Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.111
Filtrar
1.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7150-7167, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155242

RESUMO

We investigated mammary gland metabolism in lactating dairy cattle in response to energy from glucogenic (glucose; GG) or lipogenic (palm olein; LG) substrates at low (LMP) and high (HMP) metabolizable protein levels. According to a 6 × 6 Latin square design, 6 rumen-fistulated second-lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (97 ± 13 d in milk) were abomasally infused with saline (LMP-C); isoenergetic infusions (digestible energy basis) of 1,319 g/d glucose (LMP-GG), 676 g/d palm olein (LMP-LG), or 844 g/d essential AA (EAA; HMP-C); or isoenergetic infusions of 1,319 g/d glucose + 844 g/d EAA (HMP-GG) or 676 g/d palm olein + 844 g/d EAA (HMP-LG). Each experimental period consisted of 5 d of continuous infusion followed by 2 d of rest. A total mixed ration (42% corn silage, 31% grass silage, and 27% concentrate on a dry matter basis) formulated to meet 100 and 83% of net energy and metabolizable protein requirements, respectively, was fed at 90% of ad libitum intake by individual cow. Arterial and venous blood samples were collected on d 5 of each period. Infusing GG or LG at the HMP level did not affect milk yield or composition differently than at the LMP level. Neither GG nor LG infusion stimulated milk protein or lactose yield, but fat yield tended to decrease with GG and tended to increase with LG. Infusion of GG increased arterial plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin and decreased concentrations of ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), nonesterified fatty acids, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), total AA, EAA, and group 2 AA. Infusion of LG increased arterial triacylglycerides (TAG) and LCFA but did not affect EAA concentrations. Compared with the LMP level, the HMP level increased arterial concentrations of BHB, urea, and all EAA groups and decreased the concentration of total non-EAA. Mammary plasma flow increased with GG and was not affected by LG or protein level. Uptake and clearance of total EAA and group 2 AA were affected or tended to be affected by GG × AA interactions, with their uptakes being lower and their clearances higher with GG, but only at the LMP level. Infusion of LG did not affect uptake or clearance of any AA group. The HMP level increased uptake and decreased clearance of all EAA groups and decreased non-EAA uptake. Infusion of GG tended to increase mammary glucose uptake, and tended to decrease BHB uptake only at the LMP level. Infusion of LG increased mammary uptake of TAG and LCFA and increased or tended to increase clearance of TAG and LCFA. We suspect GG increased mammary plasma flow to maintain intramammary energy and AA balance and stimulated lipogenesis in adipose, accounting for depressed arterial BHB and group 2 AA concentrations. Mammary glucose uptake did not cover estimated requirements for lactose and fat synthesis at the HMP level, except during HMP-GG infusion. Results of this study illustrate flexibility in mammary metabolite utilization when absorptive supply of glucogenic, lipogenic, and aminogenic substrate is increased.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Glucose/farmacologia , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/metabolismo , Abomaso/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Essenciais/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Lactação , Lactose/metabolismo , Lipogênese , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Leite/química , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem/análise
2.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 485(1): 141-144, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201636

RESUMO

It was established that in neurodegeneration models in the human neuron-like cell line SH-SY5Y, amide derivatives of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids were inactive in experiments with MPP+ and CoCl2 but protected from H2O2. The protective activity of neurolipins decreased in the series DHA-DA > AA-SER ≥ AA-GLY > AA-GABA ≥ AA-EA and was manifested starting from a concentration of 0.5 nM.


Assuntos
Amidas , Ácidos Graxos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Amidas/química , Amidas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/prevenção & controle , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia
3.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111538, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247385

RESUMO

The effects of topically administered snake (Deinagkistrodon acutus) oil and its main fatty acid components on skin photodamage were explored. Epidermal thickness, mice body weight, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase), inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6), skin histology, collagen content, and metalloproteinase-1 indicators were analyzed. The results show that topical application of both snake oil and its main fatty acids recovered ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation induced antioxidant enzymes depletion, prevented metalloproteinase-1. Snake oil and its main fatty acids suppressed dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells and reduced inflammatory cytokines levels. Notably, there was no significant difference in the antioxidant activity but a significant difference in the anti-inflammatory activity between fatty acids and snake oil under the same dose. Finally, snake oil and its main fatty acids inhibited UVB-induced histological damage such as epidermal thickening, collagen fiber and elastic fiber destruction. Our study demonstrated for the first time in KM mice that snake oil exhibited prominent photoprotection activity by protecting the activity of antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting inflammatory factors, as well as reducing the generation of MMP-1. What's more, the main fatty acids in snake oil play an important role in preventing photo-damage especially in protecting antioxidant enzyme activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Serpentes/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Epiderme/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hidroxiprolina/análise , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(13): 5367-5377, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053917

RESUMO

The bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Pc3, was previously isolated from Antarctic seawater and has been found to show antagonistic activity against the fungus, Rhizoctonia solani ACCC 36316, which causes a severe disease known as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in rapeseed plants. Bacillus lipopeptides had been widely used as biocontrol agents for plant diseases. In this study, we isolated 11 lipopeptide compounds from B. amyloliquefaciens Pc3 culture broth via reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to identify these as iturin A (C14, C15, C16, C17), fengycin B (C14, C15, C16, C17), and surfactin (C14, C15, C16). We further found that the addition of exogenous alkanoic acids, including myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, heptadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, and nonadecanoic acid, to the bacterial growth media could promote lipopeptide production and enhance the antifungal activities of crude lipopeptide extracts from B. amyloliquefaciens Pc3. In addition, the transcriptional levels of three lipopeptide synthesis genes, ituD, fenA, and srfA-A, and two fatty acid metabolism-related genes, FabI, which encodes enoyl-ACP reductase, and FadB, which encodes enoyl-CoA hydratase, were found to be upregulated in cells grown with exogenous alkanoic acids. Among the six alkanoic acids tested, those with odd carbon chain lengths had a greater effect on lipopeptide production, antifungal activity, and target gene upregulation than those with even carbon chain lengths. These results provide a practical approach for the efficient production of lipopeptides in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Pc3.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/metabolismo , Ácidos Carboxílicos/farmacologia , Lipopeptídeos/biossíntese , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/genética , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Lipopeptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Mirístico/farmacologia , Peptídeos Cíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Rhizoctonia/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Am J Chin Med ; 47(4): 727-750, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094213

RESUMO

Cancer management is a worldwide challenge. In addition to effective cancer therapies like chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, treatment based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and combined TCM with western medicine has gradually gained attention in Oriental countries. One potential TCM approach using extracted fatty oils, containing fatty acids which are important active ingredients with a variety of pharmacological activities, makes significant contributions to cancer treatment. The strategies of treating cancer with the fatty oils of TCM were classified into "Fuzheng", which usually associates with improving immunity, represented by coix seed oil. The other classification is "Quxie", which relates to inducing apoptosis of cancer cells, and is represented by Brucea javanica oil. Compared with other active substances, the literature about anticancer fatty oils is relatively limited, and most of them focus on the composition and other biological activities without a systematic review. Therefore, based on the theories of "Fuzheng" and "Quxie" in TCM, in this paper, the anticancer effects of fatty oils have been reviewed. The chemical composition, anticancer mechanism, listed drugs, studying dosage form and clinical application of fatty oils have also been discussed. In summary, since there are different types and abundance of fatty oils among botanicals, anticancer effects of fatty oils can be achieved through two TCM theory-based strategies. We hoped that this review paper can reveal the anticancer potential of fatty oils and provide a reference for future related studies.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Ácidos Graxos/uso terapêutico , Glicerol/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Glicerol/química , Glicerol/isolamento & purificação , Glicerol/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Fitoterapia , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
6.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058826

RESUMO

Eugenia winzerlingii (Myrtaceae) is an endemic plant from the Yucatan peninsula. Its organic extracts and fractions from leaves have been tested on two phloem-feeding insects, Bemisia tabaci and Myzus persicae, on two plant parasitic nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica, and phytotoxicity on Lolium perenne and Solanum lycopersicum. Results showed that both the hexane extract and the ethyl acetate extract, as well as the fractions, have strong antifeedant and nematicidal effects. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of methylated active fractions revealed the presence of a mixture of fatty acids. Authentic standards of detected fatty acids and methyl and ethyl derivatives were tested on target organisms. The most active compounds were decanoic, undecanoic, and dodecanoic acids. Methyl and ethyl ester derivatives had lower effects in comparison with free fatty acids. Dose-response experiments showed that undecanoic acid was the most potent compound with EC50 values of 21 and 6 nmol/cm2 for M. persicae and B. tabaci, respectively, and 192 and 64 nmol for M. incognita and M. javanica, respectively. In a phytotoxicity assay, medium-chain fatty acids caused a decrease of 38-52% in root length and 50-60% in leaf length of L. perenne, but no effects were observed on S. lycopersicum. This study highlights the importance of the genus Eugenia as a source of bioactive metabolites for plant pest management.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Eugenia/química , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Animais , Antinematódeos/química , Cromadoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hemípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/química , Lolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Controle de Pragas , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 3071-3088, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063536

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation to ewes during late gestation on finishing lamb liver and adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) profile and gene expression. Lambs born from ewes supplemented with Ca salts of EPA + DHA, or palm FA distillate (PFAD) high in palmitic and oleic acid at 0.39% DM during the last 50 d of gestation were used. Lambs were weaned at 61 d of age and adapted to a high concentrate diet for 1.5 mo. After adaptation, 74 lambs (28 pens) were blocked by sex and BW and used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments using the factors of dam supplementation (DS) and lamb supplementation (LS) of Ca salts of EPA + DHA or PFAD at 1.48% DM. Lambs were slaughtered after 42 d and liver and adipose tissue collected for FA and gene expression analysis. Liver concentrations of EPA and DHA were greater (P < 0.01) with LS of EPA + DHA vs. PFAD during the finishing period. In adipose tissue, a lamb × dam interaction was observed for EPA (P = 0.02) and DHA (P = 0.04); LS of EPA + DHA increased EPA and DHA, but the increase was greatest in lambs born from ewes supplemented with PFAD. No lamb × dam treatment interactions were observed for gene expression in liver tissue (P > 0.10). Hepatic mRNA abundance of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL; P = 0.01) was greater in lambs born from EPA + DHA ewes vs. lambs from PFAD ewes. mRNA expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (P < 0.01), fatty acid synthase (P = 0.01), Δ5-desaturase (P < 0.01), and Δ6-desaturase (P < 0.01) were decreased in liver of EPA + DHA lambs. A significant lamb × dam diet interaction was observed for elongation of very long chain fatty acid 2 in adipose tissue (P = 0.01); lambs supplemented with the same FA as their dams had lower expression. Expression of HSL tended (P = 0.08) to be decreased in adipose of EPA + DHA lambs born from EPA + DHA ewes. The changes in mRNA expression suggest that lipogenesis decreased, and lipolysis increased in lamb liver with EPA + DHA vs. PFAD supplementation during the finishing period. In adipose tissue, changes suggest that lipogenesis decreased in lambs born from EPA + DHA supplemented dams and supplemented with EPA + DHA during the finishing period. In addition, these results suggest an interaction between supplementation of FA to dams during late gestation on lamb response of adipose tissue, but not liver, to FA supplementation during the finishing period.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cálcio/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Feminino , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos/genética , Desmame
8.
Mar Drugs ; 17(5)2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121891

RESUMO

Hizikia fusiformis (Harvey) Okamura is an edible marine alga that has been widely used in Korea, China, and Japan as a rich source of dietary fiber and essential minerals. In our previous study, we observed that the methanol extract of H. fusiformis and its non-polar fractions showed potent protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and α-glucosidase inhibition. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify the active ingredient in the methanol extract of H. fusiformis. We isolated a new glycerol fatty acid (13) and 20 known compounds including 9 fatty acids (1-3, 7-12), mixture of 24R and 24S-saringosterol (4), fucosterol (5), mixture of 24R,28R and 24S,28R-epoxy-24-ethylcholesterol (6), cedrusin (14), 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-[2-hydroxy -4-(3-hydroxypropyl)phenoxy]-1,3-propanediol (15), benzyl alcohol alloside (16), madhusic acid A (17), glycyrrhizin (18), glycyrrhizin-6'-methyl ester (19), apo-9'-fucoxanthinone (20) and tyramine (21) from the non-polar fraction of H. fusiformis. New glycerol fatty acid 13 was identified as 2-(7'- (2″-hydroxy-3″-((5Z,8Z,11Z)-icosatrienoyloxy)propoxy)-7'-oxoheptanoyl)oxymethylpropenoic acid by spectroscopic analysis using NMR, IR, and HR-ESI-MS. We investigated the effect of the 21 isolated compounds and metabolites (22 and 23) of 18 against the inhibition of PTP1B and α-glucosidase enzymes. All fatty acids showed potent PTP1B inhibition at low concentrations. In particular, new compound 13 and fucosterol epoxide (6) showed noncompetitive inhibitory activity against PTP1B. Metabolites of glycyrrhizin, 22 and 23, exhibited competitive inhibition against PTP1B. These findings suggest that H. fusiformis, a widely consumed seafood, may be effective as a dietary supplement for the management of diabetes through the inhibition of PTP1B.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/metabolismo , Sargassum/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1127: 59-65, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140171

RESUMO

Inhibition of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) has proven beneficial in a plethora of inflammatory disease processes due to a net reduction in pro-inflammatory oxidants and secondary nitrating species. Electrophilic nitrated fatty acid derivatives, such as nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) are also noted to display a broad spectrum of anti-inflammatory effects via interaction with critical signaling pathways. An alternative process in which nitrated fatty acids may extend anti-inflammatory actions is via inactivation of XOR, a process that is more effective than allo/oxypurinol-mediated inhibition. Herein, we describe the molecular aspects of nitrated fatty acid-associated inactivation of XOR, identify specificity via structure function relationships and discuss XOR as a crucial component of the anti-inflammatory portfolio of nitrated fatty acids.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Inflamação , Nitratos/química , Oxidantes/química , Xantina Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022840

RESUMO

A library of 197 endophytic fungi and bacteria isolated from the Amazonian palm tree Astrocaryum sciophilum was extracted and screened for antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Four out of five antibacterial ethyl acetate extracts were also cytotoxic for the MRC-5 cells line. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPHLC-HRMS/MS) analyses combined with molecular networking data processing were carried out to allow the identification of depsipeptides and cyclopeptides responsible for the cytotoxicity in the dataset. Specific ion clusters from the active Luteibacter sp. extract were also highlighted using an MRSA activity filter. A chemical study of Luteibacter sp. was conducted leading to the structural characterization of eight fatty acid exhibiting antimicrobial activity against MRSA in the tens of µg/mL range.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Arecaceae/microbiologia , Endófitos/química , Gammaproteobacteria/química , Lipídeos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Depsipeptídeos/química , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Humanos , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Moleculares , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Árvores/microbiologia
11.
Oncol Rep ; 41(6): 3499-3507, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002344

RESUMO

Non­small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) are common and are the leading cause of cancer­associated mortality worldwide. Heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) is an odd­chain saturated fatty acid. The effect of C17:0 on lung cancer has remained elusive. The present study examined the role of C17:0 in the PC­9 NSCLC cell line and PC­9 cells with acquired­gefitinib resistance (PC­9/GR) in vitro. Cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, fatty acid composition and the activation of relevant signaling pathways were assessed. The results indicated that C17:0 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, and migration, while promoting apoptosis in PC­9 and PC­9/GR cells. Furthermore, C17:0 enhanced the cytotoxicity of gefitinib to PC­9 and PC­9/GR cells. Mechanistical analysis indicated that the activation of the phosphoinositide 3­kinase/Akt signaling pathway was suppressed in C17:0­treated PC­9 and PC­9/GR cells. Furthermore, the addition of C17:0 led to accumulation of 10­cis­heptadecenoic acid in NSCLC cells. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that C17:0 is an effective agent against NSCLC cells in vitro and the results may imply that the intake of C17:1 or C17:0­rich food may be beneficial during the treatment of NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Gefitinibe/efeitos adversos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteína Oncogênica v-akt/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Tissue Cell ; 57: 70-77, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947966

RESUMO

Varicocele is one of the most prevalent causes of infertility. It causes induction of oxidative stress, increases lipid peroxidation in the testis and disrupts spermatogenesis cycle. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible protective effects of royal jelly against varicocele induced oxidative stress, biochemical and histological alterations in the experimental varicocele model in rat. Twenty-one adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups. The control group (I), Varicocele and administration of normal saline (II), varicocele and treatment with RJ (III). At the end of the experiment, all the animals were sacrificed and testes excised. The activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and MDA levels were measured. Also, histopathological examinations, Johnsen scores and sperm parameters were determined. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the activity level of CAT (0.223±0.005), SOD (0.177±0.0062), GPx (9.575±0.318) and a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the MDA level (2.674±0.336) of the experimental varicocele treated with royal jelly when compared to the activity of CAT (0.011±0.004), SOD (0.035±0.0096), GPx (8.864±0.397) and MDA level (4.630±0.579) of the experimental varicocele and administration of normal saline. Results of the Johnsen score showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the mean score of the RJ group (7.94±1.5) when compared to the normal saline group (6.04±1.4). Therefore, RJ is a potential area for further studies and improving in spermatogenesis cycle after varicocele.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Varicocele/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Varicocele/metabolismo
13.
Microb Pathog ; 131: 15-21, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930221

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of subclinical bovine mastitis that usually is chronic and recurrent, which has been related to its ability to internalize into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs). Previously, we reported that short and medium fatty acids and cholecalciferol reduce S. aureus internalization into pretreated-bMECs with these molecules suggesting a role as immunomodulatory agents. Hence, we assessed the role of sodium butyrate (NaB), sodium octanoate (NaO) and cholecalciferol on S. aureus adhesin expression and its internalization into bMECs. S. aureus pre-treated 2 h with 0.5 mM or 2 mM NaB showed a reduction in internalization into bMECs (∼35% and ∼55%; respectively), which coincided with a down-regulated expression of clumping factor B (ClfB). Also, the S. aureus internalization reduction by 2 mM NaB (2 h) agreed with a down-regulated expression of sdrC. Moreover, the 2 mM NaB (24 h) pre-treatment induced bacterial internalization (∼3-fold), which was related with an up-regulation of spa, clfB and sdrC genes. Also, NaO (0.25 mM and 1 mM) only reduced S. aureus internalization when bacteria were grown 2 h with this molecule but there was no relationship with adhesin expression. In addition, cholecalciferol (50 nM) reduced bacteria internalization at similar levels (∼50%) when bacteria were grown 2 and 24 h in broth supplemented with this compound, which correlated with spa and sdrC mRNA expression down-regulated at 2 h, and fnba and clfB mRNA expression decreased at 24 h. In conclusion, our data support the fact that fatty acids and cholecalciferol regulate adhesin gene expression as well as bacteria internalization in nonprofessional phagocytic cells, which may lead to development of anti-virulence agents for control of pathogens.


Assuntos
Adesinas Bacterianas/genética , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Adesinas Bacterianas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Ácido Butírico , Caprilatos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Feminino , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Imunomodulação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/imunologia , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Virulência/genética
14.
Biomolecules ; 9(2)2019 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823587

RESUMO

Circulating fatty acids (FAs) increase with obesity and can drive mitochondrial damage and inflammation. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) is a mitochondrial protein that positively regulates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), a key mediator of energy transduction and redox homeostasis. The role that NNT-regulated bioenergetics play in the inflammatory response of immune cells in obesity is untested. Our objective was to determine how free fatty acids (FFAs) regulate inflammation through impacts on mitochondria and redox homeostasis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs from lean subjects were activated with a T cell-specific stimulus in the presence or absence of generally pro-inflammatory palmitate and/or non-inflammatory oleate. Palmitate decreased immune cell expression of NNT, NADPH, and anti-oxidant glutathione, but increased reactive oxygen and proinflammatory Th17 cytokines. Oleate had no effect on these outcomes. Genetic inhibition of NNT recapitulated the effects of palmitate. PBMCs from obese (BMI >30) compared to lean subjects had lower NNT and glutathione expression, and higher Th17 cytokine expression, none of which were changed by exogenous palmitate. Our data identify NNT as a palmitate-regulated rheostat of redox balance that regulates immune cell function in obesity and suggest that dietary or therapeutic strategies aimed at increasing NNT expression may restore redox balance to ameliorate obesity-associated inflammation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , NADP Trans-Hidrogenases/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NADP Trans-Hidrogenases/genética , NADP Trans-Hidrogenases/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 24(6)2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909491

RESUMO

Estrogen deficiency after menopause is associated with autonomic nervous changes, leading to memory impairment and increased susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Royal jelly (RJ) from honeybees (Apis mellifera) has estrogenic activity. Here, we investigated whether RJ can improve behavior, cholinergic and autonomic nervous function in ovariectomized (OVX) cholesterol-fed rabbits. OVX rabbits on high-cholesterol diet were administered with RJ for 12 weeks. The results showed that RJ could significantly improve the behavioral deficits of OVX cholesterol-fed rabbits and image structure of the brain. RJ reduced body weight, blood lipid, as well as the levels of amyloid-beta (Aß), acetylcholinesterase (AchE), and malonaldehyde (MDA) in the brain. Moreover, RJ also increased the activities of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the brain, and enhanced heart rate variability (HRV) and Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in OVX cholesterol-fed rabbits. Furthermore, RJ was also shown to reduce the content of Evans blue and the expression levels of Aß, beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1(BACE1), and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and increase the expression level of LDL(low density lipoprotein) receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) in the brain. Our findings suggested that RJ has beneficial effects in neurological disorders of postmenopausal women, which were associated with reducing cholesterol and Aß deposition, enhancing the estrogen levels and the activities of cholinergic and antioxidant systems, and ameliorating the blood⁻brain barrier (BBB) permeability and restoring autonomic nervous system.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Abelhas , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Colesterol/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Biológicos , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos
16.
Molecules ; 24(5)2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818836

RESUMO

The focus of present study is on Codium bursa collected from the Adriatic Sea. C. bursa volatiles were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID; GC-MS) after headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), hydrodistillation (HD), and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2). The headspace composition of dried (HS-D) and fresh (HS-F) C. bursa was remarkably different. Dimethyl sulfide, the major HS-F compound was present in HS-D only as a minor constituent and heptadecane percentage was raised in HS-D. The distillate of fresh C. bursa contained heptadecane and docosane among the major compounds. After air-drying, a significantly different composition of the volatile oil was obtained with (E)-phytol as the predominant compound. It was also found in SC-CO2 extract of freeze-dried C. bursa (FD-CB) as the major constituent. Loliolide (3.51%) was only identified in SC-CO2 extract. Fatty acids were determined from FD-CB after derivatisation as methyl esters by GC-FID. The most dominant acids were palmitic (25.4%), oleic (36.5%), linoleic (11.6%), and stearic (9.0%). FD-CB H2O extract exhibited better antifungal effects against Fusarium spp., while dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) extract was better for the inhibition of Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus flavus, and Rhizophus spp. The extracts showed relatively good antifungal activity, especially against P. expansum (for DMSO extract MIC50 was at 50 µg/mL).


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Clorófitas/química , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/análise , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
17.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901932

RESUMO

In this study, two in vitro digestion models were employed to compare the rate of lipolysis in soybean oil (SBO), pomegranate oil (PGO), a physical blend (PHY, 1:1 molar ratio of SBO:PGO, w/w), and their enzymatically interesterified oil (IO). In the pH-stat digestion model (emulsified oils with bile salts), PGO emulsion containing 74.7% conjugated form of linolenic acid (CLn) showed a significantly lower release rate of free fatty acid (FFA) than the other oil emulsions (p < 0.05). In FFA release rates and oil droplet sizes between PHY and IO emulsions, no significant differences were observed (p > 0.05). In a simulated model of small intestinal digestion, the lipolysis rates of SBO, PGO, PHY, and IO after digestion for 30 min in digestion fluids were 80.4%, 66.5%, 74.8%, and 77.0%, respectively. The rate of lipolysis in PGO was significantly lower than that in SBO (p < 0.05), and the lowest lipolysis rate was observed in the conjugated form of trilinolenoyl glycerol (CLn-CLn-CLn).


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Punicaceae , Óleo de Soja/farmacologia , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Emulsões/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Ácido alfa-Linoleico
18.
Environ Toxicol ; 34(6): 708-718, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896085

RESUMO

This study describes the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on testicular injury induced by nicotine (NIC) in mice. Thirty-six male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6). Group 1 received normal saline, group 2 received 100 mg/kgBW/day RJ, groups 3 and 4 received NIC at doses of 0.50 and 1.00 mg/kgBW/day, respectively, and groups 5 and 6 received NIC at doses of 0.50 and 1.00 mg/kg BW/day, respectively, plus RJ. Following 35 days, the serum level of testosterone, histopathological changes, germ cell apoptosis, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and antioxidant indexes including total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and catalase (CAT) activity were determined. In addition, the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis was investigated by assessing the Bcl-2, p53, and Caspase-3 mRNA levels expression by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Compared to NIC receiving groups, the concomitant administration of RJ could protect the testosterone reduction and histological damages. After RJ treatment, the level of tissue MDA content decreased, while tissue TAC and CAT levels were remarkably increased compared to NIC-exposed groups. Remarkable higher TUNEL-positive germ cells and low PCNA index were observed in NIC receiving groups. Besides, the expression level of Bcl-2 was significantly higher and the p53 and Caspase-3 levels were significantly lower in the RJ co-administration groups than NIC-only receiving groups. Our results confirmed that RJ effectively protects the testis against NIC evoked damages by antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects involving the up regulation of the antioxidant status, mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway prevention, and the proliferating activity improvement.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Nicotina/toxicidade , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/sangue , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Molecules ; 24(5)2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823378

RESUMO

Holotrichia diomphalia larvae (HD), a natural product from an insect resource, possesses many pharmacological properties, including anticoagulant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activity. The major bioactive ingredients include oleic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, linoleic acid, proline, and glutamic acid. Although HD is associated with immunoregulatory activities in allergic diseases, the therapeutic mechanisms of the action of HD in allergic diseases have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-asthmatic potential of HD in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of allergic asthma. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory potential of HD was examined to identify a plausible mechanism of action of HD in vitro. HD strongly reduced goblet cell hyperplasia, eosinophil infiltration, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which reduced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation, and the expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The expression of IL-5, IL-4, eotaxin-2, lysyl oxidase-like 2 (loxl2), and GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA-3) was attenuated in the lungs. In an in vitro assay, HD exerted immunomodulatory effects through the suppression of Th2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-13), IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production through downregulation of GATA-3 expression in EL-4 T cells. These findings suggest that the anti-asthmatic activity of HD may occur through the suppression of Th2 cytokines and total Immunoglobulin E (IgE) production by inhibition of the GATA-3 transcription pathway. Our results suggest that HD may be a potential alternative therapy, or a novel therapeutic traditional medicine, for the treatment of allergic asthma.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Antiasmáticos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Besouros/química , Misturas Complexas , Etanol/química , Ácidos Graxos , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Animais , Antiasmáticos/química , Antiasmáticos/farmacologia , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/imunologia , Asma/patologia , Misturas Complexas/química , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Feminino , Larva , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Células Th2/imunologia
20.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 127: 188-196, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905866

RESUMO

Significant evidence indicated that flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) possesses various positive health aspects such as reducing the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The fatty acids are considered to be responsible for these benefits of flaxseed. Herein, the in vitro effects of flaxseed extract on the growth and apoptosis of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells were investigated. The MCF-7 cells treated with flaxseed extract showed a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. The flaxseed extract induced reactive oxygen species and the flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that flaxseed fatty acids triggered apoptosis of MCF-7 cells, which was also shown by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase cascade reaction. Thus, the flaxseed extract regulated the growth of MCF-7 cells and induced apoptosis. Eventually, the flaxseed could be used as a dietary supplement to prevent breast cancer.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linho/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Apoptose/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células MCF-7 , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA