Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.792
Filtrar
1.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 64(7): 388-396, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408589

RESUMO

Inhibition of hydrolysis of palmitic and oleic triglycedires (TG) in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), slow formation of active apoВ-100 conformation, blockade of апоЕ/В-100 ligand formation in VLDL and their reduced uptake by insulin-dependent cells cause hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). Palmitic and oleic VLDL (>80% total VLDL) are not converted in low density lipoproteins (LDL). Atherosclerosis is not an alimentary deficiency of polyenic fatty acids (PFA), but results from low in vivo bioavailability of PFA in LDL against the background of high dietary palmitic FA and palmitic LDL. Plasma PFA content and cellular PFA deficiency are as high as LDL cholesterol (CL). Primary prevention of atherosclerosis should be based on a decrease in dietary content of palmitic saturated FA, trans FA and a moderate increase in PFA. It seems highly unlikely that the xeobiotics statins, fibrates and probucol produce pleiotropic biological effects in vivo. These effects are brought about by phylogenetically early humoral mediators eicosanoids: prostacyclins, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, and resolvins. It is reasonable to suggest that all preparations which act according to the same algorithm activate TG hydrolysis in VLDL and normalize cellular uptake of PFA in linoleic and linolenic LDL via apoВ-100 endocytosis. Atherosclerosis is a syndrome of cellular deficiency of essential polyenic FA.


Assuntos
Dieta , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/patologia , Lipólise , Lipoproteínas VLDL/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Ácidos Fíbricos/farmacologia , Humanos , Triglicerídeos
2.
Food Chem ; 294: 56-59, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126500

RESUMO

Perilla oil is abundant in α-linolenic acid, which is metabolized to long-chain n-3 fatty acids. This study aimed to determine thermal stability and bioavailability of perilla oil that was powdered by inclusion complexation with γ-cyclodextrin. Fatty acid analysis revealed that the relative abundance of α-linolenic and linoleic acids in the complexes was not affected by heating at 40 °C for six days but decreased after heating at 60 °C for three days. No adverse events occurred in rats fed with an experimental diet containing the complexes for two weeks. Plasma α-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acids in rats fed with diets containing complexes and liquid perilla oil were equally high, indicating the preserved bioavailability of perilla oil in the complexes. Plasma arachidonic acid decreased only in rats fed with a diet containing the complexes. Results suggest that the complexes have potential as a useful source of α-linolenic acid to increase plasma n-3 fatty acids.


Assuntos
Ácido alfa-Linoleico/química , gama-Ciclodextrinas/química , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Ácidos Linoleicos/sangue , Masculino , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Temperatura Ambiente , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo , gama-Ciclodextrinas/metabolismo
3.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052447

RESUMO

The effect of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) is controversial and few have systematically appraised the evidence. We conducted a comprehensive search of prospective studies examining these relationships that were published in PubMed, Web of Science, or EMBASE from 21 February 1989 to 21 February 2019. A total of 19 studies were included for systematic review and 10 for meta-analysis. We estimated the summarized relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) using a random (if I2 > 50%) or a fixed effects model (if I2 ≤ 50%). Although the included studies reported inconclusive results, the majority supported a protective effect of odd-chain and an adverse impact of even-chain SFAs. Meta-analysis showed that the per standard deviation (SD) increase in odd-chain SFAs was associated with a reduced risk of incident T2D (C15:0: 0.86, 0.76-0.98; C17:0: 0.76, 0.59-0.97), while a per SD increase in one even-chain SFA was associated with an increased risk of incident T2D (C14:0: 1.13, 1.09-1.18). No associations were found between other SFAs and incident T2D. In conclusion, our findings suggest an overall protective effect of odd-chain SFAs and the inconclusive impact of even- and very-long-chain SFAs on incident T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/classificação , Correlação de Dados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Ácidos Eicosanoicos/sangue , Humanos , Incidência , Ácido Mirístico/sangue , Ácido Palmítico/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Ácidos Esteáricos/sangue
4.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 15(3): 332-341, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054024

RESUMO

Postmortem diagnosis of extreme-weather-related deaths is a challenging forensic task. Here, we present a state-of-the-art study that employed attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in combination with Chemometrics for postmortem diagnosis of fatal hypothermia/hyperthermia by biochemical investigation of plasma in rats. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) and spectral analysis revealed that plasma samples from the fatal hypothermia, fatal hyperthermia, and control groups, are substantially different from each other based on the spectral variations associated with the lipid, carbohydrate and nucleic acid components. Two partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) classification models (hypothermia-nonhypothermia and hyperthermia-nonhyperthermia binary models) with a 100% accuracy rate were constructed. Subsequently, internal cross-validation was performed to assess the robustness of these two models, which resulted in 98.1 and 100% accuracy. Ultimately, classification predictions of 42 unknown plasma samples were performed by these two models, and both models achieved 100% accuracy. Additionally, our results demonstrated that hemolysis and postmortem hypothermic/hyperthermic effects did not weaken the prediction ability of these two classification models. In summary, this work demonstrates ATR-FTIR spectroscopy's great potential for postmortem diagnosis of fatal hypothermia/hyperthermia.


Assuntos
Febre/diagnóstico , Hipotermia/diagnóstico , Plasma/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Carboidratos/sangue , Análise Discriminante , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Febre/sangue , Patologia Legal/métodos , Hipotermia/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Ácidos Nucleicos/sangue , Análise de Componente Principal , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(6): 503-510, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092799

RESUMO

Assessing dietary intake is critical for understanding the relationship between diet and health. Fatty acid blood biomarkers have been particularly useful in determining dietary intakes and assessing the risk of chronic disease. However, fatty acid analysis involves the removal of fatty acids from their complex lipid structures resulting in a loss of potentially useful biological information. "Lipidomics" involves the use of mass spectrometry to identify lipids in their native form. Lipidomic approaches present challenges as an alternative to fatty acid analysis. This includes different types of lipidomic approaches and a lack of consensus on the lipids reported in different studies. Distinguishing between macrolipidomic approaches to characterize highly abundant lipids and microlipidomic approaches examining low abundant bioactive lipids and the use of brutto, medio, genio, and infinio to describe the level of information of lipidomic data can provide clarity to the field. Using lipidomic measurements for understanding docosahexaenoic acid metabolism during pregnancy will also be examined.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Saúde , Lipídeos/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Gravidez , Risco
6.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 77, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, and due to various physiological and psychological factors the patients are at risk of nutritional insufficiencies. The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary fatty acid intake and its effect on plasma fatty acids in elderly Saudi women and to compare the differences in their food and plasma fatty acid profile on the basis of their residence. METHODS: A total of 76 elderly women (50-100 years) were recruited through a random sampling method. A structured proforma was designed to gather information related to their age, income, dietary habits, and presence of any disease and awareness of AD. A 24-h dietary recall method for 3 days and food frequency questionnaire, concentrating on fish consumption and consumption of foods rich in ω-3 fatty acids, which was planned by dietitians, was used for dietary assessment. The gathered data were then analyzed using food processor software. The blood samples were collected to determine plasma fatty acids. RESULTS: The mean age of women diagnosed with AD was more than 75 years, and the prevalence of illiteracy was higher among AD subjects. As compared to the AD group, the concentration of LA and total ω-6 was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in the control group from both recruitment sites [National Guard Health Affairs, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh (NGH) and Social Welfare Homes for the Elderly (SWH)]. Similarly, the concentrations of EPA, DHA, and ω-3 were also slightly higher in the control group at both sites, but the difference between the control and AD subjects was only significant (p ≤ 0.05) in subjects from NGH. We found no significant difference in the ω-6/ ω-3 ratio between groups. Also, no significant difference was found in the mean level of the plasma fatty acid when comparing the control and AD groups. The concentration of DHA in controls only and AA, EPA and ω-6 in both control and AD were significant (although weakly) correlated with their respective dietary intakes. No correlations were found between the intake of 18 C precursors (LA and ALA) and plasma levels of their long chain derivatives (AA, EPA, and DHA). Education, income, overall health status and the concentration of various fatty acids from food was higher and better in subjects from SWH than NGH. The lower plasma level indicates lower impaired systemic availability of several nutrients. CONCLUSION: We found that dietary intervention might play a role in the prevention of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Alimentos Marinhos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991718

RESUMO

Chokeberry polyphenols have been suggested to reduce cholesterol and blood pressure and thus protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the evidence in humans is limited and inconsistent. This randomized double-blinded three-parallel groups trial investigated the changes in various anthropometric and clinical biomarkers, and in plasma phospholipids fatty acids (PPFA) in volunteers at cardiovascular risk after a four-week intervention with 100 mL/day of (1) chokeberry juice with a high-dose of polyphenols (1177.11 mg gallic acid equivalents, GAE); (2) chokeberry juice with a low-dose of polyphenols (294.28 mg GAE) and; (3) a nutritionally matched polyphenol-free placebo drink. Our results indicate that the intake of chokeberry juice containing either the low or the high dose of polyphenols cannot be linked with a reduction in total- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)cholesterol or in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in comparison with the consumption of the placebo drink. However, we found evidence of moderate changes in the PPFA, i.e., increased saturated fatty acids (SFA), mostly palmitic acid, and reduced n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), principally linoleic acid (LA) with the intake of chokeberry against the placebo. These effects may be associated with the polyphenols but we could not differentiate a clear dose-response effect. Further research is still needed to elucidate the contribution of the polyphenolic fraction to the potential cardiovascular effects of the chokeberry and to build up the evidence of its potential benefit via the modulation of PPFA composition.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Photinia/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Frutas , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico
8.
Clin Chim Acta ; 495: 185-190, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978326

RESUMO

Very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), including hexacosanoic, tetracosanoic, and docosanoic acids, are peroxisomal disease markers, whose abnormal accumulation warrants prompt detection for timely, effective treatment. This study aimed to establish and validate a robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method to simultaneously quantify VLCFAs and provide reference intervals among Chinese individuals, quantify VLCFAs in pregnancy, and explore potential associations between plasma and amniotic fluid. Analytes were extracted via water-bath incubation with HCl and liquid-liquid extraction. Method linearity, limit of detection/quantitation, precision, carryover, and recovery were evaluated according to Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines. VLCFAs showed good reproducibility based on low within-run coefficient variations (CVs) and total CVs, and correlation coefficients of linearity were > 0.99. The reference interval of C22:0, C24:0, and C26:0 were 32.0-73.4 µmol/L, 30.3-72.0 µmol/L, and 0.20-0.71 µmol/L, respectively; C24:0/C22:0 and C26:0/C22:0 ratios were 0.75-1.28 and 0.005-0.0139, respectively. Plasma and amniotic fluid of the same pregnant women displayed no significant correlation in the second trimester. This study presents the simple, efficient, accurate, and robust LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously detect C22:0, C24:0, and C26:0 without derivatization; it can be used to establish reference intervals among Chinese individuals and has diagnostic and other clinical applications.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/normas , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Líquido Amniótico/química , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 758-766, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933773

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are known to be toxic, bioaccumulative, and persistent. However, exposure routes and toxic effects to humans are still widely unknown. Our objectives were to evaluate potential correlations between concentrations of PFASs in maternal plasma and infant cord blood with home characteristics and developmental effects, including wheezing. The concentrations of 17 PFASs were measured in plasma from prenatal women (n = 414), postnatal women (n = 247), and cord blood (n = 50) from a subset of participants in a population-based birth cohort in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, using online solid phase extraction (SPE) with liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Multiple linear regression and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate possible associations with PFAS concentrations. Surveys were used to collect information regarding maternal characteristics (e.g. age, parity, duration of breastfeeding), infant characteristics (e.g. birth weight, birth length, head circumference, gestational age, and incidence of recurrent wheezing), and home characteristics (e.g. home age,carpet coverage in the most used room, presence of new furniture, or recent home renovations). PFASs in plasma were associated with maternal characteristics but not home characteristics or early childhood wheezing. PFASs were not associated with developmental effects, with the exception that perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA) was negatively associated with birth weight. Further studies investigating the potential influences of PFUA on birth weight are warranted.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Manitoba , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez
11.
J Anim Sci ; 97(6): 2342-2356, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958881

RESUMO

Bacterial infection causes nutrient malabsorption in small intestine. KR-32, a kind of synthetic antimicrobial peptide, has the bacteriostatic effect. In the present study, 2 experiments were designed to analyze the effects of KR-32 on fat absorption of piglets with or without Escherichia coli infection. In Exp. 1, 12 weaning piglets (21 d old) were allocated to 2 groups: piglets with an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of antimicrobial peptide KR-32 (APK) and piglets with an i.p. injection of an equivalent volume (1 mL) of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (CON-1). Results showed that after 7 d of growth, KR-32 did not significantly change growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of feed nutrients of normal pigs. To confirm whether KR-32 affects those of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88-challenged pigs, we performed Exp. 2, in which 18 piglets (28 d old) were divided into the following 3 groups: 1) piglets orally challenged with 1 × 1010 cfu ETEC K88 on day 1 followed by an i.p. injection of 0.6 mg/kg KR-32 (K88 + APK); 2) piglets orally challenged with 1 × 1010 cfu ETEC K88 on day 1 followed by an i.p. injection of an equivalent volume (1 mL) of PBS (K88); and 3) piglets with an oral administration of fresh Luria-Bertani broth (50 mL) followed by an i.p. injection of an equivalent volume of PBS (CON-2). Results showed that ETEC K88 challenge led to poor ADFI, ADG, and G:F in piglets; decreased ATTD of feed nutrients, especially CP and ether extract (EE); and intestinal morphology disorder. After i.p. injection of KR-32, ADG and ATTD of CP and EE were greatly increased, G:F was significantly reduced (P < 0.05), and, especially, ATTD of EE returned to a normal level compared with group CON-2. Fatty acid absorption also highly increased after KR-32 injection. Then we focused on fat digestion and fatty acid uptake. The pH in the intestine and pancreas lipase showed no difference among the 3 treatment groups, whereas fatty acid transporter protein 4 (FATP4) expression was remarkably improved (P < 0.05) and the epithelial barrier was recovered after i.p. injection of KR-32. In conclusion, KR-32, given to ETEC K88-challenged piglets, improved growth performance, ATTD of EE, fatty acid absorption, and intestinal morphology, which indicated that KR-32 was likely to improve the expression of FATP4 and by repairing the epithelial barrier, thereby alleviating fatty acid malabsorption.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/ultraestrutura , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Desmame
12.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871048

RESUMO

Polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes influence the arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid concentrations (crucial in early life). Infants with specific genotypes may require different amounts of these fatty acids (FAs) to maintain an adequate status. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an infant formula supplemented with AA and DHA on FAs of infants with different FADS genotypes. In total, 176 infants from the COGNIS study were randomly allocated to the Standard Formula (SF; n = 61) or the Experimental Formula (EF; n = 70) group, the latter supplemented with AA and DHA. Breastfed infants were added as a reference group (BF; n = 45). FAs and FADS polymorphisms were analyzed from cheek cells collected at 3 months of age. FADS minor allele carriership in formula fed infants, especially those supplemented, was associated with a declined desaturase activity and lower AA and DHA levels. Breastfed infants were not affected, possibly to the high content of AA and DHA in breast milk. The supplementation increased AA and DHA levels, but mostly in major allele carriers. In conclusion, infant FADS genotype could contribute to narrow the gap of AA and DHA concentrations between breastfed and formula fed infants.


Assuntos
Ácido Araquidônico/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Genótipo , Fórmulas Infantis/análise , Adulto , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto Jovem
13.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(10): e1801157, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900815

RESUMO

SCOPE: To compare the effects of supplementary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)+docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) versus α-linolenic acid (ALA) on lipid profiles, inflammatory status, and fatty acid composition of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in hypercholesterolemic adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial is conducted to examine the effects of consumption of control oil, 4.2 g/d ALA, 7.2 g/d ALA, 1.8 g/d DHA+EPA, or 3.6 g/d EPA+DHA for 12 weeks on lipid profiles, fatty acid composition of PBMCs and in vitro production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by PBMCs in 123 subjects with hypercholesteremia. After the intervention, subjects who receive a low and high dose of DHA/EPA experience 11.99% and 15.78% decreases in triglycerides which is significantly different from that of the control group (p < 0.05). The in vitro study indicates that supplementation of high-dose DHA+EPA induces the greatest decrease of IL-6 production by PBMCs relative to other groups (p = 0.046). ALA intervention significantly increases the PBMCs composition of ALA but not EPA/DHA. CONCLUSION: EPA+DHA, but not ALA, improves lipids and inflammation status in hypercholesterolemic adults. Supplementation of ALA does not increase the PBMCs composition of EPA/DHA in middle-aged to elderly Chinese.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacologia , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Lipídeos/sangue , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacocinética , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Efeito Placebo , Placebos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/farmacocinética
14.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0207568, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897169

RESUMO

Fatty acids, as key components of cellular membranes and complex lipids, may play a central role in endocrine signalling and the function of adipose tissue and liver. Thus, the lipid fatty acid composition may play a role in health status in the equine. This study aimed to investigate the fatty acid composition of different tissues and liver lipid classes by comparing Warmblood horses and Shetland ponies under defined conditions. We hypothesized that ponies show different lipid patterns than horses in adipose tissue, liver and plasma. Six Warmblood horses and six Shetland ponies were housed and fed under identical conditions. Tissue and blood sampling were performed following a standardized protocol. A one-step lipid extraction, methylation and trans-esterification method with subsequent gas chromatography was used to analyse the total lipid content and fatty acid profile of retroperitoneal, mesocolon and subcutaneous adipose tissue, liver and plasma. Fatty acids were grouped according to their degree of saturation and their conjugated double bond into the respective lipid classes. In the adipose tissues, saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (n-9 MUFAs) were most present in ponies and horses. N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs), followed by SFAs, were most frequently found in liver tissue and plasma in all animals. Horses, in comparison to ponies, had significantly higher n-6 PUFA levels in all tissues and plasma. In liver tissue, horses had significantly lower hepatic iso-branched-chain fatty acids (iso-BCFAs) than ponies. The hepatic fatty acid composition of selected lipid classes was different between horses and ponies. In the polar PL fraction, horses had low n-9 MUFA and n-3 PUFA contents but higher n-6 PUFA contents than ponies. Furthermore, iso-BCFAs are absent in several hepatic lipid fractions of horses but not ponies. The differences in fatty acid lipid classes between horses and ponies provide key information on the species- and location-specific regulation of FA metabolism, thus affecting health status such as inflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fígado/química , Fatores Etários , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa , Esterificação , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/classificação , Cavalos , Metilação
15.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(8): e1801104, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817094

RESUMO

SCOPE: Dietary biomarkers allow for study of diet and disease risk relationships, but a key requirement is that these biomarkers are reproducible and reflect long-term diet. This study assesses reproducibility of selected dietary biomarkers in a multi-ethnic Asian population, and quantifies diet-disease relationship attenuation arising from use of a single biomarker measurement. METHODS AND RESULTS: Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) are used to evaluate the reproducibility of urinary isoflavone and enterolignan, total plasma fatty acid (FA), and serum carotenoid concentrations measured 4 months apart in adult Singapore residents (ethnic Chinese, n 59; Malay, n 46; Indian, n 56). Total carotenoid ICC is 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68, 0.81), ranging from 0.63 to 0.84 for individual carotenoids. FA ICC (median) is 0.74 (inter-quartile range 0.70-0.78). Total isoflavone ICC (95% CI) is 0.21 (0.06-0.35). Total enterolignan ICC is 0.42 (0.28, 0.54). Attenuation factors associated with a single time point measure ranged from 0.74 to 0.94 for carotenoids and FAs, and 0.42 to 0.70 for isoflavones and enterolignans. CONCLUSIONS: In a multi-ethnic Asian population, single measures of most serum carotenoids and plasma FAs likely represent habitual diet, whereas reproducibility of urinary isoflavones and enterolignans is moderate, possibly due to rapid excretion.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Dieta , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Carotenoides/sangue , Carotenoides/urina , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Isoflavonas/sangue , Isoflavonas/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Singapura/etnologia
16.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 203: 33-44, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803694

RESUMO

The effects of dietary marine-derived n-3 fatty acids (FA) on mare milk and mare and foal plasma FA, postpartum ovarian follicular growth and prostaglandin concentrations were evaluated. Sixty days prior to expected foaling dates, mares were assigned to one of three diets: corn oil (CORN, n = 6), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) diet (D; 12.64 g/d, n = 7), or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA (ED; 8.84 g EPA, 10.43 g DHA/d, n = 7). Milk and plasma were collected for FA analysis. Follicular data were recorded through the first postpartum ovulation. Post-ovulation serial blood samples were evaluated for prostaglandin F2α metabolite (PGFM). Supplementation with DHA, or DHA plus EPA resulted in lower linoleic acid and greater EPA and DHA in mare plasma (P < 0.05), greater arachidonic acid and DHA, or EPA and DHA in milk (P < 0.05), and greater DHA, or EPA and DHA in foal plasma (P < 0.05). Days to the first postpartum ovulation was greater (P < 0.01) in ED (22.5 ± 2.1) compared to CORN (12.5 ± 2.3) and D (13.3 ± 2.3) groups. Follicular retention (≥35 mm) prior to ovulation was longer (P < 0.05) for ED (12.7 ± 1.9 d) compared to CORN (6.3 ± 2.0 d) or D (6.0 ± 2.0 d) groups. Treatment did not affect PGFM concentrations. Maternal EPA and DHA supplementation beginning in late gestation altered the FA profile of milk and mare and foal plasma, and may result in delayed ovulation in the early postpartum period.


Assuntos
Óleo de Milho/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Lactação , Leite/metabolismo , Reprodução , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Óleo de Milho/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Cavalos , Leite/química , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 260-268, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721918

RESUMO

Background: Observational studies often infer hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) by measuring circulating fatty acid (FA) markers; however, it remains to be elucidated whether these markers accurately reflect hepatic DNL. Objectives: We investigated associations between fasting hepatic DNL and proposed FA markers of DNL in subjects consuming their habitual diet. Methods: Fasting hepatic DNL was assessed using 2H2O (deuterated water) in 149 nondiabetic men and women and measuring the synthesis of very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG) palmitate. FA markers of blood lipid fractions were determined by gas chromatography. Results: Neither the lipogenic index (16:0/18:2n-6) nor the SCD index (16:1n-7/16:0) in VLDL-TG was associated with isotopically assessed DNL (r = 0.13, P = 0.1 and r = -0.08, P = 0.35, respectively). The relative abundances (mol%) of 14:0, 16:0, and 18:0 in VLDL-TG were weakly (r ≤ 0.35) associated with DNL, whereas the abundances of 16:1n-7, 18:1n-7, and 18:1n-9 were not associated. When the cohort was split by median DNL, only the abundances of 14:0 and 18:0 in VLDL-TG could discriminate between subjects having high (11.5%) and low (3.8%) fasting hepatic DNL. Based on a subgroup, FA markers in total plasma TG, plasma cholesteryl esters, plasma phospholipids, and red blood cell phospholipids were generally not associated with DNL. Conclusions: The usefulness of circulating FAs as markers of hepatic DNL in healthy individuals consuming their habitual diet is limited due to their inability to discriminate clearly between individuals with low and high fasting hepatic DNL.


Assuntos
Jejum , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Lipogênese , Fígado/metabolismo , Avaliação Nutricional , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Deutério , Óxido de Deutério , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteínas VLDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Palmitatos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
18.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717220

RESUMO

Susceptibility to develop hypertension may be established during early stages of life that include the intrauterine period, infancy and childhood. We recently showed that blood pressure increased when rats reached adulthood when sucrose was ingested for a short-term critical window from postnatal day 12 to 28 in the rat, which corresponds to days around weaning. Here, we studied several factors that might participate in the increased susceptibility to hypertension when adulthood is reached by analyzing the changes produced at the end of the sucrose ingestion during this critical period. Body weight of the rats at the end of the sucrose period was decreased even if there was an increased ingestion in Kcal. We found an increase in blood pressure accompanied by a decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in the aorta. When insulin was administered to rats receiving sucrose, glucose in plasma diminished later than in controls and this slight insulin resistance may reduce nitric oxide synthase action. Oleic acid that modulates eNOS expression was increased, lipoperoxidation was elevated and total non-enzymatic anti-oxidant capacity was decreased. There was also a decrease in SOD2 expression. We also studied the expression of Sirt1, which regulates eNOS expression and Sirt3, which regulates SOD2 expression as possible epigenetic targets of enzyme expression involved in the long- term programming of hypertension. Sirt3 was decreased but we did not find an alteration in Sirt1 expression. We conclude that these changes may underpin the epigenetic programming of increased susceptibility to develop hypertension in the adults when there was exposure to high sucrose levels near weaning in rats.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Sirtuínas/metabolismo , Sacarose/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta Torácica/enzimologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Sacarose/administração & dosagem
19.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(5): e1800568, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724465

RESUMO

SCOPE: Flexitarian dieting is increasingly associated with health benefits. The study of postprandial metabolic response to vegan and animal diets is essential to decipher how specific diet components may mediate metabolic changes. METHODS AND RESULTS: A randomized, crossover, controlled vegan versus animal diet challenge is conducted on 21 healthy participants. Postprandial metabolic measurements are conducted at seven timepoints. Area under the curve analysis of the vegan diet response demonstrates higher glucose (EE 0.35), insulin (EE 0.38), triglycerides (EE 0.72), and nine amino acids at breakfast (EE 4.72-209.32); and six lower health-promoting fatty acids at lunch (EE -0.1035 to -0.13) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Glycemic and lipid parameters vary irrespective of diet type, demonstrating that vegan and animal meals contain health-promoting and suboptimal nutrient combinations. The vegan breakfast produces the same pattern of elevated branched chain amino acids, insulin, and glucose as the animal diet from the fasting results, reflecting the low protein load in the animal and the higher branched-chain amino acid load of the vegan breakfast. Liberalization of the vegan menu to vegetarian and the animal menu to a Nordic-based diet can result in optimal metabolic signatures for both flexitarian diet strategies in future research.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta , Lipídeos/sangue , Veganos , Adulto , Aminoácidos/sangue , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/sangue , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Metaboloma , Período Pós-Prandial , Fatores de Tempo , Vegetarianos
20.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 52: 222-231, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As cardiovascular events are one of the main causes of death in developed countries, each factor potentially increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease deserves special attention. One such factor is the potentially atherogenic effect of lead (Pb) on lipid metabolism, and is significant in view of the still considerable Pb environmental pollution and the non-degradability of Pb compounds. METHODS: Analysis of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (caprylic acid (C8:0), decanoic acid (C10:0), lauric acid (C12:0), tridecanoic acid (C13:0), myristic acid (C14:0), pentadecanoic acid (C15:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), heptadecanoic acid (C17:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and behenic acid (C22:0)), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic acid (18:1w9), trans-vaccenic acid (C18:1 trans11)), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (linoleic acid (C18:2n6), gamma-linolenic acid (C18:3n6), arachidonic acid (C20:4n6)), was conducted by gas chromatography. Analysis of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) expression was performed using qRT-PCR. Oxidative stress intensity (malondialdehyde - MDA concentration) was measured using spectrophotometric method. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in macrophages was visualized by fluorescence microscopy and quantitatively measured by plate reader. RESULTS: Pb caused quantitative alterations in FAs profile in macrophages; the effect was Pb-concentration dependent and selective (i.e. concerned only selected FAs). In general, the effect of Pb was biphasic, with Pb levels of 1.25 µg/dL and 2.5 µg/dL being stimulatory, and 10 µg/dL being inhibitory on concentrations of selected FAs. The most potent Pb concentration, resulting in increase in levels of 9 FAs, was 2.5 µg/dL, the Pb-level corresponding to the mean blood Pb concentrations of people living in urban areas not contaminated by Pb. Pb was found to exert similar, biphasic effect on the expression of FADS1. However, Pb decreased, in a concentration-dependent manner, the expression of SCD and FADS2. Pb significantly increased MDA and ROS concentration in macrophages. CONCLUSION: Environmental Pb exposure might be a risk factor resulting in alterations in FAs levels, oxidative stress and increased MDA concentration in macrophages, which might lead to the formation of foam cells and to inflammatory reactions.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Chumbo/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA