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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 665-671, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muscle fat content and fatty acid composition play an important role in poultry flavor and taste. To investigate the effects of pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGZ) on growth performance and thigh muscle quality in yellow-feathered chickens, 360 female chickens were randomly divided into three groups and treated with three doses of PGZ (0, 7.5, and 15 mg kg-1 ) for 28 days. Each group had six replicates of 20 chickens. RESULTS: The results showed that dietary supplementation with 15 mg kg-1 PGZ increased average daily feed intake (ADFI) and the average daily gain (ADG) from 0 to 14 days. Furthermore, the triglyceride (TG) level was decreased by 15 mg kg-1 PGZ, whereas the eviscerated yield was increased. The relative weight of the heart and kidneys showed a linear increase with dietary PGZ supplementation, and the drip loss of the thigh muscle was significantly decreased by 15 mg kg-1 PGZ supplementation. Moreover, a* value, intramuscular fat (IMF), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed a linear increase, and pH24 h and drip loss showed a quadratic influence with the levels of PGZ supplementation. In particular, the PUFA proportion was increased by 7.63% and 9.14% in the 7.5 mg kg-1 PGZ and 15 mg kg-1 PGZ groups, respectively. Additionally, 15 mg kg-1 of PGZ increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX ) activity. CONCLUSION: In summary, 15 mg kg-1 PGZ has substantial effects on growth performance and meat quality, particularly by decreasing drip loss and increasing IMF content, PUFA proportions, and antioxidant ability. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Pioglitazona/administração & dosagem , Coxa da Perna/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124576, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421462

RESUMO

This study assesses and compares the influence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) on the fatty acid composition, pigments, and growth indices of Chlorella vulgaris. Toxicity testing was carried at the estimated and/or above predicted environmental concentrations of AgNPs and AgNO3. AgNO3 treatments impaired the population growth of C. vulgaris about 2-183 times more than the respective AgNPs ones. The pigments displayed a concentration-dependent decrease in response to both forms of silver; however, AgNO3 displayed higher severity to the pigments than AgNPs. In exposure to 10 µg L-1 AgNO3, the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoid, respectively, demonstrated a reduction of about 5, 3, 4, and 4 times when compared with the same respective concentration of AgNPs. Total amounts of saturated (∑SFA), monounsaturated (∑MUFA), and polyunsaturated (∑PUFA) fatty acids as well as the ratio of unsaturated to saturated ones (Unsat./Sat.) displayed somewhat similar-concentration responses. ∑SFA exhibited a hormesis response, and ∑MUFA, ∑PUFA, and Unsat./Sat. did a decreasing trend with increasing concentration of AgNPs and AgNO3. Myristoleic acid, nervonic acid, and eicosadienoic acid revealed the highest sensitivity. Pearson analysis illustrated the highest correlation among myristoleic acid, eicosenoic acid, and nervonic acid as well as among palmitic acid, stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, and oleic acid. Taken together, AgNPs and the released ions could disrupt physiological health state of microalgae through perturbation in the fatty acid composition (especially MUFAs and PUFAs) and other macromolecules. These types of bioperturbations could change the good health state of aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nitrato de Prata/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Ecotoxicologia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade
3.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124571, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472351

RESUMO

Rhodococcus exhibits strong adaptability to environmental stressors and plays a crucial role in environmental bioremediation. However, seasonal changes in ambient temperature, especially rapid temperature drops exert an adverse effect on in situ bioremediation. In this paper, we studied the cell morphology and fatty acid composition of an aniline-degrading strain Rhodococcus sp. CNS16 at temperatures of 30 °C, 20 °C, and 10 °C. At suboptimal temperatures, cell morphology of CNS16 changed from short rod-shaped to long rod or irregular shaped, and the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids was upregulated. Transcriptomic technologies were then utilized to gain detailed insights into the adaptive mechanisms of CNS16 subjected to suboptimal temperatures. The results showed that the number of gene responses was significantly higher at 10 °C than that at 20 °C. The inhibition of peptidoglycan synthase expression and up-regulation of Filamentous Temperature Sensitive as well as unsaturated fatty acid synthesis genes at suboptimal temperatures might be closely related to corresponding changes in cell morphology and fatty acids composition. Strain CNS16 showed loss of catalase and superoxide dismutase activity, and utilized thioredoxin-dependent thiol peroxidase to resist oxidative stress. The up-regulation of carotenoid and Vitamin B2 synthesis at 10 °C might also be involved in the resistance to oxidative stress. Amino acid metabolism, coenzyme and vitamin metabolism, ABC transport, and energy metabolism are essential for peptidoglycan synthesis and regulation of cellular metabolism; therefore, synergistically resisting environmental stress. This study provides a mechanistic basis for the regulation of aniline degradation in Rhodococcus sp. CNS16 at low temperatures.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Compostos de Anilina/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/biossíntese , Rhodococcus/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Catalase/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/biossíntese , Peroxirredoxinas/metabolismo , Rhodococcus/genética , Estações do Ano , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
4.
Food Chem ; 305: 125461, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505412

RESUMO

The quality of fermented soybeans can be determined by diverse metabolites produced by microorganisms. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach was applied to investigate the differences in volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of fermented soybeans by different microorganisms [e.g., molds, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and other bacteria]. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for volatile metabolites profiles indicated that the fungi group (mold/yeast) was clearly discriminated from the bacteria group (bacteria/LAB). The metabolic pathways related to the formation of volatile metabolites also differed according to microorganisms. In particular, the formation of branched-chain aliphatic alcohols and esters increased in the fungi group, while that of volatiles derived from fatty acids was superior in the bacteria group. In addition, we could determine the microorganism-specific metabolites using a correlation network analysis. This study can provide the fundamental knowledge on the metabolic differences according to the type of microorganisms in fermented soybeans.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolômica/métodos , Soja/metabolismo , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Ésteres/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Álcoois Graxos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Leveduras/metabolismo
5.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(12): 2005-2014, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701161

RESUMO

Checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) have significantly changed the therapeutic landscape of oncology. We adopted a non-invasive metabolomic approach to understand immunotherapy response and failure in 28 urological cancer patients. In total, 134 metabolites were quantified in patient sera before the first, second, and third CPI doses. Modeling the association between metabolites and CPI response and patient characteristics revealed that one predictive metabolite class  (n = 9/10) were very long-chain fatty acid-containing lipids (VLCFA-containing lipids). The best predictive performance was achieved through a multivariate model, including age and a centroid of VLCFA-containing lipids prior to first immunotherapy (sensitivity: 0.850, specificity: 0.825, ROC: 0.935). We hypothesize that the association of VLCFA-containing lipids with CPI response is based on enhanced peroxisome signaling in T cells, which results in a switch to fatty acid catabolism. Beyond use as a novel predictive non-invasive biomarker, we envision that nutritional supplementation with VLCFA-containing lipids might serve as an immuno sensitizer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Imunoterapia/métodos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Receptores Coestimuladores e Inibidores de Linfócitos T/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Urológicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Urológicas/mortalidade
6.
Biomed Khim ; 65(5): 388-397, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666411

RESUMO

Fibrates are well-known agonists of the PPAR family (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors). This class of drugs is used for the treatment of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Fenofibrate is one of the members of this class of synthetic PPARα receptor ligands. The oral administration of 0.3% fenofibrate caused a decrease in strength due to loss of body weight in laboratory animals when improving behavioural features. Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA of liver cells showed a genotoxic effect of fenofibrate, due to accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which could be attributed to activation of peroxisomal ß-oxidation processes, as well as to the lack of increase in the expression of genes encoding antioxidant defense proteins. Treatment with fenofibrate did not cause brain mtDNA damage. It has been shown that fenofibrate induced mitochondrial ß-oxidation in the brain, as indicated by the increased expression of the Acadm and Cpt1a and Ppargc1a and Ppara. The study found no effect of fenofibrate on the increase of mitochondrial biogenesis in brain and liver cells. Thus, we can conclude that fenofibrate significantly affects lipid metabolism in the liver and brain, but in the liver it is associated with an increase of oxidative stress, resulting in mtDNA oxidative damage. However, fenofibrate-induced increase in the expression of Ppargc1a is not associated with an increase of mitochondrial biogenesis. This is consistent with the recent suggestion that PGC-1α might not be a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fenofibrato/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos
7.
J Forensic Sci ; 64(6): 1720-1725, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674674

RESUMO

One of the most important contributions of forensic entomology is to assist criminal expertise to determine the postmortem interval, which depends on the duration of the immature stages of insects of forensic interest. On the other hand, the time of development of the different stages varies according to the species; therefore, its identification is essential. Currently, few studies have investigated the use of cuticular hydrocarbons, and none regarding fatty acids, as complementary taxonomic tools to expedite species identification. Therefore, we evaluated whether cuticular hydrocarbons together with fatty acids of eggs of flies of the family Calliphoridae, main group of forensic interest, can be used to distinguish species. The analyses were performed by chromatographic techniques. The results show that there are significant differences between the composition of cuticular hydrocarbons and fatty acids between species and, therefore, they can be used to provide a complementary taxonomic tool to expedite the forensic expertise.


Assuntos
Dípteros/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Óvulo/metabolismo , Escamas de Animais/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia , Análise Discriminante , Entomologia/métodos , Ciências Forenses , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(10): 1731-1742, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501572

RESUMO

Mitochondria vary in morphology and function in different tissues; however, little is known about their molecular diversity among cell types. Here we engineered MitoTag mice, which express a Cre recombinase-dependent green fluorescent protein targeted to the outer mitochondrial membrane, and developed an isolation approach to profile tagged mitochondria from defined cell types. We determined the mitochondrial proteome of the three major cerebellar cell types (Purkinje cells, granule cells and astrocytes) and identified hundreds of mitochondrial proteins that are differentially regulated. Thus, we provide markers of cell-type-specific mitochondria for the healthy and diseased mouse and human central nervous systems, including in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Based on proteomic predictions, we demonstrate that astrocytic mitochondria metabolize long-chain fatty acids more efficiently than neuronal mitochondria. We also characterize cell-type differences in mitochondrial calcium buffering via the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (Mcu) and identify regulator of microtubule dynamics protein 3 (Rmdn3) as a determinant of endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria proximity in Purkinje cells. Our approach enables exploring mitochondrial diversity in many in vivo contexts.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/citologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio/genética , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Cerebelo/citologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteômica , Células de Purkinje/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11167-11178, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542928

RESUMO

Milk contains a number of beneficial fatty acids including short and medium chain and unsaturated conjugated and nonconjugated fatty acids. In this study, microRNA sequencing of mammary tissue collected in early-, peak-, mid-, and late-lactation periods was performed to determine the miRNA expression profiles. miR-16a was one of the differentially expressed miRNA and was selected for in-depth functional studies pertaining to fatty acid metabolism. The mimic of miR-16a impaired fat metabolism [triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol] while knock-down of miR-16a promoted fat metabolism in vitro in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). In addition, the in vitro work with BMECs also revealed that miR-16a had a negative effect on the cellular concentration of cis 9-C18:1, total C18:1, C20:1, and C22:1 and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, these data suggesting a negative effect on fatty acid metabolism extend the discovery of the key role of miR-16a in mediating adipocyte differentiation. Through a combination of bioinformatics analysis, target gene 3' UTR luciferase reporter assays, and western blotting, we identified large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1) as a target of miR-16a. Transfection of siRNA-LATS1 into BMECs led to increases in TAG, cholesterol, and cellular fatty acid concentrations, suggesting a positive role of LATS1 in mammary cell fatty acid metabolism. In summary, data suggest that miR-16a regulates biological processes associated with intracellular TAG, cholesterol, and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis through LATS1. These data provide a theoretical and experimental framework for further clarifying the regulation of lipid metabolism in mammary cells of dairy cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/enzimologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Colesterol/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
10.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 161, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that stress induction and genetic engineering can effectively increase lipid accumulation, but lead to a decrease of growth in the majority of microalgae. We previously found that elevated CO2 concentration increased lipid productivity as well as growth in Phaeodactylum tricornutum, along with an enhancement of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP) activity. The purpose of this work directed toward the verification of the critical role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the OPPP, in lipid accumulation in P. tricornutum and its simultaneous rapid growth rate under high-CO2 (0.15%) cultivation. RESULTS: In this study, G6PDH was identified as a target for algal strain improvement, wherein G6PDH gene was successfully overexpressed and antisense knockdown in P. tricornutum, and systematic comparisons of the photosynthesis performance, algal growth, lipid content, fatty acid profiles, NADPH production, G6PDH activity and transcriptional abundance were performed. The results showed that, due to the enhanced G6PDH activity, transcriptional abundance and NAPDH production, overexpression of G6PDH accompanied by high-CO2 cultivation resulted in a much higher of both lipid content and growth in P. tricornutum, while knockdown of G6PDH greatly decreased algal growth as well as lipid accumulation. In addition, the total proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid, especially the polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5, n-3), were highly increased in high-CO2 cultivated G6PDH overexpressed strains. CONCLUSIONS: The successful of overexpression and antisense knockdown of G6PDH well demonstrated the positive influence of G6PDH on algal growth and lipid accumulation in P. tricornutum. The improvement of algal growth, lipid content as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids in high-CO2 cultivated G6PDH overexpressed P. tricornutum suggested this G6PDH overexpression-high CO2 cultivation pattern provides an efficient and economical route for algal strain improvement to develop algal-based biodiesel production.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/genética , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Engenharia Genética , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Microalgas/genética , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , Via de Pentose Fosfato , Fotossíntese
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11638-11649, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532204

RESUMO

Naturally occurring cinnamon compounds such as cinnamaldehyde (CAL) and structurally related constituents have been associated with antiobesity activities, although studies regarding the impact on intestinal fatty acid uptake are scarce. Here, we demonstrate the effects of CAL and structural analogues cinnamyl alcohol (CALC), cinnamic acid (CAC), and cinnamyl isobutyrate on mechanisms regulating intestinal fatty acid uptake in differentiated Caco-2 cells. CAL, CALC, and CAC (3000 µM) were found to decrease fatty acid uptake by 58.0 ± 8.83, 19.4 ± 8.98, and 21.9 ± 6.55%, respectively. While CAL and CALC at a concentration of 300 µM increased serotonin release 14.9 ± 3.00- and 2.72 ± 0.69-fold, respectively, serotonin alone showed no effect on fatty acid uptake. However, CAL revealed transient receptor potential channel A1-dependency in the decrease of fatty acid uptake, as well as in CAL-induced serotonin release. Overall, CAL was identified as the most potent of the cinnamon constituents tested.


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Propanóis/farmacologia , Acroleína/química , Acroleína/farmacologia , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Diferenciação Celular , Cinamatos/química , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Propanóis/química
12.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108787, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400341

RESUMO

Antipsychotic drugs interfere with the antioxidant defense system provoking complex and often toxicological effects. Here we examined differences in plasma albumin reduced free thiol (SH) group content and its reactivity as a consequence of clozapine (CLZ) and ziprasidone (ZIP) binding. Chronic administration of CLZ reduced, whereas treatment with ZIP increased albumin-SH content in rats. Regardless of the ratio of stearic acid (SA) bound to protein, in vitro binding of ZIP to human serum albumin (HSA) increased both the SH group level and reactivity. In contrast, the effect of CLZ on HSA-SH reactivity was dependent on HSA to SA molar ratio. CLZ binding was accompanied by an increase in HSA-SH reactivity in samples with normal, but a reduction of its reactivity level with higher SA/HSA ratio, compared to drug-free samples. We demonstrate by steady-state fluorescence quenching studies that an increase in SA binding to HSA is associated with a significant reduction of binding constant for both antipsychotics. In addition, this is the first report of quantitative characterization of ZIP binding to HSA. Our findings suggest that albumin-SH content and reactivity is modulated by ZIP towards an increased antioxidant defense capacity in circulation, as opposed to CLZ, which can contribute to the safer, more effective treatment of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Clozapina/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Piperazinas/química , Albumina Sérica/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Tiazóis/química , Animais , Clozapina/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Piperazinas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectrofotometria , Compostos de Sulfidrila/análise , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo , Tiazóis/metabolismo
13.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 486(1): 229-233, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367828

RESUMO

The composition of fatty acids of total lipids of the outer and parenchymal parts of the pericarp in Cydonia oblonga Mill. and Mespilus germanica L. (Maloideae, Rosaceae), growing in the Northern Caucasian mountains at altitudes of 300, 500, 700, and 1200 m above sea level in various natural zones from experimental sites, was studied for the first time. It is established that the altitude of plant growth is largely correlated with the changes in the FA composition of the outer, but not the parenchymal, part of the pericarp. The nature of this variability suggests that the adaptation of plants to the conditions of significant temperature differences in the mountains is associated with the regulation of cell membrane fluidity, based on the interaction of opposite processes of synthesis of polyunsaturated and very-long-chain fatty acids.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Altitude , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Rosaceae/metabolismo , Rosaceae/fisiologia
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121834, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371157

RESUMO

In present study, lipids were extracted from unbroken microalga Chlorella vulgaris with high water content (50% microalgal solution) through three-phase partitioning (TPP). The method was found to extract around 15.9% of total lipid transformable to methyl esters (LTMEs) from unbroken microalgal cells which is two times of Bligh and Dyer method. We investigated the effects of various parameters on TPP performance and were optimised through response surface methodology. The results indicated that incubation duration, temperature and extraction time were positively correlated with LTME extraction efficiency. The optimum temperature was 60 °C, incubation duration was 120 min, extraction time was 60 min, ratio of solvent to DKP was 1:1. The FAME yield was calculated as 12.05% and major fatty acids together accounted for 71.33% which indicated the great potential of the proposed lipid extraction procedure for microalga-based biodiesel production.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Microalgas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Solventes , Temperatura Ambiente , Água
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(34): 9551-9559, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379157

RESUMO

In oleaginous micro-organisms, nitrogen limitation activates adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD) and promotes lipogenesis via the inhibition of isocitrate dehydrogenase. We found that the overexpression of homologous AMPD in Mortierella alpina favored lipid synthesis over cell growth. Total fatty acid content in the recombinant strain was 15.0-34.3% higher than that in the control, even though their biomass was similar. During the early fermentation stage, the intracellular AMP level reduced by 40-60%, together with a 1.9-2.7-fold increase in citrate content compared with the control, therefore provided more precursors for fatty acid synthesis. Moreover, the decreased AMP level resulted in metabolic reprogramming, reflected by the blocked TCA cycle and reduction of amino acids, distributing more carbon to lipid synthesis pathways. By coupling the energy balance with lipogenesis, this study provides new insights into cell metabolism under nitrogen-limited conditions and targets the regulation of fatty acid accumulation in oleaginous micro-organisms.


Assuntos
AMP Desaminase/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Mortierella/enzimologia , AMP Desaminase/genética , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Mortierella/genética , Mortierella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mortierella/metabolismo
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(75): 11183-11186, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465055

RESUMO

Reversible S-palmitoylation is a key regulatory mechanism of protein function and localization. There is increasing evidence that S-acylation is not restricted to palmitate but it includes shorter, longer, and unsaturated fatty acids. However, the diversity of this protein modification has not been fully explored. Herein, we report a chemical probe that combined with MS-based analysis allows the rapid detection and quantification of fatty acids linked to proteins. We have used this approach to profile the S-acylome and to show that the oncogene N-Ras is heterogeneously acylated with palmitate and palmitoleate. Studies on protein distribution in membrane subdomains with semisynthetic proteins revealed that unsaturated N-Ras presents an increased tendency toward clustering and higher insertion kinetic rate constants.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Hidroxilamina/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/química , Acilação , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Hidroxilamina/síntese química , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465877

RESUMO

Hypoxia-tolerant animals use metabolic suppression as an essential strategy to survive low oxygen. Ectotherms can alter membrane lipid composition in response to changes in environmental temperature, but it is currently unknown whether chronic hypoxia can also elicit membrane restructuring. The goal of this study was to investigate a possible physiological link between membrane remodelling and metabolic suppression in goldfish exposed to prolonged hypoxia (4 weeks at 10% air saturation). We have tested the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia would modulate membrane lipid composition in ways that are consistent with known mechanisms of ion pump inhibition. Because homeoviscous membrane restructuring could interfere with the response to hypoxia, measurements were made at 2 temperatures. Results show that hypoxic goldfish suppress metabolic rate by 74% (at 13 °C) and 63% (at 20 °C). This study is the first to reveal that cold-acclimated animals undergo extensive, tissue-specific restructuring of membrane lipids as they reach minimal metabolic rates. However, hypoxia does not affect membrane composition in fish acclimated to 20 °C. The strong membrane response of cold-acclimated fish involves increases in cholesterol abundance (in white muscle and gills) and in fatty acid saturation, mainly caused by a reduction in %22:6 (docosahexaenoic acid in gills and liver). Major ion pumps like Na+/K+-ATPase are known to be inhibited by cholesterol and activated by 22:6. Because ion pumping by membrane-bound ATPases accounts for a large fraction of basal cellular energy use, we propose that the membrane responses reported here could be a novel mechanism to promote metabolic suppression in cold-acclimated animals.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Animais , Colesterol/metabolismo , Carpa Dourada , Temperatura Ambiente
18.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 28(10): 917-930, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430206

RESUMO

Introduction: Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACC) is an essential rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid metabolism. For many years, ACC inhibitors have gained great attention for developing therapeutics for various human diseases including microbial infections, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Areas covered: We present a comprehensive review and update of ACC inhibitors. We look at the current advance of ACC inhibitors in clinical studies and the implications in drug discovery. We searched ScienceDirect ( https://www.sciencedirect.com/ ), ACS ( https://pubs.acs.org/ ), Wiley ( https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ ), NCBI ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ ) and World Health Organization ( https://www.who.int/ ). The keywords used were Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase, lipid, inhibitors and metabolic syndrome. All documents were published before June 2019. Expert opinion: The key regulatory role of ACC in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation pathways makes it an attractive target for various metabolic diseases. In particular, the combination of ACC inhibitors with other drugs is a new strategy for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Expanding the clinical indications for ACC inhibitors will be one of the hot directions in the future. It is also worth looking forward to exploring safe and efficient inhibitors that act on the BC domain of ACC.


Assuntos
Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Animais , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia
19.
Microbiol Res ; 228: 126306, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422233

RESUMO

The mariner transposon family of Himar1 has been widely used for the random mutagenesis of bacteria to generate single insertions into the chromosome. Here, a versatile toolbox of mariner transposon derivatives was generated and applied to the functional genomics investigation of fish pathogen Edwardsiella piscicida. In this study, we combined the merits of the random mutagenesis of mariner transposon and common efficient reporter marker genes or regulatory elements, mCherry, gfp, luxAB, lacZ, sacBR, and PBAD and antibiotic resistance cassettes to construct a series of derivative transposon vectors, pMmch, pMKGR, pMCGR, pMXKGR, pMLKGR, pMSGR, and pMPR, based on the initial transposon pMar2xT7. The function and effectiveness of the modified transposons were verified by introducing them into E. piscicida EIB202. Based on the toolbox, a transposon insertion mutant library containing approximately 3.0 × 105 distinct mutants was constructed to explore the upstream regulators of esrB, the master regulator of the type III and type VI secretion systems (T3/T6SS) in E. piscicida. Following analysis by Con-ARTIST, ETAE_3474, annotated as fabR and involved in fatty acid metabolism, was screened out and identified as a novel regulator mediating T3SS and T6SS expression. In addition, the fabR mutants displayed critical virulence attenuation in turbot. Due to the broad-range host compatibility of mariner transposons, the newly built transposon toolbox can be applied for functional genomics studies in various bacteria.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Edwardsiella/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Biblioteca Gênica , Genes Reporter/genética , Genômica/métodos , Mutagênese Insercional/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI/genética , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/genética
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10042-10047, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422658

RESUMO

The present study compared the growth-inhibitory effects of four common branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) found in beef and dairy fats including iso 15:0, anteiso 15:0, iso 17:0, and anteiso 17:0. MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were exposed for 72 h to media containing increasing doses (50 to -400 µM) of the four BCFA. Cell viability was not affected by any of the BCFA treatments at doses less than 200 µM. Culturing cells with 200 µM of iso-15:0 or iso-17:0 reduced cell viability by 27 ± 2.8 and 43 ± 8.3% at 24 h, 35 ± 4.6 and 49 ± 9.1% at 48 h, and 44 ± 6.8 and 57 ± 8.8% at 72 h posttreatment. In contrast, culturing cells with 200 µM of anteiso-15:0 or anteiso-17:0 did not affect cell viability for any durations tested. The incorporation of iso 15:0 and iso 17:0 into cells (19.1 ± 1.3 and 21.2 ± 1.4 µmol/mg protein, respectively) was greater (P < 0.01) than that of anteiso 15:0 and anteiso 17:0 (11.8 ± 0.7 and 13.8 ± 0.8 µmol/mg protein, respectively). Iso-15:0 and iso-17:0 downregulated (P < 0.01) the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 (0.71 ± 0.6-fold and 0.64 ± 0.09-fold, respectively) and upregulated (P < 0.01) the expression of proapoptotic Bax (1.72 ± 0.14-fold and 2.15 ± 0.24-fold, respectively) compared to the control, whereas their corresponding anteiso isomers did not affect the expression of any apoptosis-related genes. Our findings suggest that the branching structure influences anticarcinogenic effects of BCFAs, with iso being more potent than anteiso.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Inibidores do Crescimento/química , Inibidores do Crescimento/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Bovinos , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo
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