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1.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(8): e1900318, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364803

RESUMO

Sponges from freshwater environments, unlike marine's, are poorly known producers of natural compounds with medicinal purposes. Amazonian sponges produce massive large specimens and are widely spread, taxonomically diverse and their metabolites could represent a new frontier on unusual natural products to treat diseases such as Alzheimer's and Malaria. Species of Metania and Drulia (Metaniidae) genera are major contributors to the fauna of Amazonian freshwater sponges. Methanolic extracts from several species from these genera had their inhibitory activities evaluated in vitro, for parasite Plasmodium falciparum and acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes (AChE and BChE). All extracts were able to inhibit AChE, although no activity was observed towards BChE. Drulia uruguayensis extract was the most potent, inhibiting AChE with IC50 =1.04 mg/mL. For antiplasmodial activity, all species showed inhibition to P. falciparum, but Metania reticulata being the most efficient with IC50 =2.7 µg/mL. Mass spectrometry analyses evidenced the presence of fatty acids and sterols in active extracts.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Poríferos/química , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Butirilcolinesterase/química , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Poríferos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Esteróis/química
2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(7): 108, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267227

RESUMO

A total of 191 yeasts were isolated from 197 samples collected from eight estuarine mangrove forests along four different coastlines of Thailand (Andaman Sea and the East, North and West coasts of the Gulf of Thailand). Of these, 178 isolates were identified as 32 species in 16 genera of Ascomycota, 12 species in nine genera of Basidiomycota, and 13 isolates as potential new species, respectively. Mangroves located along the Andaman Sea coastline had a higher yeast diversity at the species and genera levels than those along the Gulf of Thailand. Kluyveromyces siamensis was the most frequently isolated species, whilst Candida tropicalis was the only species isolated at all eight sites. Screening isolated yeast strains belonging to genera previously reported as oleaginous yeast plus the 13 potential new species, revealed two oleaginous strains, Rhodotorula sphaerocarpa 11-14.4 and Saitozyma podzolica 11-11.3.1. Both of these strains were isolated from the same mangrove forest on the Andaman Sea coastline. They could accumulate lipid when suspended in glucose solution without any supplementation, while the fatty acid composition and oil profile of Rh. sphaerocarpa 11-14.4 and Sait. podzolica 11-11.3.1 were similar to vegetable oil and cocoa butter, respectively.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Áreas Alagadas , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/química , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Basidiomycota/química , Basidiomycota/classificação , Basidiomycota/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Biocombustíveis , DNA Fúngico/análise , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Gorduras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Glucose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/análise , Tipagem Molecular , Óleos Vegetais , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Análise de Sequência , Tailândia , Leveduras/química , Leveduras/genética
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 233, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing costs of feed has subsequently increased the costs of production of livestock, thereby decreasing the profit margin of this sector. The utilization of agro-industrial by-products has to some extent substitute some of the corn grains and soyabean meal, commonly used in animal feeds. In Malaysia, palm kernel cake (PKC) is a by-product of the oil palm industry and is frequently used to supply both crude protein (14-16% CP) and energy (11 MJ/kg) in ruminants. The energy and protein content are adequate for maintenance in the majority of ruminants. However, highly available energy supplementation is known to improve growth performance and protein deposition. This study was carried out to determine the effect on the quality of meat and fatty acid composition of the semitendinosus (ST), supraspinatus (SS), and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles of Dorper lambs by including corn as an energy source in a basal diet of PKC urea-treated rice straw. RESULTS: The results show that the LL muscle-drip loss was greater in animals supplemented with 5% corn compared to the other groups. Higher pH values of SS and LL muscles were observed in animals supplemented with 5 and 10% corn. Furthermore, the L* value of ST muscle was increased in lambs fed on 5% corn while, reduced in those fed on 0% corn, but the a* and b* values were not significantly different in the treatment groups. The fatty acid composition of the SS muscles showed that lambs fed on 10% corn had higher levels of sum PUFA n-3 compared to those fed on 0% corn. The concentration of C18:1trans11 and CLA c12 t10 in ST muscle from the lambs fed on supplemented diets were higher than those of the controls. CONCLUSION: This study has concluded the supplementation of corn as a source of energy into a PKC urea-treated rice straw-based diet increased the PUFA concentrations of muscles as compared to control groups.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Carne/normas , Músculo Esquelético/química , Oryza/química , Zea mays/metabolismo , Ração Animal/normas , Animais , Malásia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ovinos , Ureia/química
4.
Animal ; 13(S1): s75-s81, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280745

RESUMO

The increasing lactational performance of dairy cows over the last few decades is closely related to higher nutritional requirements. The decrease in dry matter intake during the peripartal period results in a considerable mobilisation of body tissues (mainly fat reserves and muscle mass) to compensate for the prevailing lack of energy and nutrients. Despite the activation of adaptive mechanisms to mobilise nutrients from body tissues for maintenance and milk production, the increased metabolic load is still a risk factor for animal health. The prevalence of production diseases, particularly subclinical ketosis is high in the early lactation period. Increased ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations further depress gluconeogenesis, feed intake and the immune system. Despite a variety of adaptation responses to nutrient and energy deficit that exists among dairy cows, an early and non-invasive detection of developing metabolic disorders in milk samples would be useful. The frequent and regular milking process of dairy cows creates the ability to obtain samples at any stage of lactation. Routine identification of biomarkers accurately characterising the physiological status of an animal is crucial for decisive strategies. The present overview recapitulates established markers measured in milk that are associated with metabolic health of dairy cows. Specifically, measurements of milk fat, protein, lactose and urea concentrations are evaluated. Changes in the ratio of milk fat to protein may indicate an increased risk for rumen acidosis and ketosis. The costly determination of individual fatty acids in milk creates barriers for grouping of fatty acids into saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Novel approaches include the potential of mid-IR (MIR) based predictions of BHB and acetone in milk, although the latter are not directly measured, but only estimated via indirect associations of concomitantly altered milk composition during (sub)clinical ketosis. Although MIR-based ketone body concentrations in milk are not suitable to monitor the metabolic status of the individual cow, they provide an estimate of the overall herd or specific groups of animals earlier in a particular stage of lactation. Management decisions can be made earlier and animal health status improved by adjusting diet composition.


Assuntos
Acidose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Cetose/veterinária , Lactação/fisiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/veterinária , Leite/química , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/análise , Acidose/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Cetose/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Necessidades Nutricionais , Rúmen/fisiopatologia
5.
Food Chem ; 298: 125088, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260987

RESUMO

Infant formula certified reference material (CRM, KRISS CRM 108-02-003) were developed for the analysis of organic nutrients. The CRM is a milk-based infant formula powder, packaged at 14 g per unit. Ten thousand units were prepared and stored at -70 °C. For the certification of each nutrient, ten units were analyzed for simultaneous value-assignment and homogeneity test. Analytical methods used were isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) based on liquid chromatography mass spectrometer (LC/MS) or gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS) as higher-order reference methods.13 vitamins, 3 fatty acids, and total cholesterol were certified. The between-unit relative standard deviation of measurement results for each nutrient ranged 0.2% to 2.5%, showing very good homogeneity. The expanded relative uncertainties of the certified values ranged from 1% to 8%, indicating that they have higher-order metrological quality. The values of proximates (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, water, and ash) were assigned through inter-laboratory comparisons.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Fórmulas Infantis/análise , Fórmulas Infantis/normas , Certificação , Colesterol/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/normas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Nutrientes/análise , Padrões de Referência , Vitaminas/análise
6.
Food Chem ; 298: 124966, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260996

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of fatty acid profile and fatty acid δ13C fingerprinting to identify the origins of scallops. Fatty acid contents, as well as fatty acid δ13C values of 300 samples of three scallop species (Patinopecten yessoensis, Chlamys farreri, and Argopecten irradians) from seven sites in China were determined. Principal component analysis was performed on datasets to evaluate their performance of classification. Moreover, 75 samples were tested by discrimination analysis to estimate the accuracy of origin prediction. The results show that the accuracy rate of fatty acid profile and fatty acid δ13C fingerprinting for origin prediction was 92% and 85.3%, respectively. The combination of these two methods improved the identification, with an accuracy rate of 100.0%. These results indicate that the combination of fatty acid profile and fatty acid δ13C fingerprinting can be a precise and promising tool for origin traceability of scallops.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Pectinidae/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , China , Análise Discriminante , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7986-7994, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282158

RESUMO

Compositional analyses were performed on samples of rice grain, straw, and derived bran obtained from golden rice event GR2E and near-isogenic control PSBRc82 rice grown at four locations in the Philippines during 2015 and 2016. Grain samples were analyzed for key nutritional components, including proximates, fiber, polysaccharides, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and antinutrients. Samples of straw and bran were analyzed for proximates and minerals. The only biologically meaningful difference between GR2E and control rice was in levels of ß-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids in the grain. Except for ß-carotene and related carotenoids, the compositional parameters of GR2E rice were within the range of natural variability of those components in conventional rice varieties with a history of safe consumption. Mean provitamin A concentrations in milled rice of GR2E can contribute up to 89-113% and 57-99% of the estimated average requirement for vitamin A for preschool children in Bangladesh and the Philippines, respectively.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Sementes/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bangladesh , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Engenharia Genética , Valor Nutritivo , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Filipinas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Provitaminas/análise , Provitaminas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Vitamina A/análise , Vitamina A/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/análise , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121783, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326682

RESUMO

Microalgae are feedstocks for multiple product development based on algal biorefinery concept. The effects of light quality (white, red and blue light emitting diodes) and macro-element starvations on Chlorella sp. AE10 were investigated under 20% CO2 and 850 µmol m-2 d-1. Nitrogen and phosphorus starvations had negative effects on its growth rate. The biomass productivities were decreased from day 1 and the highest one was 1.90 g L-1 d-1 under white light conditions. Phosphorus starvation promoted carbohydrate accumulation under three LED light sources conditions and the highest carbohydrate content was 75.9% using red light. Blue light increased lutein content to 9.58 mg g-1. The content of saturated fatty acids was significantly increased from 37.51% under blue light and full culture medium conditions to 77.44% under blue light and nitrogen starvation conditions. Chlorella sp. AE10 was a good candidate for carbohydrate and lutein productions.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/biossíntese , Chlorella/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Luteína/biossíntese , Biomassa , Chlorella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Luz , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo
9.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(6): 93, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187335

RESUMO

Siderophores are extra-cellular inducible compounds produced by aerobic microorganisms and plants to overcome iron insolubility via its chelation and then uptake inside the cell. This work aims to study the characteristics of siderophore that is produced by a rhizosphere-inhabiting fungus. This fungus has been morphologically and molecularly identified as Aspergillus niger with the ability to produce 87% siderophore units. The obtained siderophore in PDB medium gave a positive result with tetrazolium test and a characteristic spectrum with a maximum absorbance at 450 nm in FeCl3 test that did not shift in response to different pH degrees (5-9). This indicates that the obtained siderophore is a trihydroxymate in nature. After purification, the FTIR and NMR analyses showed that the obtained siderophore is considered to be ferrichrome. The purified siderophore has been further evaluated as a tool to extract uranium, thorium and rare earth elements (REEs) from Egyptian phosphorites obtained from Abu Tartur Mine area. The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analysis showed that the highest removal efficiency percentage was for uranium (69.5%), followed by samarium (66.7%), thorium (55%), lanthanum (51%), and cerium (50.1%). This result confirmed the ability of hydroxymate siderophores to chelate the aforementioned precious elements, a result that paves the way for bioleaching to replace abiotic techniques in order to save the cost of such elements in an environmentally friendly way.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Sideróforos/isolamento & purificação , Sideróforos/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Aspergillus niger/classificação , Aspergillus niger/genética , Egito , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ferricromo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ferro , Minerais , Fosfatos , Rizosfera
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(24): e15855, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192916

RESUMO

To investigate the relationship between dietary fatty acid (FA) intake and the lactate FA levels in Chinese women.A total of 2007 samples from 5 regions of China were collected, including 431 in Shandong, 402 in Changchun, 419 in Chongqing, 398 in Guangzhou, and 357 women in Hohhot. All participants were mothers of healthy full-term newborns, collecting the foremilk from day 1 to day 7 and the mature breast milk on day 42 after delivery. The FA composition of the breast milk was analyzed by high resolution capillary gas chromatography.The total FA content of mature breast milk in Shandong was the highest (34.95 g/L), and that was the lowest in Guangzhou (29.72 g/L). The saturated FA content of breast milk was increased from 1 to 7 days after delivery and decreased in mature breast milk. The saturated FA content of breast milk in Hohhot was the highest (37.43%), but that was the lowest in Changchun (32.80%). Maternal dietary FA composition was positively correlated with saturated FAs (SFA), polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (P < .001), and negatively with monounsaturated FAs (MUFA) (P > .05) in breast milk.The FA content of breast milk is different in different regions of China, which was affected by maternal dietary FA composition. Lactating women in China should consume more foods rich in polyunsaturated FAs to ensure the growth of infant.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite Humano/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , China , Cromatografia Gasosa , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Idade Materna , Leite Humano/química , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Naturwissenschaften ; 106(7-8): 33, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201542

RESUMO

In animals, fatty acids (FA) are essential as structural components in membranes and for energy storage in adipocytes. Here, we studied the relative proportions of FA in a mammal with extreme changes in metabolic rates. Common noctule bats (Nyctalus noctula) switch from energetically demanding long-distance migration at high metabolic rates to regular torpor with extremely low metabolic rates. We found that composition of FA categories differed between adipose tissue types (white adipose tissue (WAT) vs brown adipose tissue (BAT)) and muscle tissue types (skeletal vs heart), but not between sexes. We found oleic acid to be the most abundant FA in all studied tissues. Concentrations of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were not always higher in muscular tissue compared with adipocyte tissue, even though high concentrations of PUFA are considered beneficial for low body temperatures in torpor. In all tissues, we observed a high content in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), possibly to compensate for a low PUFA content in the diet. Ratios of ω6/ω3 were lower in the heart than in skeletal muscles of common noctules. Three FA (palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acid) accounted for about 70% of the FA in adipose tissue, which is similar to proportions observed in migrating birds, yet migrating birds generally have a higher PUFA content in muscle and adipose tissues than bats. Bats seem to contrast with other mammals in having a high MUFA content in all tissues. We conclude that FA profiles of bats differ largely from those of most cursorial mammals and instead are-with the exception of MUFA-similar to those of migrating birds.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/química , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Músculos/química , Migração Animal , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Europa (Continente) , Ácidos Graxos/análise
12.
Food Chem ; 293: 561-570, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151648

RESUMO

Fish is a healthy food, rich in quality animal proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids especially the (ω)-3 eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and micronutrients. In addition, fish are more available and affordable than other sources of animal proteins in tropical countries. Aquaculture, which is one of the fastest growing food production sectors, could play a big role in eradicating hunger, malnutrition and nutrient-deprivation globally. However, nutritional information on fish is necessary for utilization of fish in achieving nutritional security and will be helpful in prioritizing species for aquaculture. In this context, we have studied the detailed nutritional composition of selected fishes from India and developed a database (http://www.cifri.res.in/nutrifishin/index.php) with the food data generated. This review explore the implications of such nutritional information in consumer guidance, dietary counselling, food-policy planning and prioritization of species for aquaculture to fight hunger, malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency; ultimately contributing to food and nutritional security.


Assuntos
Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Peixes , Análise de Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Vitaminas/análise
13.
Food Chem ; 295: 82-93, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174813

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence and formation of peroxygenase catalysed non-volatile oxidised fatty acids (NVOFAs), especially epoxy and hydroxy fatty acids, which potentially provide off-flavours in oat. A method based on extraction of NVOFAs using accelerated solvent extraction and analysis by UHPLC-ELSD/MS was developed. Hydroxy and epoxy fatty acids from oleic and linoleic acids were present as major NVOFAs in non-heat treated (NHT) oat products, and the contents increased markedly during storage. In a controlled storage experiment, NVOFA contents in NHT oat flours increased to 1700-2000 µg/g, whereas in heat-treated samples, only to 200-400 µg/g. Epoxy fatty acids seemed to be the first products that occurred, followed by hydroxy fatty acids and minor NVOFAs. The formation of NVOFAs was related to lipase catalysed lipid hydrolysis and the formation of volatile lipid oxidation products. Inactivation of lipid degrading enzymes is crucial to producing stable oat products.


Assuntos
Avena/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Biocatálise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Farinha/análise , Ácidos Linoleicos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Espectrometria de Massas , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Extração em Fase Sólida
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5890-5898, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eggs are important foods in the daily diet of humans and have great biological activity and a high digestibility. Egg yolk is a good source of biologically active substances such as fatty acids, phospholipids, sterols and tocopherols. The eggs of seven chicken genotypes were analyzed for their chemical composition, and a detailed study of the lipids in egg yolk was conducted. RESULTS: Energy composition of the egg yolk and egg albumen was 29.06-30.51 MJ kg-1 and 19.77-20.93 MJ kg-1 respectively. Regarding their chemical composition: water ranged from 471.7 to 515.4 g kg-1 and 878.3-885.9 g kg-1 ; fat content in dry matter ranged from 607 to 647 g kg-1 and 6.7-11.6 g kg-1 ; protein varied from 302 to 331.7 g kg-1 and 823.6-892.5 g kg-1 ; ash ranged from 33.7 to 37.7 g kg-1 and 63.8-74.0 g kg-1 ; and nitrogen-free extracts ranged from 12.7 to 36.5 g kg-1 and 35.0-96.2 g kg-1 . The sterols and phospholipids in the yolk lipids were 16-26 g kg-1 and 59-127 g kg-1 . The main fatty acids in the lipids were oleic (39.1-47.3%) and palmitic (26.0-35.5%) acids. Cholesterol in the yolk lipids ranged from 15.9 to 25.9 g kg-1 . Phosphatidylcholine (389-573 g kg-1 ), phosphatidylethanolamine (219-355 g kg-1 ) and phosphatidylinositol (112-284 g kg-1 ) were the main phospholipids. The content of saturated fatty acids in the phospholipids was significantly higher than that in triacylglycerols. CONCLUSION: Small variations in the chemical composition of eggs from seven different genotypes were observed. Significant differences in the fatty acid compositions of the main classes of phospholipids and the triacylglycerol fraction were established. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Ovos/análise , Animais , Colesterol/análise , Gema de Ovo/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Genótipo , Nutrientes/análise , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise
15.
Food Chem ; 295: 26-35, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174758

RESUMO

Bell peppers are susceptible to chilling injury (CI). To uncover the metabolism of membrane lipid fatty acids (FAs) accompanying CI, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based approach was used to quantitatively profile major membrane lipid FAs in bell peppers. RT-qPCR was performed to investigate the expression of the key genes that regulate the synthesis of unsaturated FAs. Additionally, we used microstructural, organoleptic, and physicochemical investigations to monitor the primary physiological metabolism of bell peppers. The study revealed that CI symptoms mostly resulted from the destabilization of the cytomembrane, which was induced by decreasing FA desaturation. Moreover, three times lower level of the double bond index in chilled fruits, than the control, further proved that membrane FA unsaturation can be considered a key factor during CI. In conclusion, this study revealed that the metabolism of membrane lipid FAs is involved in responses to CI.


Assuntos
Capsicum/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/genética , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
16.
Food Chem ; 295: 377-386, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174772

RESUMO

The work studies the effect of season, montanera length, and sampling location on the Iberian pig fat, using compositional data (CoDa) analysis and standard statistics. CoDa variation array and logratios involving C18:3: (C18:3/C17:1), (C18:3/C20:0), and (C18:3/18:0) as well as the ilr balances (coordinates), based on C18:3, C17:1, and C20:0, showed the highest variances. Discriminant Analysis (DA) led to similar (conventional/coordinates) correct assignations regarding seasons (69/70%), montanera length (71/70%) and sampling location (68/67%). Re-analyzing the subcomposition of only the major fatty acids (FAs), led to slightly poorer results; therefore, the removed FAs might play a role in segregation. Results are in line with those from other authors and could indicate a partial capacity of pigs to control their FA profiles. Overall, CoDa analysis provided useful information on data variability, the effects of factors and, after conversion into coordinates, allowed applying standard statistics while being respectful with the compositional sampling space.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Gordura Subcutânea/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Análise Discriminante , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Estações do Ano , Suínos
17.
Food Chem ; 295: 172-179, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174747

RESUMO

The effects of 10 and 20 days of fermentation followed by freeze-drying on the vitamin C and fatty acids contents, chemical conversions and overall chemical composition of Jerusalem artichoke were studied. Fermentation between the 10th and 20th days increased content of all saturated fatty acids and two of the four unsaturated fatty acids. The only fatty acid content that decreased was that of C18:1 cis 9 acid, which was suggested to be converted to other fatty acids. The experimental data, which were supported by energetical feasibility, suggested the reaction pathways of the mutual conversions of fatty acids and confirmed the decreased vitamin C content during fermentation. Discriminant modelling of the spectral data successfully distinguished the fresh, 10 days and 20 days fermented samples. The correlation of the spectral and reference data allowed to construct reference models for predicting the content of vitamin C and C18:1 cis 9 fatty acid.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Helianthus/química , Silagem , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fermentação , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Liofilização , Helianthus/metabolismo , Modelos Estatísticos , Silagem/análise , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Food Chem ; 295: 198-205, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174750

RESUMO

Bovine milk lipids can be replaced with cheaper indigenous vegetable oils to produce milk alternatives with healthier saturated/unsaturated fat balance for those in areas where milk supply is poor or even absent. A wide range of vegetable oils can be used, but their impacts when blended with skimmed milk powder to formulate filled milk powder (FMP) are still unknown. We investigate the baseline variances in 12 types of FMP produced onsite with 3 proportions (10%, 20% and 30%) of 4 different vegetable oils (i.e., coconut, palm, soya-bean and sunflower) using fatty acid- and near infrared spectra profiles. Chemometric analyses revealed 8 significant overlapping clusters of FMP types but 100% classification efficiency was achieved. Sunflower oil, and particularly soya-bean FMP types had statistically the lowest indices of atherogenicity and thrombogenicity. This appears to be the first chemometrics study of FMP; the spectral analytical models used may be effective for product monitoring.


Assuntos
Leite/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Pós/química , Animais , Óleo de Coco/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Lipídeos/química , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Controle de Qualidade , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
19.
Food Chem ; 295: 247-253, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174755

RESUMO

The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) profiles of fruit peel and pulp of 4 Spanish cultivars of Ziziphus jujuba were studied. The FAMEs profile of the cultivar 'GAL' was studied under two farming practices, (i) organic, 'GAL-E' and conventional, 'GAL-T'. Eleven FAMEs were identified, the predominant ones were cis-palmitoleic acid (pulp) and oleic and palmitic acid (peel). When comparing the FAMEs profiles between organic and conventional 'GAL' peel jujube fruits, the 'GAL-E' (organic) presented a higher unsaturated/saturated ratio than the 'GAL-T' cultivar (conventional), while this relationship in the pulp was the opposite. The 'DAT' cultivar was interesting for its high palmitoleic acid content while the 'GAL-E' and 'GAL-T' cultivars had high contents of oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids. The LDA (linear discriminant analysis) model showed that the FAMEs contents could be used to discriminate the studied cultivars, and the agricultural practice, because all groups were clearly separated with no overlaps.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Frutas/química , Ziziphus/química , Análise Discriminante , Ácidos Graxos/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura Orgânica , Espanha
20.
Food Chem ; 297: 124951, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253340

RESUMO

The shelf lives of hot-air-dried (HD) and freeze-dried (FD) Penaeus vannamei were predicted by accelerated storage testing combined with Arrhenius Equation. Meanwhile, the changes in lipid profiles and colour of the dried shrimps during storage were investigated. The predicted shelf life of FD shrimp was more than 1.47-fold than that of HD shrimp. Compared to HD shrimp, FD shrimp had lower levels of oxidation parameters such as peroxide value (POV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances value (TBARS) during storage. In addition, FD shrimp had less reduction in lipid components such as triacylglycerol (TAG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and all fatty acids including saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) after storage. Moreover, FD shrimp showed a less significant decrease in redness value and increase in yellowness value. Therefore, FD shrimps have better quality stability during storage and then possess longer shelf life than HD shrimp.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Lipídeos/química , Penaeidae/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Cor , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Radicais Livres/análise , Radicais Livres/química , Liofilização , Lipídeos/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Oxirredução , Fosfatidilcolinas/análise , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/química , Xantofilas/análise
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