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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(20): 12938-12948, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894676

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are anthropogenic, globally distributed chemicals. Legacy PFAS, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), have been regularly detected in marine fauna but little is known about their current levels or the presence of novel PFAS in seabirds. We measured 36 emerging and legacy PFAS in livers from 31 juvenile seabirds from Massachusetts Bay, Narragansett Bay, and the Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE), United States. PFOS was the major legacy perfluoroalkyl acid present, making up 58% of concentrations observed across all habitats (range: 11-280 ng/g). Novel PFAS were confirmed in chicks hatched downstream of a fluoropolymer production site in the CFRE: a perfluorinated ether sulfonic acid (Nafion byproduct 2; range: 1-110 ng/g) and two perfluorinated ether carboxylic acids (PFO4DA and PFO5DoDA; PFO5DoDA range: 5-30 ng/g). PFOS was inversely associated with phospholipid content in livers from CFRE and Massachusetts Bay individuals, while δ 13C, an indicator of marine versus terrestrial foraging, was positively correlated with some long-chain PFAS in CFRE chick livers. There is also an indication that seabird phospholipid dynamics are negatively impacted by PFAS, which should be further explored given the importance of lipids for seabirds.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Animais , Aves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Massachusetts , Rios , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Estados Unidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 114940, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540590

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are used in specialty/functional textiles to impart oil, water, and stain repellency. Little is known, however, with regard to the occurrence of PFASs in textiles including infant clothing. In this study, 13 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), comprising four perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4-C10) and nine perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C4-C12) were determined in 160 textile samples collected from the United States. Two extraction methods, one involving a simple solvent extraction (i.e., before oxidation) and the other with an oxidative treatment (i.e., after oxidation) of textile extracts, were used. The sum concentrations of 13 PFAAs (i.e., ∑PFAA) in textile extracts before oxidation ranged from

Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lactente , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Têxteis , Estados Unidos
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 726: 138538, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315852

RESUMO

In recent years, chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acid (Cl-PFESA, trade name: F-53B), one of the alternatives to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), has been widely detected in environmental matrices and organisms in China. However, sufficient information regarding its presence in seafood is not available. Therefore, we investigated the levels of Cl-PFESAs and legacy per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 276 seafood samples collected from markets in Beijing and assessed the human exposure risks of Cl-PFESAs through seafood intake. C8 Cl-PFESA was the dominant congener with significantly higher concentrations (

Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Animais , Pequim , China , Éter , Éteres , Humanos , Alimentos Marinhos , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 386: 121981, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896003

RESUMO

Contamination of drinking water by per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is a worldwide problem. In this study, we for the first time revealed the role of the air-water interface in enhancing the removal of long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic (PFCAs; CnF2n+1COOH, n ≥ 7) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic (PFSAs; CnF2n+1SO3H, n ≥ 6) acids, collectively termed as perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), through combined aeration and adsorption on two kinds of activated carbon (AC). Aeration was shown to enhance the removal of long-chain PFAAs through adsorption at the air-water interface and subsequent adsorption of PFAA-enriched air bubbles to the AC. The removal of selected long-chain PFAAs was increased by 50-115 % with the assistance of aeration, depending on the perfluoroalkyl chain length. Aeration is more effective in enhancing long-chain PFAA removal as air-water interface adsorption increases with PFAA chain length due to higher surface activity. After removing adsorbed air bubbles by centrifugation, up to 80 % of the long-chain PFAAs were able to desorb from the sorbent, confirming the contribution of the air-water interface to the adsorption of PFAAs on AC. Aeration during AC treatment of water could enhance the removal of long-chain PFAAs, and improve the performance of AC during water treatment.


Assuntos
Ar/análise , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Água Potável/química , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Modelos Teóricos
5.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124578, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524601

RESUMO

Twenty-four per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were analyzed in water and sediment from the Jiulong Estuary-Xiamen Bay to study their seasonal variations, transport, partitioning behavior and ecological risks. The total concentration of PFASs in water ranged from 11 to 98 ng L-1 (average 45 ng L-1) during the dry season, 0.19-5.7 ng L-1 (average 1.5 ng L-1) during the wet season, and 3.0-5.4 ng g-1 dw (average 3.9 ng g-1 dw) in sediment. In water samples, short-chain PFASs were dominated by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFBA) in the dry season and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) in the wet season, while long chain PFASs, such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), dominated in the sediment. The highest concentration of PFASs in water were found in the estuary; in contrast, the highest level of PFASs in sediment were found in Xiamen Bay. These spatial distributions of PFASs indicate that river discharge is the main source of PFASs in estuarine water, while the harbor, airport and wastewater treatment plant near Xiamen Bay may be responsible for the high PFBS and PFOS concentrations in water and sediment. The partition coefficients (log Kd) of PFASs between sediment and water (range from 1.64 to 4.14) increased with carbon chain length (R2 = 0.99) and also showed a positive relationship with salinity. A preliminary environmental risk assessment indicated that PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water and sediment pose no significant ecological risk to organisms.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Baías/química , Caprilatos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Rios/química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Salinidade , Estações do Ano
6.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113166, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561035

RESUMO

A recent data set for 22 poly- and per-fluorinated compounds (PFASs) in Ponar grab samples of surface sediments and cores from the Great Lakes of North America was examined for concentrations, loads, correlations with geographical coordinates and depth (time), and for sources. Correlations were determined by multivariate regression analyses. Source apportionment of PFASs was carried out by positive matrix factorization (PMF) for two cores from Lake Ontario. For the five lakes together, the total load of PFASs in sediments was estimated to be 245 ±â€¯24 tonnes, which is about half the load for total PCBs. The recent annual loading was 1812 ±â€¯320 kg/yr. Concentrations and inventories of PFASs were greatest in Lakes Erie and Ontario. Since 1947, concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in ten cores have increased exponentially as a function of time with doubling times between 10 and 54 yr and have leveled off in three cores since 2000. PMF demonstrated an effective grouping of two particle-associated factors, characterized mainly by longer-chain PFASs (C ≥ 8) and two other factors of mainly shorter-chain compounds (C ≤ 6). Two factors feature only one dominant compound: factor 1, PFOS, and factor 3, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS). Of all factors, factor 3 with PFBS has the largest contribution (47.8%). Significant scores for perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) and PFBS, along with flat or decreasing PFOS contributions since 2003, indicate that the replacement of PFOS with these compounds is beginning to take effect in the environment.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Great Lakes Region , Lagos , América do Norte , Ontário , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise
7.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 1117-1125, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434189

RESUMO

Bed sediments and a dated sediment core were collected upstream and downstream from the city of Lyon (France) to assess the spatial and temporal trends of contamination by per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in this section of the Rhône River. Upstream from Lyon, concentrations of total PFASs (ΣPFASs) in sediments are low (between 0.19 and 2.6 ng g-1 dry weight - dw), being characterized by a high proportion of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Downstream from Lyon, and also from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant, ΣPFASs concentrations reach 48.7 ng g-1 dw. A gradual decrease of concentrations is reported at the coring site further downstream (38 km). Based on a dated sediment core, the temporal evolution of PFASs is reconstructed from 1984 to 2013. Prior to 1987, ΣPFASs concentrations were low (≤2 ng g-1 dw), increasing to a maximum of 51 ng g-1 dw in the 1990s and then decreasing from 2002 to the present day (∼10 ng g-1 dw). In terms of the PFAS pattern, the proportion of perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) has remained stable since the 1980s (∼10%), whereas large variations are reported for carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Long chain- (C > 8) PFCAs characterized by an even number of perfluorinated carbons represent about 74% of the total PFAS load until 2005. However, from 2005 to 2013, the relative contribution of long chain- (C > 8) PFCAs with an odd number of perfluorinated carbons reaches 80%. Such changes in the PFAS pattern likely highlight a major shift in the industrial production process. This spatial and retrospective study provides valuable insights into the long-term contamination patterns of PFAS chemicals in river basins impacted by both urban and industrial activities.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Ácidos Carboxílicos , França , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rios/química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise
8.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 804-812, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200206

RESUMO

6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) is currently used as an alternative to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and is widely detected in the environment. The uptake, translocation and biotransformation of 6:2 FTSA in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) were investigated by hydroponic exposure for the first time. The root concentration factor (RCF) of 6:2 FTSA was 2.6-24.2 times as high as those of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) of the same or much shorter carbon chain length, demonstrating much higher bioaccumulative ability of 6:2 FTSA in pumpkin roots. The translocation capability of 6:2 FTSA from root to shoot depended on its hydrophobicity. Six terminal perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) metabolites, including perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoropropionic acid (PFPrA) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) were found in pumpkin roots and shoots. PFHpA was the primary metabolite in roots, while PFBA was the major product in shoots. 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), a cytochromes P450 (CYPs) suicide inhibitor, could decrease the concentrations of PFCA products with dose-dependent relationships in pumpkin tissues, implying the role of CYP enzymes involved in plant biotransformation of 6:2 FTSA. This study indicated that the application of 6:2 FTSA can lead to the occurrence of PFCAs (C2-C7) in plants.


Assuntos
Alcanossulfonatos/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Alcanossulfonatos/química , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Transporte Biológico , Biotransformação , Caproatos/análise , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Ácidos Heptanoicos/análise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Hidroponia , Ácidos Pentanoicos/análise , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Triazóis/farmacologia , Ácido Trifluoracético/análise
9.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 21(11): 1926-1935, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183483

RESUMO

An improved protocol of the total oxidizable precursor (TOP) assay was developed for precursors to C2-C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and C4-C8 and C10 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs). The proposed protocol was tested and validated for contaminated soil samples. The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) present in the soil extract solutions after oxidation with persulfate were separated from the inorganic salts by vacuum-assisted drying of the digestion solution followed by solid-liquid extraction of the PFAAs with acetonitrile from the dry residue. Ion chromatography (for C2-C4 PFCAs) and reversed phase liquid chromatography (for all other PFASs), both coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, were used for quantification. High procedural recoveries of PFAAs between 68% and 123% with RSDs between 0.2% and 25% (n = 3) were achieved. The method was validated using selected polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs) and bis-[2-(N-ethyl perfluorooctane-1-sulfonamido)ethyl] phosphoric acid ester (diSAmPAP) as model precursors in pure solutions and in the presence of soil matrix. The oxidation led to characteristic and reproducible PFCA patterns (in the case of PAPs) or PFOA (in the case of diSAmPAP) with total reaction yields between 92 ± 4% and 123 ± 13% (n = 3). The impact of the soil matrix on transformation yields was negligible. In a soil core from a PFAS-polluted agricultural site, precursors were concentrated in the upper 40 cm with long-chain precursors being prevalent. After oxidative digestion, the total molar PFAA-concentrations increased by factors of 1.6 to 5.0. More than 40 cm below ground precursors of TFAA, PFPrA and PFBA accounted for ∼50% of the reaction products, underlining the importance of their inclusion in mass balances based on the TOP assay.


Assuntos
Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Oxirredução , Poluentes do Solo/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
10.
Environ Int ; 129: 76-85, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121518

RESUMO

The fluorochemical industry has shifted to the production of short chain homologues of perfluoalkyl acids (PFAAs) in recent years. Yet the effective removal of short-chain PFAAs from wastewater is still a major challenge. In this study, the removal efficiencies (RM) of short- and long-chain PFAAs emitted from two fluorochemical industrial parks were evaluated in one industrial and two domestic waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of PFAAs in various emerged and submerged aquatic plants in adjacent river and an artificial wetland were also calculated. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were dominant in the whole area. The source water of the fluorochemical industrial WWTP (F-WWTP) gathered from the facilities in Park 2 contained total PFAAs (∑PFAAs) of 5,784 ng/L. Among the four main technologies, the biological aerated filter, combined with upflow sludge bed processes presented the greatest RM of ∑PFAAs in the F-WWTP, respectively. The source water of the wetland from the river brought ∑PFAAs to 21,579 ng/L, emerged plants showed higher BAF of PFBA and PFBS, while lower BAF of PFOA and PFOS than submerged plants. J. serotinus showed both the highest ∑PFAAs and the highest BAF for short chain PFAAs. With the increasing production capacity, this study provided valuable information for risk assessment and management of PFAA emission from point sources.


Assuntos
Caprilatos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Plantas/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Rios , Áreas Alagadas
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091789

RESUMO

The perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAAs) have received growing attention in recent years as emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment. The occurrence, removal and bioaccumulation of fourteen PFAAs (C4-C14 carboxylate; C4, C6, C8 sulfonates) were investigated in Lake Chaohu, China. The concentrations of the selected PFAAs in inflowing river, lake water and sewage treatment plant (STP) samples were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatograph (UPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA) and perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), instead of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), were predominant PFAAs in the inflowing river and lake water with maximum concentrations in the ranges of 52.2-1866 and 27-236 ng L-1, respectively. The highest concentrations of total PFAAs were detected in the western rivers. The effluents from seven STPs were likely important sources of PFAAs in surface water, and the amount of the daily fluxes in the effluent were 132 g for short-chain PFAAs and 109 g for long-chain PFAAs. PFAAs were widely detected in Chinese icefish (Neosalanx tangkahkeii taihuensis) collected from Lake Chaohu, with maximal concentrations ranging from 1.79 ng g-1 to 50.9 ng g-1. The logarithmic bioaccumulation factors of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA, 3.5), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 3.35) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, 3.31) indicated the bioaccumulation of these long-chain PFAAs. This study is useful for enhancing our understanding of the pollution profiles of PFAAs and their environmental health risk in the freshwater lake.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Animais , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Lagos/química , Rios/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Chemosphere ; 229: 366-373, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078894

RESUMO

In recent years, environmental issues emerging from per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have raised high concern worldwide. Levels of human exposure to PFAS remain unknown in India. Biomonitoring data obtained from hair analysis have been evidenced to provide insight into retrospective human exposure to PFAS. In this study, 25 PFAS, including perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors, were measured in 39 human hair samples collected from 14 cities in India. The inuflence of gender on the PFAS levels was also examined. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to provide preliminary indicative data (due to the limited sample size and variability in hair-length sampling) on the levels of PFAS in Indian hair. The concentrations of total PFAS in hair varied from below matrix-specific limit of quantification (<0.02 ng/g) to 3.78 ng/g. Among 9 PFAS quantified, perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the predominant compounds. Categorized into 4 regions, PFAS contamination exhibited certain regional difference where South India may show higher levels than the other regions. Highly significant positive correlation was observed between PFHxS and PFOS (p ≪ 0.001; r = 0.644), suggesting similar pathways of exposure to the two compounds. Higher PFAS occurrence was generally observed in the hair of females. Our results highlighted the urgent need to investigate the deposition mechanism of PFAS in hair.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Caprilatos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Cabelo/química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Environ Pollut ; 248: 101-113, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784829

RESUMO

The extent of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in groundwater surrounding legacy landfills is currently poorly constrained. Seventeen PFAS were analysed in groundwater surrounding legacy landfills in a major Australian urban re-development precinct. Sampling locations (n = 13) included sites installed directly in waste material and down-gradient from landfills, some of which exhibited evidence of leachate contamination including elevated concentrations of ammonia-N (≤106 mg/L), bicarbonate (≤1,740 mg/L) and dissolved methane (≤10.4 mg/L). Between one and fourteen PFAS were detected at all sites and PFOS, PFHxS, PFOA and PFBS were detected in all samples. The sum of detected PFAS (∑14PFAS) varied from 26 ng/L at an ambient background site to 5,200 ng/L near a potential industrial point-source. PFHxS had the highest median concentration (34 ng/L; range: 2.6-280 ng/L) followed by PFOS (26 ng/L; range: 1.3-4,800 ng/L), PFHxA (19 ng/L; range:

Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Austrália , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Reforma Urbana
14.
Chemosphere ; 214: 729-737, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293026

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are utilized in specific firefighting foams. The objectives of this study were i) to map PFAS distribution in the soil and groundwater of a firefighter training site active for more than 3 decades, ii) to locate the main points of entry of PFASs into the aquifer and iii) to identify which PFASs seeped most deeply into the soil. A total of 44 soil cores and 17 groundwater samples were collected. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) and 6:2 Fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylbetaine (6:2 FTAB) were the most predominant PFASs in surface soil. The highest total PFAS concentrations (up to 357 µg/g) were measured in two areas. Both areas were considered as potential points of entry of PFASs into the aquifer since PFASs were detected in soil 15 m below the surface, despite the presence of clay layers. The highest total PFAS concentrations were recorded in the monitoring wells located in the perimeter of the firefighter training site and in the spring located downgradient in the direction of groundwater flow. They ranged from 300 to 8300 ng/L. The fluorotelomer 6:2 FTAB was quantified in 6 monitoring wells, suggesting that this FT can reach a water table 20 m below the ground's surface.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Bombeiros , Fluorcarbonetos/análise
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 654: 19-27, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428410

RESUMO

Organic compounds could be taken up by plants via different pathways, depending on chemical properties and biological species, which is important for the risk assessment and risk control. To investigate the transport pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) by wheat (Triticum acstivnm L.), the uptake of five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs): TFA (C2), PFPrA (C3), PFBA (C4), PFHxA (C6), PFOA (C8), and a perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid: PFOS (C8)) were studied using hydroponic experiments. Various inhibitors including a metabolic inhibitor (Na3VO4), two anion channel blockers (9-AC, DIDS), and two aquaporin inhibitors (AgNO3, glycerol) were examined. The wheat root and shoot showed different concentration trends with the carbon chain length of PFAAs. The uptake of TFA was inhibited by Na3VO4 and 9-AC whereas PFPrA was inhibited by Na3VO4, AgNO3 and 9-AC. For the other four PFAAs, only Na3VO4 was effective. These results together with the result of concentration-dependent uptake, which followed the Michaelis-Menten model, indicate that the uptake of PFAAs by wheat is mainly an energy-dependent active process mediated by carriers. For the ultra-short chain PFCAs (C2 and C3), aquaporins and anion channels may also be involved. A competition between TFA and PFPrA was determined during the plant uptake but no competition was observed between these two shorter chain analogues with other analogues, neither between PFBA and PFHxA, PFBA and PFBS, PFOA and PFOS.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Ácidos Sulfônicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(39): 10147-10153, 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192140

RESUMO

A total of 201 sewage sludge and 45 biowaste samples were examined for 14 different perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA). For perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, maximum concentrations of 698 µg/kg dry weight were measured in sewage sludge and for perfluorohexanesulfonic acid 29.0 µg/kg dry weight were found in biowaste. Looking at the fingerprints of both these matrixes it can be see that long-chain PFAA make up 85.9% of the total concentration in sewage sludge whereas short-chain PFAA only account for 14.1%. In contrast, the trend in biowaste is just the opposite, with 53.2% long-chain and 46.8% short-chain PFAA. These results lead to the conclusion that sewage sludge functions as a sink for long-chain PFAA, and the plants preferentially take up short-chain PFAA from the sludge/soil, as seen by the concentrations found in biowaste. It can be calculated that the total yearly amount of PFAA spread onto agricultural lands amount to 15.3 kg.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Esgotos/química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Alemanha , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
J Nat Prod ; 81(9): 2026-2031, 2018 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207470

RESUMO

Six new sulfonic acid-containing flavonoids, acidoflavanone (1), acidoauronol (2), 5- O-methylacidoauronol (3), acidoaurone (4), acidoisoflavone (5), and acidoflavonol (6), were isolated from the EtOH extract of the roots of Phyllanthus acidus. Their structures were unambiguously established by interpretation of their HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR data, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and comparison to the literature data. These new structures represent the first examples of sulfonic acid-containing flavanones, auronols, aurones, and isoflavones.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Phyllanthus/química , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Difração de Raios X
18.
Environ Pollut ; 241: 684-691, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902751

RESUMO

Novel 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFESA) and legacy PFASs, such as perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), have been used to replace perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a known persistent organic pollutant. Thus, it is critical to understand these PFOS alternatives regarding their sources and concentrations in the natural environment. In this study, 41 surface water samples as well as edible aquatic organisms were collected from Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in Hebei Province, China. Perfluorooctanoate acid (PFOA) and PFHxS were the predominant PFASs detected in the surface water, reaching concentrations of 8 397.23 ng/L and 1 478.03 ng/L, respectively, with PFHxS accounting for the greatest proportion (∼80.00%) in most water samples. PFHxS (mean: 87.53 ng/g) and PFOS (mean: 35.94 ng/g) were also the most prevalent compounds detected in aquatic organisms. Estimated daily intake (EDI) values of PFOS (16.56 ng/kg bw/d) and PFHxS (16.11 ng/kg bw/d) via aquatic food and drinking water were the highest among PFASs, indicating potential exposure risks to residents. In addition, fish product consumption was the important exposure pathway for residents to PFOA, PFHxS, PFOS, and 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFESA). This study reports on the highest PFHxS levels ever recorded in surface water, suggesting that further quantification of PFHxS in human serum and assessment of its health risks to local residents are warranted and critical.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos/química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Alcanossulfonatos/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Caprilatos/análise , China , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos
19.
Environ Pollut ; 241: 504-510, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883951

RESUMO

Chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs) caused great concerns recently as novel fluorinated alternatives. However, information on their bioconcentration, bioaccumulation and biomagnification in marine ecosystems is limited. In this study, 152 biological samples including invertebrates, fishes, seabirds and mammals collected from Bohai Sea of China were analyzed to investigate the residual level, spatial distribution, bioaccumulation and biomagnification of Cl-PFESAs. 6:2 Cl-PFESA was found in concentrations ranging from

Assuntos
Baías/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Invertebrados/química , Mamíferos , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Animais , China , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Chemosphere ; 199: 168-173, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29438943

RESUMO

Effects of perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in soils contaminated with these compounds at 0.1, 1, 10, 1,000, and 100,000 µg kg-1 dry weight, covering concentration levels found in background, biosolid-amended, and facility-surrounding soils, were investigated. Earthworms were exposed to spiked soil for 21 days. Concentrations of these compounds in earthworms after 21-d exposure ranged from below detection to 127 mg kg-1 wet weight with the rank order of PFNA > PFHxS > PFHpA > PFBS; no mortality of earthworms was observed in all treatments including controls, except PFBS at 1,000 µg kg-1 and all PFASs at 100,000 µg kg-1. The highest weight loss (29%) was observed for earthworms exposed to PFNA at 100,000 µg kg-1, which was significantly different from all other treatments except PFHpA at 100,000 µg kg-1. These results are expected to fill some data gaps in toxicity of PFASs in terrestrial environments and provide helpful information on the potential for trophic transport of PFASs from soil to higher organisms.


Assuntos
Ácidos Carboxílicos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Ácidos Sulfônicos/toxicidade , Animais , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Oligoquetos/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise
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