72) and improvement in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD 1.63%, 95% CI - 4.03 to 7.28; p = 0.92) were observed with the fixed-dose combination therapy. Regarding safety, bempedoic acid and ezetimibe combination was associated with a non-significant increased risk of drug-related adverse events (RR 1.61, 95% CI 0.86-2.35) and overall adverse events (RR 1.16. 95% CI 0.97-1.35); however, the incidence of discontinuation of therapy (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.35-1.49) was lower. CONCLUSION: This review found bempedoic acid and ezetimibe significantly lowered lipid parameters, attenuated hsCRP levels, and had an acceptable safety profile for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and ASCVD.


Assuntos
Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/administração & dosagem , Ezetimiba/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Combinação de Medicamentos , Ezetimiba/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Triglicerídeos/sangue
5.
Pharm Res ; 37(10): 195, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944793

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Design imiquimod-loaded chitosan nanocapsules for transdermal delivery and evaluate the depth of imiquimod transdermal absorption as well as the kinetics of this absorption using Raman Microscopy, an innovative strategy to evaluate transdermal absorption. This nanovehicle included Compritol 888ATO®, a novel excipient for formulating nanosystems whose administration through the skin has not been studied until now. METHODS: Nanocapsules were made by solvent displacement method and their physicochemical properties was measured by DLS and laser-Doppler. For transdermal experiments, newborn pig skin was used. The Raman spectra were obtained using a laser excitation source at 532 nm and a 20/50X oil immersion objective. RESULTS: The designed nanocapsules, presented nanometric size (180 nm), a polydispersity index <0.2 and a zeta potential +17. The controlled release effect of Compritol was observed, with the finding that half of the drug was released at 24 h in comparison with control (p < 0.05). It was verified through Raman microscopy that imiquimod transdermal penetration is dynamic, the nanocapsules take around 50 min to penetrate the stratum corneum and 24 h after transdermal administration, the drug was in the inner layers of the skin. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the utility of Raman Microscopy to evaluate the drugs transdermal penetration of in the different layers of the skin. Graphical Abstract New imiquimod nanocapsules: evaluation of their skin absorption by Raman Microscopy and effect of the compritol 888ATO® in the imiquimod release profile.


Assuntos
Quitosana/farmacocinética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/farmacocinética , Imiquimode/farmacocinética , Nanocápsulas/administração & dosagem , Pele/metabolismo , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Quitosana/química , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/química , Imiquimode/administração & dosagem , Imiquimode/química , Nanocápsulas/química , Microscopia Óptica não Linear/métodos , Absorção Cutânea , Suínos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237097, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810864

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder that affects a range of tissue systems, however the associated muscle weakness and fatigability can have a profound impact on quality of life. Prior studies using the limb-specific Nf1 knockout mouse (Nf1Prx1-/-) revealed an accumulation of intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) that could be rescued by a diet supplemented with L-carnitine and enriched for medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). In this study we used the Nf1Prx1-/- mouse to model a range of dietary interventions designed to reduce IMCL accumulation, and analyze using other modalities including in situ muscle physiology and lipid mass spectrometry. Histological IMCL accumulation was significantly reduced by a range of treatments including L-carnitine and high MCFAs alone. A low-fat diet did not affect IMCL, but did provide improvements to muscle strength. Supplementation yielded rapid improvements in IMCL within 4 weeks, but were lost once treatment was discontinued. In situ muscle measurements were highly variable in Nf1Prx1-/- mice, attributable to the severe phenotype present in this model, with fusion of the hips and an overall small hind limb muscle size. Lipidome analysis enabled segregation of the normal and modified chow diets, and fatty acid data suggested increased muscle lipolysis with the intervention. Acylcarnitines were also affected, suggestive of a mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorder. These data support the theory that NF1 is a lipid storage disease that can be treated by dietary intervention, and encourages future human trials.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Neurofibromatose 1/dietoterapia , Animais , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Carnitina/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Neurofibromina 1/genética
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD011737, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing saturated fat reduces serum cholesterol, but effects on other intermediate outcomes may be less clear. Additionally, it is unclear whether the energy from saturated fats eliminated from the diet are more helpfully replaced by polyunsaturated fats, monounsaturated fats, carbohydrate or protein. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of reducing saturated fat intake and replacing it with carbohydrate (CHO), polyunsaturated (PUFA), monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and/or protein on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, using all available randomised clinical trials. SEARCH METHODS: We updated our searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid) and Embase (Ovid) on 15 October 2019, and searched Clinicaltrials.gov and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) on 17 October 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: Included trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised; 2) intention to reduce saturated fat intake OR intention to alter dietary fats and achieving a reduction in saturated fat; 3) compared with higher saturated fat intake or usual diet; 4) not multifactorial; 5) in adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease (but not acutely ill, pregnant or breastfeeding); 6) intervention duration at least 24 months; 7) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias. We performed random-effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, subgrouping, sensitivity analyses, funnel plots and GRADE assessment. MAIN RESULTS: We included 15 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (16 comparisons, 56,675 participants), that used a variety of interventions from providing all food to advice on reducing saturated fat. The included long-term trials suggested that reducing dietary saturated fat reduced the risk of combined cardiovascular events by 17% (risk ratio (RR) 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70 to 0.98, 12 trials, 53,758 participants of whom 8% had a cardiovascular event, I² = 67%, GRADE moderate-quality evidence). Meta-regression suggested that greater reductions in saturated fat (reflected in greater reductions in serum cholesterol) resulted in greater reductions in risk of CVD events, explaining most heterogeneity between trials. The number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) was 56 in primary prevention trials, so 56 people need to reduce their saturated fat intake for ~four years for one person to avoid experiencing a CVD event. In secondary prevention trials, the NNTB was 53. Subgrouping did not suggest significant differences between replacement of saturated fat calories with polyunsaturated fat or carbohydrate, and data on replacement with monounsaturated fat and protein was very limited. We found little or no effect of reducing saturated fat on all-cause mortality (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.90 to 1.03; 11 trials, 55,858 participants) or cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.12, 10 trials, 53,421 participants), both with GRADE moderate-quality evidence. There was little or no effect of reducing saturated fats on non-fatal myocardial infarction (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.07) or CHD mortality (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.16, both low-quality evidence), but effects on total (fatal or non-fatal) myocardial infarction, stroke and CHD events (fatal or non-fatal) were all unclear as the evidence was of very low quality. There was little or no effect on cancer mortality, cancer diagnoses, diabetes diagnosis, HDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides or blood pressure, and small reductions in weight, serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and BMI. There was no evidence of harmful effects of reducing saturated fat intakes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this updated review suggest that reducing saturated fat intake for at least two years causes a potentially important reduction in combined cardiovascular events. Replacing the energy from saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat or carbohydrate appear to be useful strategies, while effects of replacement with monounsaturated fat are unclear. The reduction in combined cardiovascular events resulting from reducing saturated fat did not alter by study duration, sex or baseline level of cardiovascular risk, but greater reduction in saturated fat caused greater reductions in cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Colesterol/sangue , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
8.
mBio ; 11(4)2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703911

RESUMO

There is high mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-infected individuals with chronic inflammatory diseases, like obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. A cytokine storm in some patients after infection contributes to this mortality. In addition to lungs, the intestine is targeted during COVID-19 infection. The intestinal membrane serves as a barrier to prevent leakage of microorganisms and their products into the bloodstream; however, dietary fats can affect the gut microbiome and may increase intestinal permeability. In obese or diabetic individuals, there is an increase in the abundance of either Gram-negative bacteria in the gut or their product, endotoxin, in systemic circulation. We speculate that when the COVID-19 infection localizes in the intestine and when the permeability properties of the intestinal membrane are compromised, an inflammatory response is generated when proinflammatory endotoxin, produced by resident Gram-negative bacteria, leaks into the systemic circulation. This review discusses conditions contributing to inflammation that are triggered by microbially derived factors from the gut.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Animais , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Camundongos , Pandemias
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232831, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497096

RESUMO

The burden of enteric pathogens in poultry is growing after the ban of antibiotic use in animal production. Organic acids gained attention as a possible alternative to antibiotics due to their antimicrobial activities, improved nutrient metabolism and performance. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of organic acid blend on broilers cecal microbiota, histomorphometric measurements, and short-chain fatty acid production in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium challenge model. Birds were divided into four treatments, including a negative control, positive control challenged with S. Typhimurium, group supplemented with an organic acid blend, and birds supplemented with organic acid blend and Salmonella challenged. Results illustrate significant differences in feed conversion ratios and production efficiency factor between treatment groups, however, the influence of organic acid supplement was marginal. Organic acid blend significantly increased cecal acetic and butyric acids concentrations when compared to unsupplemented groups and resulted in minor alterations of intestinal bacterial communities.


Assuntos
Acetatos/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Butiratos/metabolismo , Galinhas/microbiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/terapia , Salmonelose Animal/terapia , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/farmacologia , Íleo/metabolismo , Íleo/ultraestrutura , Mananas/administração & dosagem , Microvilosidades/ultraestrutura , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Distribuição Aleatória , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella typhimurium/metabolismo
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2997, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561714

RESUMO

PIEZO2 is the essential transduction channel for touch discrimination, vibration, and proprioception. Mice and humans lacking Piezo2 experience severe mechanosensory and proprioceptive deficits and fail to develop tactile allodynia. Bradykinin, a proalgesic agent released during inflammation, potentiates PIEZO2 activity. Molecules that decrease PIEZO2 function could reduce heightened touch responses during inflammation. Here, we find that the dietary fatty acid margaric acid (MA) decreases PIEZO2 function in a dose-dependent manner. Chimera analyses demonstrate that the PIEZO2 beam is a key region tuning MA-mediated channel inhibition. MA reduces neuronal action potential firing elicited by mechanical stimuli in mice and rat neurons and counteracts PIEZO2 sensitization by bradykinin. Finally, we demonstrate that this saturated fatty acid decreases PIEZO2 currents in touch neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Our findings report on a natural product that inhibits PIEZO2 function and counteracts neuronal mechanical sensitization and reveal a key region for channel inhibition.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Canais Iônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Mecanotransdução Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Propriocepção/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/fisiologia , Canais Iônicos/genética , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Mecanotransdução Celular/genética , Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Propriocepção/genética , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Ratos , Tato/efeitos dos fármacos , Tato/fisiologia
11.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 483-489, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193855

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: el efecto del entrenamiento intervalado de alta intensidad (HIIT) sobre la utilización de grasas durante el ejercicio necesita ser estudiado en mayor profundidad. OBJETIVO: determinar el efecto de un programa de entrenamiento HIIT en sujetos con sobrepeso u obesidad sobre la utilización de grasas, la composición corporal y variables cardiovasculares. El segundo objetivo fue comparar las variables de estudio según el tiempo de duración del programa (es decir, 12,16 y 20 semanas). MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: se estudiaron 30 sujetos (edad, 44,8 ± 11,6 años). Se formaron 3 grupos de forma aleatoria: el G1 realizó 12 semanas (G1, n = 12, 48,08 ± 8,20 años); el G2 realizó 16 semanas (G2, n = 10, 42,10 ± 11,60 años) y el G3 realizó 20 semanas (G3, n = 8, 43,38 ± 15,76 años). Todos los grupos realizaron el mismo protocolo de HIIT 3 veces por semana. RESULTADOS: los tres grupos presentaron una disminución de la grasa corporal de forma significativa (p < 0,05), sin diferencias entre grupos. Las variables cardiovasculares no reportaron diferencias entre grupos (p interacción > 0,05). Sin embargo, los grupos disminuyeron la presión arterial sistólica (p < 0,05). En el análisis pre vs. post, los tres grupos presentaron mejoras en el VO2max, sin diferencias entre grupos (p interacción, > 0,05). Por último, los tres grupos aumentaron la utilización de grasas durante el ejercicio (p < 0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: el programa incrementó la utilización de grasas durante el ejercicio, disminuyó el tanto por ciento de grasa corporal y se mejoraron parámetros cardiovasculares; sin embargo, después de las 12 semanas es recomendable aplicar variaciones al entrenamiento para maximizar los resultados


INTRODUCTION: the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on fat utilization during exercise needs to be studied in depth. OBJECTIVE: to determine the effect of HIIT training program in subjects with overweight or obesity on the use of fat during exercise, body composition and cardiovascular variables. The second objective was to compare the variables according to the duration of the program (i.e., 12, 16 and 20 weeks). MATERIAL AND METHODS: 30 subjects were studied (age 44.8 ± 11.6 years). Three groups were formed at random, the G1 (12 weeks, n = 12, 48.08 ± 8.20 years), G2 (16 weeks, n = 10, 42.10 ± 11.60 years) and G3 (20 weeks, n = 8, 43.38 ± 15.76 years). All groups performed HIIT 3 times per week. RESULTS: the three groups showed a significant decrease in body fat percentage (p < 0.05), without differences between groups. Similarly, cardiovascular variables did not report differences between groups (p-interaction > 0.05) after the intervention; however, the groups reported a significant decrease systolic blood pressure (p < 0, 05). In the pre vs. post analysis by groups, the three groups showed improvements in VO2max without differences between groups (p-interaction > 0.05). Finally, the three groups increased the fats utilization during exercise (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: the program increased fat utilization during exercise, decreased body fat % and improved cardiovascular parameters, however after 12 training weeks it is advisable to apply variations to training to maximize results


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Exercício Físico , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Gorduras na Dieta , Análise de Variância , Antropometria
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD011737, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing saturated fat reduces serum cholesterol, but effects on other intermediate outcomes may be less clear. Additionally, it is unclear whether the energy from saturated fats eliminated from the diet are more helpfully replaced by polyunsaturated fats, monounsaturated fats, carbohydrate or protein. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of reducing saturated fat intake and replacing it with carbohydrate (CHO), polyunsaturated (PUFA), monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and/or protein on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, using all available randomised clinical trials. SEARCH METHODS: We updated our searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid) and Embase (Ovid) on 15 October 2019, and searched Clinicaltrials.gov and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) on 17 October 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: Included trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised; 2) intention to reduce saturated fat intake OR intention to alter dietary fats and achieving a reduction in saturated fat; 3) compared with higher saturated fat intake or usual diet; 4) not multifactorial; 5) in adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease (but not acutely ill, pregnant or breastfeeding); 6) intervention duration at least 24 months; 7) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias. We performed random-effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, subgrouping, sensitivity analyses, funnel plots and GRADE assessment. MAIN RESULTS: We included 15 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (16 comparisons, ~59,000 participants), that used a variety of interventions from providing all food to advice on reducing saturated fat. The included long-term trials suggested that reducing dietary saturated fat reduced the risk of combined cardiovascular events by 21% (risk ratio (RR) 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66 to 0.93, 11 trials, 53,300 participants of whom 8% had a cardiovascular event, I² = 65%, GRADE moderate-quality evidence). Meta-regression suggested that greater reductions in saturated fat (reflected in greater reductions in serum cholesterol) resulted in greater reductions in risk of CVD events, explaining most heterogeneity between trials. The number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) was 56 in primary prevention trials, so 56 people need to reduce their saturated fat intake for ~four years for one person to avoid experiencing a CVD event. In secondary prevention trials, the NNTB was 32. Subgrouping did not suggest significant differences between replacement of saturated fat calories with polyunsaturated fat or carbohydrate, and data on replacement with monounsaturated fat and protein was very limited. We found little or no effect of reducing saturated fat on all-cause mortality (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.90 to 1.03; 11 trials, 55,858 participants) or cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.12, 10 trials, 53,421 participants), both with GRADE moderate-quality evidence. There was little or no effect of reducing saturated fats on non-fatal myocardial infarction (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.07) or CHD mortality (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.16, both low-quality evidence), but effects on total (fatal or non-fatal) myocardial infarction, stroke and CHD events (fatal or non-fatal) were all unclear as the evidence was of very low quality. There was little or no effect on cancer mortality, cancer diagnoses, diabetes diagnosis, HDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides or blood pressure, and small reductions in weight, serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and BMI. There was no evidence of harmful effects of reducing saturated fat intakes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this updated review suggest that reducing saturated fat intake for at least two years causes a potentially important reduction in combined cardiovascular events. Replacing the energy from saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat or carbohydrate appear to be useful strategies, while effects of replacement with monounsaturated fat are unclear. The reduction in combined cardiovascular events resulting from reducing saturated fat did not alter by study duration, sex or baseline level of cardiovascular risk, but greater reduction in saturated fat caused greater reductions in cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Colesterol/sangue , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4633-4642, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147256

RESUMO

Veal calves are at a high risk of disease early in life, which can lead to poor growth. Research is needed to determine interventions that can reduce disease and promote the growth of veal calves. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of fatty acid supplementation and the provision of a dry teat on the incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), navel inflammation, and diarrhea, as well as calf growth. Upon arrival to a commercial veal facility (d 0), 240 Holstein bull calves from 2 cohorts were randomly assigned to 4 treatments using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (n = 60/treatment): (1) milk replacer (MR) without fatty acid supplementation and without access to a dry teat (control), (2) MR with fatty acid supplementation (NeoTec5g, Provimi, Brookville, OH) and without access to a dry teat (FAS), (3) MR without fatty acid supplementation and with access to a dry teat (TT), or (4) MR with fatty acid supplementation and with access to a dry teat (FAS+TT). Calves were housed in individual pens from 0 to 9 wk and then paired by treatment at wk 9. Milk replacer was fed twice daily using a step-up program. Fatty acid supplement was added to milk replacer at a feeding rate of 0.5 g/kg of body weight per head per day for the FAS and FAS+TT groups. Health exams were conducted twice weekly for 6 wk to diagnose BRD, navel inflammation, and diarrhea. Body weight, body condition score (BCS), and structural measurements were recorded at wk 0, 5, and 10. Average daily gain (ADG) was calculated for wk 1 to 5, wk 5 to 10, and wk 1 to 10. Health data were analyzed using logistic regression and are reported as relative risk. Body weight, BCS, and structural measurements were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA, and ADG was analyzed using a generalized linear model. There was no effect of FAS, TT, or their interaction on body weight or BCS. There was no effect of FAS on ADG wk 1 to 5, wk 5 to 10, or wk 1 to 10. There was a tendency for TT to decrease ADG from wk 1 to 5 but not from wk 5 to 10 or wk 1 to 10. There was a tendency for the interaction of FAS and TT to decrease ADG for wk 1 to 5 but not for wk 5 to 10 and wk 1 to 10. There was no effect of FAS, TT, or their interaction on the risk of BRD, diarrhea, or navel inflammation. We saw no effect of our interventions on calf health or growth. More research is needed to determine whether other factors, such as failure of passive transfer, poor ventilation, barren housing, and low milk allowance in the first few weeks after arrival, may have affected the efficacy of our interventions.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/prevenção & controle , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Incidência , Masculino , Leite/química , Substitutos do Leite/administração & dosagem , Carne Vermelha
15.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(3): 23, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181798

RESUMO

Purpose: To assess the association of dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake with the presence of early AMD in a Japanese population. Methods: The population-based Tsuruoka Metabolomics Cohort Study enrolled general population individuals aged 35 to 74 years from among participants in annual health check-up programs that included fundus photographs in Tsuruoka, Japan. A total of 4010 individuals participated in the baseline survey. After excluding nonresponders to a dietary survey and participants with suboptimal fundus image quality, 3988 participants (median age, 62.4 years) were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Fatty acids intake was adjusted for total energy intake by the residuals method. The association between fatty acid intake and presence of early AMD was assessed by logistic regression models. Results: Median daily SFA intake was 11.3 g (interquartile range, 9.6, 13.0 g). After adjustments for potential confounding factors, participants in the highest quartile of SFA intake were less likely to have early AMD, compared with the lowest quartile (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.96). A significant trend for decreased risk of early AMD with increasing SFA intake was noted (P = 0.011). There was no significant association between poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) including n3-PUFA intake and early AMD. Conclusions: We found that increased SFA intake was associated with reduced risk of early AMD in a Japanese population with low SFA intake. Adequate fatty acid intake may be required to maintain retinal homeostasis and prevent AMD.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Degeneração Macular/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Degeneração Macular/sangue , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotografação , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Anim Sci ; 98(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215565

RESUMO

Fatty acids (FA) play a major role in relation to mucosal immune responses, epithelial barrier functions, oxidative stress, and inflammatory reactions. The dietary FA composition and the molecular structures (chain length and number of double bonds) influence digestion, absorption and metabolism, and the bioactivity of the FA. Piglets post-weaning having an immature intestine and not fully formed immune functions are very vulnerable to invading microorganisms. Manipulation of the milk FA composition via sow nutrition, or inclusion of dietary fat sources in the feed for newly weaned pigs, may be used as a strategic tool to enhance pig performance and their gut health and function pre- and post-weaning. Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are absorbed directly into the portal blood and may contribute to immediate energy for the enterocytes. In addition, the MCFA, similarly to the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), possess antibacterial effects and may thereby prevent overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. The essential FA, linoleic (LA) and α-linolenic (ALA) FA, form the building blocks for the long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 and n-6 FA. The conversion of ALA and LA into n-3 and n-6 eicosanoids, respectively, influences the molecular structures of metabolites and inflammatory reactions and other immune responses upon bacterial challenges. Dietary manipulation of the lactating sow influences the transfer of the n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from the sow milk to the piglet and the incorporation of the FA into piglet enteric tissues and cell membranes, which exerts bioactivity of importance for immune responses and the epithelial barrier function. Especially, the n-3 PUFA present in fish oil seem to influence the gut health and function of pigs, and this is of importance during the transition periods such as post-weaning in which piglets are prone to inflammation. The proportion of unsaturated FA in the cell membranes influences the susceptibility to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress accompanies infectious diseases, and the development of lipid peroxides and other reactive oxygen products may be harmful to the epithelial barrier function. Fatty acid peroxides from the feed may also be absorbed with other lipid-solubles and thereby harm the intestinal function. Hence, antioxidative protection is important for the enteric cells. In conclusion, manipulation of the dietary FA composition can influence the gut health and function in pigs and may support a normal immune system and modulate resistance to infectious diseases during especially stressful phases of a pig's life such as post-weaning.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Suínos/fisiologia , Desmame , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem
17.
Br J Nutr ; 124(4): 386-395, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008585

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of post-ruminally infused fat supplements, varying in fatty acid (FA) chain length, on animal performance, metabolism and milk FA. Eleven multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated incomplete 3 × 3 Latin square design with 7-d periods, separated by 7-d washouts. Treatments were administered as abomasal infusions of enrichments providing 280 g/d of FA: (1) palmitic acid (98·4 % 16 : 0; PA), (2) caprylic and capric acids (56·2 % 8 : 0, 43·8 % 10 : 0; medium-chain TAG (MCT)) and (3) stearic acid (99·0 % 18 : 0; SA). Relative to PA, SA decreased the efficiency of fat-corrected milk production, which was associated with a tendency for higher DM intake and lower FA absorption with SA, whereas MCT was not different from PA for these variables. Milk fat concentration and yield were increased by PA relative to SA, but only fat yield tended to be greater relative to MCT. Relative to PA, MCT increased milk fat concentration of FA < 16 C, whereas SA increased FA > 16 C. Expression of mammary stearoyl-coA desaturase 1 was lower with SA than with PA. Relative to PA, liver expression of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-1 and pyruvate kinase was increased with MCT, whereas expression of these genes tended to be increased by SA. The mechanism of increased fat secretion with PA does not seem to be related to a modulation of the expression of lipogenesis-related genes, but rather to increased substrate availability as reflected by milk FA profile.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/química , Abomaso/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo
18.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 228-232, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074716

RESUMO

The energy adjustment models in nutritional epidemiological studies could substantially reduce the confounding effect of total energy intake from the intake of dietary components, and it could explore the real relationship between the intake of dietary component and research outcomes. Four energy adjustment models were introduced in this article, including the standard multivariate model, multivariate nutrient residual model, energy partition model, and multivariate nutrient density model. The four energy adjustment models were applied to analyze the association between the intake of saturated fatty acids and the risk of all-cause mortality based on the data of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The consistent results of different energy adjustment models could indicate that the four models could better control the confounding effect of total energy intake.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mortalidade/tendências , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 74(4): 271-295, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108496

RESUMO

Short and medium-chain fatty acids (SCFA and MCFA, respectively) are commonly used as feed additives in piglets to promote health and prevent post-weaning diarrhoea. Considering that the mechanism and site of action of these fatty acids can differ, a combined supplementation could result in a synergistic action. Considering this, it was aimed to assess the potential of two new in-feed additives based on butyrate or heptanoate, protected with sodium salts of MCFA from coconut distillates, against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F4+ using an experimental disease model. Two independent trials were performed in 48 early-weaned piglets fed a control diet (CTR) or a diet supplemented with MCFA-protected sodium butyrate (BUT+; Trial 1) or sodium heptanoate (HPT+; Trial 2). After 1 week of adaptation, piglets were challenged with a single oral inoculum of ETEC F4+ (minimum 1.4 · 109 cfu). One animal per pen was euthanised on days 4 and 8 post-inoculation (PI) and the following variables assessed: growth performance, clinical signs, gut fermentation, intestinal morphology, inflammatory mediators, pathogen excretion and colon microbiota. None of the additives recovered growth performance or reduced diarrhoea when compared to the respective negative controls. However, both elicited different responses against ETEC F4+. The BUT+ additive did not lead to reduce E. coli F4 colonisation but enterobacterial counts and goblet cell numbers in the ileum were increased on day 8 PI and this followed higher serum TNF-α concentrations on day 4 PI. The Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio was nevertheless increased. Findings in the HPT+ treatment trial included fewer animals featuring E. coli F4 in the colon and reduced Enterobacteriaceae (determined by 16S RNA sequencing) on day 4 PI. In addition, while goblet cell numbers were lower on day 8 PI, total SCFA levels were reduced in the colon. Results indicate the efficacy of MCFA-protected heptanoate against ETEC F4+ and emphasise the potential trophic effect of MCFA-protected butyrate on the intestinal epithelium likely reinforcing the gut barrier.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Heptanoatos/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Cocos/química , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Heptanoatos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
20.
J Nutr ; 150(4): 818-825, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Walnuts have established lipid-/lipoprotein-lowering properties; however, their effect on lipoprotein subclasses has not been investigated. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which walnuts improve lipid/lipoprotein concentrations are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine, as exploratory outcomes of this trial, the effect of replacing SFAs with unsaturated fats from walnuts or vegetable oils on lipoprotein subclasses, cholesterol efflux, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). METHODS: A randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding study was conducted in individuals at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (n = 34; 62% men; mean ± SD age 44 ± 10 y; BMI: 30.1 ± 4.9 kg/m2). After a 2-wk run-in diet (12% SFAs, 7% PUFAs, 12% MUFAs), subjects consumed the following diets, in randomized order, for 6 wk: 1) walnut diet (WD) [57-99 g/d walnuts, 7% SFAs, 16% PUFAs [2.7% α-linolenic acid (ALA)], 9% MUFAs]; 2) walnut fatty acid-matched diet [7% SFAs, 16% PUFAs (2.6% ALA), 9% MUFAs]; and 3) oleic acid replaces ALA diet (ORAD) [7% SFAs, 14% PUFAs (0.4% ALA); 12% MUFAs] (all percentages listed are of total kilocalories ). Serum collected after the run-in (baseline) and each diet period was analyzed for lipoprotein classes and subclasses (vertical auto profile), cholesterol efflux, and PCSK9. Linear mixed models were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Compared with the ORAD, total cholesterol (mean ± SEM -8.9± 2.3 mg/dL; -5.1%; P < 0.001), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.4 ± 2.0 mg/dL; -5.4%; P = 0.001), and LDL cholesterol (-6.9 ± 1.9 mg/dL; -6.5%; P = 0.001) were lower after the WD; no other pairwise differences existed. There were no between-diet differences for HDL-cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol subclasses. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], cholesterol efflux, and PCSK9 were unchanged after the diets. CONCLUSIONS: In individuals at risk of CVD, replacement of SFAs with unsaturated fats from walnuts or vegetable oils improved lipid/lipoprotein classes, including LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol, without an increase in Lp(a). These improvements were not explained by changes in cholesterol efflux capacity or PCSK9. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01235832.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Juglans/química , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Óleos Vegetais/química , Adulto , Idoso , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta , Gorduras Insaturadas/administração & dosagem , Gorduras Insaturadas/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo
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