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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1562, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perceived risk towards the coronavirus pandemic is key to improved compliance with public health measures to reduce the infection rates. This study investigated how Sub-Saharan Africans (SSA) living in their respective countries and those in the diaspora perceive their risk of getting infected by the COVID-19 virus as well as the associated factors. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional survey on 1969 participants aged 18 years and above (55.1% male) was conducted between April 27th and May 17th 2020, corresponding to the mandatory lockdown in most SSA countries. The dependent variable was the perception of risk for contracting COVID-19 scores. Independent variables included demographic characteristics, and COVID-19 related knowledge and attitude scores. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses identified the factors associated with risk perception towards COVID-19. RESULTS: Among the respondents, majority were living in SSA (n = 1855, 92.8%) and 143 (7.2%) in the diaspora. There was no significant difference in the mean risk perception scores between the two groups (p = 0.117), however, those aged 18-28 years had lower risk perception scores (p = 0.003) than the older respondents, while those who were employed (p = 0.040) and had higher levels of education (p < 0.001) had significantly higher risk perception scores than other respondents. After adjusting for covariates, multivariable analyses revealed that SSA residents aged 39-48 years (adjusted coefficient, ß = 0.06, 95% CI [0.01, 1.19]) and health care sector workers (ß = 0.61, 95% CI [0.09, 1.14]) reported a higher perceived risk of COVID-19. Knowledge and attitude scores increased as perceived risk for COVID-19 increased for both SSAs in Africa (ß = 1.19, 95% CI [1.05, 1.34] for knowledge; ß = 0.63, 95% CI [0.58, 0.69] for attitude) and in Diaspora (ß = 1.97, 95% CI [1.16, 2.41] for knowledge; ß = 0.30, 95% CI [0.02, 0.58] for attitude). CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to promote preventive measures focusing on increasing people's knowledge about COVID-19 and encouraging positive attitudes towards the mitigation measures such as vaccines and education. Such interventions should target the younger population, less educated and non-healthcare workers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Migração Humana , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 32(3): 1320-1338, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421034

RESUMO

To describe the dynamics and forecast the main parameters of the COVID-19 pandemic, the time series of daily cases in the World Health Organization African Region (WHOAR) from February 26th to December 29th, 2020 was analyzed. Estimates for expected values of parameters characterizing an epidemic (size of the epidemic, turning point, maximum value of daily cases, and basic reproductive number) were provided for both the first and the second wave, and for the entire ongoing pandemic in WHOAR. To this aim, the classical SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Removed) model and its approximations were applied to each identified wave. Our results suggest that the turning point of the COVID-19 first wave took place around July 20th, 2020. The first wave was expected to disappear by mid-December 2020, with a total of 1,200,000 expected cases. The second wave apparently started around August 19th, with an expected turning point by January 12th, 2021. The second wave is expected to end by August 9th, 2021, with 1,800,000 cumulative cases, and mounting up to 3,000,000 total cases between February 2020 and August 2021. Estimated basic reproduction numbers (R0) were 1.27 (first wave) and 1.15 (second wave); the expected total number of deaths is around 66,000 victims.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Número Básico de Reprodução , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Organização Mundial da Saúde
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046294, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health systems in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are fragile and centralised. Consequently, majority of people have restricted access to healthcare services. Given the rise in the prevalence and burden of asthma in SSA, it is imperative to scrutinise the utilisation of healthcare services by people with asthma. We aim to understand, through this review, the extent of utilisation of healthcare services by asthma patients in SSA countries. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Arksey and O'Malley's scoping review methodology framework will be used to guide the conduct of this scoping review. We will conduct a search of the literature on the electronic databases: Medline, (using PubMed interface), EMBASE, EBSCOHOST, Web of Science and Google Scholar, grey literature sources and the reference lists of key studies to identify studies appropriate for inclusion. Two reviewers will independently screen all abstracts and full-text studies for inclusion. Registration of the proposed scoping review on the PROSPERO has indicated that no similar work has been or is being done elsewhere. We will review studies published on the subject from January 2009 to May 2020 in SSA. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The proposed scoping review will contribute towards the knowledge base on utilisation of healthcare services particularly for people with asthma. This will provide a better understanding of the extent of utilisation of healthcare services by asthma patients and ultimately contribute to improvement of quality of care for people suffering from asthma. The results from the review will enlighten and guide healthcare practitioners and researchers on developing appropriate and feasible interventions to increase the utilisation of healthcare services by asthma patients in resource-constrained settings in SSA countries. Results of this scoping review will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication, conference presentations and a 1-day stakeholder meeting. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020154127.


Assuntos
Asma , Atenção à Saúde , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/terapia , Instalações de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348933

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem, seemingly affecting individuals from low-income and-middle-income countries (LMICs) disproportionately, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the growing evidence pointing to an increasing prevalence of CKD across Africa, there has not been an Africa-wide concerted effort to provide reliable estimates that could adequately inform health services planning and policy development to address the consequences of CKD. Therefore, we established the CKD in Africa (CKD-Africa) Collaboration. To date, the network has curated data from 39 studies conducted in 12 African countries, totalling 35 747 participants, of which most are from sub-Saharan Africa. We are, however, continuously seeking further collaborations with other groups who have suitable data to grow the network. Although many successful research consortia exist, few papers have been published (with none from Africa) detailing the challenges faced and lessons learnt in setting up and managing a research consortium. Drawing on our experience, we describe the steps taken and the key factors required to establish a functional collaborative consortium among researchers in Africa. In addition, we present the challenges we encountered in building our network, how we managed those challenges and the benefit of such a collaboration for Africa. Although the CKD-Africa Collaboration is focused primarily on CKD research, many of the lessons learnt can be applied more widely in public health research in LMICs.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pobreza , Saúde Pública , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
8.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 229, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although measures have been put in place, musculoskeletal injuries are noticeable high among the nursing fraternity with low back pain (LBP) being the most prevalent. It is evident that healthcare professionals are in constant exposure to occupational hazards such as musculoskeletal injuries as they discharge their professional duties. Not only does LBP affect the health of the nurses, it also creates a huge burden on the health systems with consequent poor performance at the workplace as well as economic burden. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to map evidence on the prevalence, incidence, mortality, risk factors, and economic costs of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This is a scoping review because we want to map the evidence of MSD among nurses in SSA and to identify the scope of body literature in which the findings will be used for planning the intervention study thereafter. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Scoping review will be done to explore, describe, and map literature on the prevalence, incidence, mortality, risk factors, and economic costs related to MSD among nurses in SSA. The search will be done using databases such as PubMed, EBSCOHOST, Scopus, Web of Science, Science direct, Sabinet, WorldCat Local (iCatalogue), MEDLINE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, nursing academic editions, and World Health Organization (WHO) library databases. The search will look for primary studies within peer-reviewed articles as well as gray literature. In addition, the researcher will search for articles using keywords from the included studies as well as the list of references for related studies. The screening will be guided by Arksey and O'Malley's framework which has five steps to be followed: (I) identifying the research question, (II) identifying relevant studies, (III) study selection, (IV) charting the data, and (V) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results, and the scoping review will be reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist. A thematic content analysis will be used to give the narrative account of the review; using NVivo version 11 software, two independent reviewers will follow the three stages outlined by the thematic synthesis theory: (a) coding the findings of the included studies line-by-line, (b) organizing these free codes into related areas to construct descriptive themes, and (c) developing analytical themes. The outcome of coding will be verified and discussed with a third reviewer. The process of cross-checking the outcomes of coding of each included article will be discussed thoroughly. DISCUSSION: At the end, this study anticipates to uncover the relevant literature in SSA in regard to the prevalence, incidence, mortality, risk factors, and economic costs related to MSD among nurses; furthermore, findings from this study will help in identifying research gaps; informing policy, priority in funding, and planning; and guiding future research.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Programas de Rastreamento , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444384

RESUMO

HIV-related stigma and discrimination are recognized barriers to HIV prevention, testing and treatment among people of Sub-Saharan African descent (SSA) origin living in Belgium, but insights into HIV related-stigma mechanisms and outcomes are lacking for this population with high HIV prevalence. Guided by Earnshaw and Chaudoir's stigma framework (2009), we conducted this qualitative study using 10 focus-groups with 76 SSA community members and 20 in-depth interviews with SSA descendants living with HIV to explore specific HIV-stigma mechanisms and outcomes and underlying drivers. Inductive and deductive thematic analysis showed high degrees of stigma among SSA communities driven by fear of HIV acquisition and misconceptions in a migration context, negatively affecting SSA descendants living with HIV. The results allowed for contextualization of the framework: At the community level, prejudices and stereotypes were major stigma mechanisms, while physical distancing, gossips, sexual rejection, violence and increased HIV prevalence emerged as stigma outcomes. Among SSA descendants living with HIV, enacted, anticipated and internalized stigmas were validated as stigma mechanisms, with witnessed stigma as an additional mechanism. Self-isolation, community avoidance and low utilization of non-HIV specialized healthcare were additional outcomes. These results are relevant for tailoring interventions to reduce HIV-related stigma.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estigma Social
10.
Malar J ; 20(1): 339, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented challenges to health systems worldwide, including the control of non-COVID-19 diseases. Malaria cases and deaths may increase due to the direct and indirect effects of the pandemic in malaria-endemic countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This scoping review aims to summarize information on public health-relevant effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the malaria situation in SSA. METHODS: Review of publications and manuscripts on preprint servers, in peer-reviewed journals and in grey literature documents from 1 December, 2019 to 9 June, 2021. A structured search was conducted on different databases using predefined eligibility criteria for the selection of articles. RESULTS: A total of 51 papers have been included in the analysis. Modelling papers have predicted a significant increase in malaria cases and malaria deaths in SSA due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many papers provided potential explanations for expected COVID-19 effects on the malaria burden; these ranged from relevant diagnostical and clinical aspects to reduced access to health care services, impaired availability of curative and preventive commodities and medications, and effects on malaria prevention campaigns. Compared to previous years, fewer country reports provided data on the actual number of malaria cases and deaths in 2020, with mixed results. While highly endemic countries reported evidence of decreased malaria cases in health facilities, low endemic countries reported overall higher numbers of malaria cases and deaths in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this review provide evidence for a significant but diverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on malaria in SSA. There is the need to further investigate the public health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on the malaria burden. Protocol registered on Open Science Framework: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/STQ9D.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Saúde Global , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/mortalidade , Malária/terapia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(7): 910-12, 2021 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343114

RESUMO

Confirmed new cases of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have accelerated in Sub-Saharan Africa against a backdrop of fragile health systems, a high burden of comorbidities and socioeconomic instability. The context makes the region particularly vulnerable to the virus and its impact. As cases escalate, the need to tailor-make COVID-19-related response strategies to the African context is imperative. This paper aims to discuss key considerations on the public health response to the pandemic and its intersection with ethics and human rights. With this perspective, we bring attention to the conflict between healthcare workers' obligations and patient rights under the unclear policy and regulatory frameworks and the application of restrictive measures in the context of poverty. The indirect effects of the pandemic on already existing health problems are also highlighted. We appeal to the African States to establish appropriate systems which integrate human rights-based approaches to COVID-19 response. These systems should be ethically sound systems and ensure no-one is left behind in terms of testing, access to therapeutics and vaccination, and social protection; based on lessons learned over the past 12 months of the pandemic's presence in SSA, and patterns emerging across the globe.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Direitos Humanos/ética , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Atenção à Saúde , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Pobreza
12.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 159, 2021 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332540

RESUMO

AIM: HIV prevention measures in sub-Saharan Africa are still short of attaining the UNAIDS 90-90-90 fast track targets set in 2014. Identifying predictors for HIV status may facilitate targeted screening interventions that improve health care. We aimed at identifying HIV predictors as well as predicting persons at high risk of the infection. METHOD: We applied machine learning approaches for building models using population-based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) data for 41,939 male and 45,105 female respondents with 30 and 40 variables respectively from four countries in sub-Saharan countries. We trained and validated the algorithms on 80% of the data and tested on the remaining 20% where we rotated around the left-out country. An algorithm with the best mean f1 score was retained and trained on the most predictive variables. We used the model to identify people living with HIV and individuals with a higher likelihood of contracting the disease. RESULTS: Application of XGBoost algorithm appeared to significantly improve identification of HIV positivity over the other five algorithms by f1 scoring mean of 90% and 92% for males and females respectively. Amongst the eight most predictor features in both sexes were: age, relationship with family head, the highest level of education, highest grade at that school level, work for payment, avoiding pregnancy, age at the first experience of sex, and wealth quintile. Model performance using these variables increased significantly compared to having all the variables included. We identified five males and 19 females individuals that would require testing to find one HIV positive individual. We also predicted that 4·14% of males and 10.81% of females are at high risk of infection. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide a potential use of the XGBoost algorithm with socio-behavioural-driven data at substantially identifying HIV predictors and predicting individuals at high risk of infection for targeted screening.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Gravidez
13.
Health Secur ; 19(4): 393-404, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227870

RESUMO

Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic and associated high mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, there is panic among healthcare workers because of the higher risk of being infected. This study compared knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of COVID-19 among healthcare workers (HCWs) and non-healthcare workers (non-HCWs) and examined common associated factors. A web-based cross-sectional study of 1,871 respondents (430 HCWs and 1,441 non-HCWs) was conducted while lockdown measures were in place in 4 regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Data were obtained using a validated self-administered questionnaire via an online survey platform. Mean scores were calculated and summarized using a t test for both groups. Multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted to assess the unadjusted (B) and adjusted coefficients (ß) with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%. The mean scores were slightly higher among HCWs than non-HCWs, but not statistically significant. Being worried about contracting COVID-19 was the only common factor associated with knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions between the 2 groups. Knowledge of COVID-19 was associated with attitudes and perceptions between the 2 groups. Other significant associated factors were: the sub-Saharan Africa region, ages 29 to 38 years (ß = .32; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.60 for knowledge among non-HCWs), education (ß = -.43; 95% CI, -0.81 to -0.04; and ß = -.95; 95% CI, -1.69 to -0.22, for knowledge among non-HCWs and HCWs, respectively), practice of self-isolation (ß = .71; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.02 for attitude among non-HCWs and HCWs (ß = .97; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.49), and home quarantine due to COVID-19, in both groups. Policymakers and healthcare providers should consider these factors when targeting interventions during COVID-19 and other future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 446, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty, a syndrome resulting in heightened risk of negative outcomes for older adults, is increasing across the globe. However, little is known about the health service impacts of frailty in low-income countries (LICs), and in particular, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This study explores the relationship between frailty and health service 1) utilisation and 2) expenditure within Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: Participants aged 50 years and over participated in the Living Condition, Health and Resilience among the Elderly study. Frailty was assessed using a 30-item Frailty Index (FI). The association between frailty and self-reported health service utilisation was analysed for general practitioners (GPs), specialists, overnight hospitalisations, traditional practitioners and self-medication. Expenditure over the previous month included consulting, medications, hospitalisations and total expenditure. RESULTS: Among participants [n = 860, mean age (SD) = 61.8 (9.7) years, 42.9% female], 60.0% were frail, 22.8% pre-frail and 17.2% robust. The mean (SD) FI was 0.28 (0.17). Increased health service utilisation was associated with frailty for GP attendance, traditional practitioners and self-medication but not specialists or overnight hospitalisation. Pre-frailty and frailty were associated with increased total health service expenditure, with frailty also associated with aggregate consulting costs and medications. CONCLUSIONS: Although frailty is associated with health service utilisation and expenditure in a variety of contexts, the study results suggest that such impacts may vary across the globe. The experience of frailty in LICs is likely to differ from that experienced elsewhere due to cultural traditions, attitudes to the health system, and accessibility, with more research needed.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Idoso , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/terapia , Gastos em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(8): e1088-e1100, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stimulated by the economic challenges faced by many sub-Saharan African countries and the changes in the rotavirus burden across these countries, this study aimed to inform the decision of health policy makers of eight sub-Saharan countries, who are yet to introduce the rotavirus vaccine as of Dec 31, 2020, on the health economic consequences of the introduction of the vaccine in terms of the costs and benefits. METHODS: We did a cost-benefit analysis using a simulation-based decision-analytic model for children aged younger than 1 year, who were followed up to 259 weeks, in the Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea, Somalia, and South Sudan. Data were collected and analysed between Jan 13, 2020, and Dec 11, 2020. Cost-effectiveness analysis and budget impact analysis were done as secondary analyses. Four rotavirus vaccinations (Rotarix, Rotateq, Rotavac, and Rotasiil) were compared with no vaccination. The primary outcome was disability-adjusted life-years averted, converted to monetary terms. The secondary outcomes include rotavirus gastroenteritis averted, and rotavirus vaccine-associated intussusception. The primary economic evaluation measure was the benefit-cost ratio (BCR). FINDINGS: For the modelling period, Jan 1, 2021, to Dec 31, 2030, we found that the benefits of introducing the rotavirus vaccine outweighed the costs in all eight countries, with Chad and the Central African Republic having the highest BCR of 19·42 and 11·36, respectively. Guinea had the lowest BCR of 3·26 amongst the Gavi-eligible countries. Equatorial Guinea and Gabon had a narrow BCR of 1·86 and 2·06, respectively. Rotarix was the optimal choice for all the Gavi-eligible countries; Rotasiil and Rotavac were the optimal choices for Equatorial Guinea and Gabon, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Introducing the rotavirus vaccine in all eight countries, but with caution in Equatorial Guinea and Gabon, would be worthwhile. With the narrow BCR for Equatorial Guinea and Gabon, cautious, pragmatic, and stringent measures need to be employed to ensure optimal health benefits and cost minimisation of the vaccine introduction. The final decision to introduce the rotavirus vaccine should be preceded by comparing its BCR to the BCRs of other health-care projects. FUNDING: Copenhagen Consensus Center and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/economia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle
18.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203986

RESUMO

Despite concerns about the coexistence of overnutrition, undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, which is compositely referred to as the triple burden of malnutrition (TBM), little is known about the phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We, therefore, aimed to examine the prevalence and investigate the factors associated with TBM in SSA. This study uses cross-sectional survey data collected through the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program from 2010 to 2019. Data from 32 countries in SSA were used for the analysis. The prevalence of TBM were presented in tables and maps using percentages. The predictors of TBM were examined by fitting a negative log-log regression to the data. The results were then presented using adjusted odds ratios (aORs) at 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs). Out of the 169,394 children, 734 (1%) suffered from TBM. The highest proportion of children with TBM in the four geographic regions in SSA was found in western Africa (0.75%) and the lowest in central Africa (0.21%). Children aged 1 [aOR = 1.283; 95% CI = 1.215-1.355] and those aged 2 [aOR = 1.133; 95% CI = 1.067-1.204] were more likely to experience TBM compared to those aged 0. TBM was less likely to occur among female children compared to males [aOR = 0.859; 95% CI = 0.824-0.896]. Children whose perceived size at birth was average [aOR = 1.133; 95% CI = 1.076-1.193] and smaller than average [aOR = 1.278; 95% CI = 1.204-1.356] were more likely to suffer from TBM compared to those who were larger than average at birth. Children born to mothers with primary [aOR = 0.922; 95% CI = 0.865-0.984] and secondary [aOR = 0.829; 95% CI = 0.777-0.885] education were less likely to suffer from TBM compared to those born to mothers with no formal education. Children born to mothers who attended antenatal care (ANC) had lower odds of experiencing TBM compared to those born to mothers who did not attend ANC [aOR = 0.969; 95% CI = 0.887-0.998]. Children born to mothers who use clean household cooking fuel were less likely to experience TBM compared to children born to mothers who use unclean household cooking fuel [aOR = 0.724; 95% CI = 0.612-0.857]. Essentially, higher maternal education, ANC attendance and use of clean cooking fuel were protective factors against TBM, whereas higher child age, low size at birth and being a male child increased the risk of TBM. Given the regional variations in the prevalence and risk of TBM, region-specific interventions must be initiated to ensure the likelihood of those interventions being successful at reducing the risk of TBM. Countries in Western Africa in particular would have to strengthen their current policies and programmes on malnutrition to enhance their attainment of the SDGs.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Homens , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Hipernutrição , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205246

RESUMO

To reduce global HIV-1 incidence, there is a need to understand and disentangle HIV-1 transmission dynamics and to determine the geographic areas and populations that act as hubs or drivers of HIV-1 spread. In Sub-Saharan Africa (sSA), the region with the highest HIV-1 burden, information about such transmission dynamics is sparse. Phylogenetic inference is a powerful method for the study of HIV-1 transmission networks and source attribution. In this review, we assessed available phylogenetic data on mixing between HIV-1 hotspots (geographic areas and populations with high HIV-1 incidence and prevalence) and areas or populations with lower HIV-1 burden in sSA. We searched PubMed and identified and reviewed 64 studies on HIV-1 transmission dynamics within and between risk groups and geographic locations in sSA (published 1995-2021). We describe HIV-1 transmission from both a geographic and a risk group perspective in sSA. Finally, we discuss the challenges facing phylogenetic inference in mixed epidemics in sSA and offer our perspectives and potential solutions to the identified challenges.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/classificação , HIV-1/genética , Filogenia , Populações Vulneráveis , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Filogeografia , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e049927, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301662

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While individual studies have reported on in-hospital stroke mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the estimates are highly variable and inconclusive, buttressing the need for precise and reliable estimations. To overcome these inconsistencies, a well-structured systematic review and meta-analytical models are necessary. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no published systematic review and meta-analysis on risk factors for 30-day mortality for in-hospital patients with stroke in SSA. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: We will include all retrospective and prospective facility-based observational studies reporting on the incidence and/or risk factors for in-hospital stroke mortality in SSA. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Google scholar and Africa Journal Online (AJOL) will be searched for potentially relevant studies on in-hospital stroke mortality and risk factors in SSA. The search will be limited to studies conducted from January 1990 to December 2020. Two independent authors will screen titles and abstract to find studies that meet the prespecified eligibility criteria for inclusion in the review. The incidence of 30-day in hospital stroke mortality will be pooled. Meta-regression will be used to assess the factors associated with in-hospital stroke mortality in SSA. If possible, subgroup analysis will be performed based on subregion, publication year and study design, and quality score to determine possible source of heterogeneity. If possible, a sensitivity analysis will be performed to determine the robustness of the estimates obtained from the meta-analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required as this is a secondary research and will use reported data in scientific literature. A full manuscript will be submitted to a reputable peer-review journal for publication. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021227367.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
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