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1.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 407-415, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046934

RESUMO

In 2018, Cape Town, South Africa, nearly ran out of water. That this has not yet happened is in large part due to the water-saving efforts of its citizens. It is highly likely that this situation will be repeated in Cape Town and that similar situations will be experienced by major cities in other parts of the world. Efforts to save water should thus continue and the lessons learned in Cape Town should be shared. The functioning of Veterinary Services during a drought is affected in the same way as any business, in terms of running an office, but veterinary professionals face an increased risk of exposure to pathogens, compared to that of many occupations, and of veterinary officials becoming disease vectors. One component of Veterinary Services is veterinary laboratory services. Laboratory procedures rely heavily on water and, without advance planning, a laboratory's function can be severely limited by a restricted water supply. In many cases, innovative water-saving techniques can be used to reduce water use substantially without compromising the quality of the services offered. Here, the authors share their experiences and some lessons learned while working in Veterinary Services in the Western Cape province of South Africa.


Assuntos
Vetores de Doenças , Secas , Animais , Cidades , África do Sul
2.
Zootaxa ; 4834(4): zootaxa.4834.4.3, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056104

RESUMO

The highly diverse goatfish genus Upeneus (Mullidae) requires enhanced attention regarding the possible occurrence of undescribed species in insufficiently explored regions. This study focuses on the South-Western Indian Ocean region (SWIO), and on the so-called japonicus-group, a taxonomic species group of Upeneus. Based on in-situ observations and collections in Sodwana Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, the Floros goatfish, U. floros n. sp., is described. Detailed comparative studies of colour patterns and morphological characters of all other 13 japonicus-group species were undertaken as well as COI barcoding. The new species occurs in the coastal area between Angoche, N Mozambique and KwaZulu-Natal and partly overlaps in distribution with two similar species, U. guttatus, widely distributed in the Indo-W Pacific, and U. saiab, assumed to be endemic in a small area off Angoche. Two additional japonicus-group species occurring in the SWIO, U. seychellensis from the Seychelles Bank and U. pori from the Mediterranean Sea (as Lessepsian migrant), Northern Red Sea and Madagascar, were also compared. Because specimens as well as in-situ photographs of U. floros have been erroneously identified as either U. guttatus or U. pori during previous studies, updated taxonomic accounts and diagnoses are provided for these species taking size-related and population differences into account. For U. pori, of which a single preserved specimen from SW Madagascar was known so far, a new record from NE Madagascar is reported based on three specimens and a fresh-colour photo. Upeneus floros can be distinguished from U. guttatus and U. pori by a combination of three characters: head length, first dorsal-fin height and number of gill rakers. Upeneus guttatus can be distinguished from the other two species by disproportionally higher anterior dorsal-fin spines vs. a proportional decrease of dorsal-fin spines in height, barbels mostly yellow vs. white or creamy-white, and slightly fewer pectoral-fin rays. COI barcoding detected a clear distinction between U. guttatus and U. floros and U. pori, respectively, but no significant divergence between the two latter species. COI barcoding also failed to differentiate several other Upeneus species which are clearly distinguished morphologically. Possible interrelationships between species distribution patterns and physical oceanography are discussed. An identification key for the 22 WIO Upeneus species is provided.


Assuntos
Peixes , Animais , Oceano Índico , Moçambique , África do Sul
3.
Zootaxa ; 4858(3): zootaxa.4858.3.1, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056217

RESUMO

A taxonomic study of the family Alycidae G. Canestrini Fanzago in South Africa revealed nine species of which seven are new to science: Alycus augrabiensis sp. nov., Pachygnathus nasutus sp. nov., Amphialycus acaciae sp. nov., A. adustus sp. nov., A. mayteni sp. nov. (Alycini); Laminamichaelia furcula sp. nov. (Bimichaeliini); and Proteromichaelia sila gen. et sp. nov. (Proteromichaeliini trib. nov.). The four previously known species of Alycidae are redescribed: Amphialycus oblongus (Halbert, 1920), Laminamichaelia shibai nom. nov. (=B. ramosus Shiba, 1976, nom. preocc.), Petralycus longicornis Theron, 1977 and P. brevicornis Theron, 1977. Keys to tribes of the family Alycidae and to genera and species recorded in South Africa are provided.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos , Animais , África do Sul
4.
Zootaxa ; 4816(2): zootaxa.4816.2.1, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055701

RESUMO

The paper deals with ten species of Afrotropical Coleophoridae from South Africa and Swaziland. For one previously described species, Coleophora halmodes Meyrick, 1911 a lectotype is designated and the genitalia are illustrated for the first time. Nine new species of Coleophora Hübner, 1822 are described: C. stenoptera, sp. nov., C. swaziella, sp. nov., C. armata, sp. nov., C. suavis, sp. nov., C. venusta, sp. nov., C. hirtella, sp. nov., C. deinosella, sp. nov., C. intorta, sp. nov., C. leptella, sp. nov.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Genitália , África do Sul
5.
Zootaxa ; 4779(4): zootaxa.4779.4.5, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055769

RESUMO

The genus Zygophylax is a genus of leptothecate hydroids considerably rich in the number of species in the deep sea. In this study we review five species, Z. africana, Z. crozetensis, Z. infundibulum, Z. millardae and Z. geminocarpa, from southern Africa based on available material from several collections, describing and illustrating materials from type series or additional material. Additionally, we describe Zygophylax naomiae sp. nov. collected in South Africa at a depth of 287 m, distinguished from its congeners by the strong pattern of annulations of the pedicels of the hydrotheca and the nematotheca.


Assuntos
Hidrozoários , Animais , África do Sul
6.
Zootaxa ; 4823(1): zootaxa.4823.1.1, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056262

RESUMO

Fifteen years after establishing the genus Beckhoplia Dombrow, 2005 a large amount of new material collected has warranted a critical review of the established species and a revision of the genus. From this process, we describe fifteen new species from the Northern Cape Province and Western Cape Province of the Republic of South Africa: Beckhoplia bicolor Dombrow, new species, B. caliginosa Dombrow, new species, B. castanea Dombrow, new species, B. dolichiocnemis Dombrow, new species, B. elkeae Dombrow, new species, B. fusca Dombrow, new species, B. gifbergensis Dombrow, new species, B. nigra Dombrow, new species, B. nigrofasciata Dombrow, new species, B. nigrosetosa Dombrow, new species, B. pallidibrunnea Dombrow, new species, B. pulchra Dombrow, new species, B. pumilla Dombrow, new species, B. setosa Dombrow, new species and B. suturalis Dombrow, new species. Two cryptic species complexes within the species B. colvillei Dombrow, 2005 and B. occidentalis Dombrow, 2005 were detected. A revised key of the genus and observations about its biogeography are given. Important details of the morphological characters of the body and the parameres of the species are illustrated and their distributions are mapped. We also provide habitat and host plant information.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Ecossistema , África do Sul
7.
Zootaxa ; 4838(3): zootaxa.4838.3.7, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056816

RESUMO

Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motchulsky) is a native Asian ambrosia beetle that has been accidentally introduced to many countries of the world, presumably through the international movement of nursery, timber, and wood products. The species is known in various tropical African countries but only as far south as Tanzania on the African continent. In this study, we report X. crassiusculus and its fungal symbiont for the first time from South Africa. The species was identified using both morphological characters and COI sequence data. Xylosandrus crassiusculus were obtained from three different provinces of South Africa and represent two distinct haplotypes. The fungal symbiont, Ambrosiella roeperi, was isolated and identified using DNA sequencing and morphological characterization.


Assuntos
Ambrosia , Besouros , Gorgulhos , Animais , África do Sul
8.
Zootaxa ; 4820(3): zootaxa.4820.3.2, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056055

RESUMO

Larvae, subimagines, imagines of both sexes and eggs of Demoulinia crassi (Demoulin 1971) are described based on reared specimens from South Africa. Newly revealed characters testify that Demoulinia Gillies 1990 belongs to the plesiomorphon Protopatellata. Demoulinia includes two species, the South African species D. crassi and the Madagascar species D. insularis Lugo-Ortiz McCafferty 1998 (= D. assimilis Gattolliat 2003 syn. n.). Larvae of these two species differ in structure of claws and paraprocts; imagines and eggs are described for D. crassi only. Larvae of two unnamed species of Protopatellata from South Africa are briefly described and figured; possibly, one of them belongs to africanum [Cloeon], which is the type species Austrocloeon Barnard 1932.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Animais , Feminino , Larva , Masculino , África do Sul
9.
Zootaxa ; 4808(2): zootaxa.4808.2.13, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055986

RESUMO

Eight species of Strongylodesma Lévi, 1969 (Demospongiae Sollas, Poecilosclerida Topsent, Latrunculiidae Topsent) are recognised today (Van Soest et al. 2019): three from South Africa (S. algoaensis and S. tsitsikammaensis Samaai et al., 2003; S. aliwaliensis Samaai et al., 2004); two from the Tropical Western Atlantic (S. nigra and S. purpurea Samaai Kelly, 2009); and two from the Western Pacific Ocean (S. novaecaledoniae and S. tongaensis Samaai Kelly, 2009). The type species, S. areolata Lévi, 1969, is from Vema Seamount in the South Atlantic Ocean, about 1000 km northwest of Cape Town. Prior to this work, Strongylodesma had not been recorded in the Southwest Pacific region: here we report for the first time, a new species from temperate Australia, S. australiense sp. nov.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Animais , Austrália , África do Sul
10.
Zootaxa ; 4830(1): zootaxa.4830.1.2, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056251

RESUMO

Descriptions of five new Afrotropical species of the genus Condylostylus Bigot are provided: C. comorensis sp. nov. from Comoros, C. friedmani sp. nov. from Madagascar, C. gavryushini sp. nov. from Tanzania, C. kaplini sp. nov. from South Africa, and C. madagascarensis sp. nov. from Madagascar. The new species differ from other representatives of the genus in morphology of the male cercus and male secondary sexual characters of the legs. A revised identification key to males of the 25 known species of Afrotropical Condylostylus is provided. Condylostylus congensis Curran, 1927 syn. nov. is newly synonymized with C. beckeri Speiser, 1920.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Comores , Madagáscar , Masculino , África do Sul , Tanzânia
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 713, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074388

RESUMO

The quality of surface water could be influenced by both anthropogenic and natural factors. This study was designed to determine the impact of informal settlement and wastewater treatment plants on helminth egg contamination of urban rivers and the risks associated with everyday use. We also ascertained the accumulation of these eggs in the river sediments. The study was carried out in two rivers in the eThekwini Municipality of South Africa. Grab samples were taken at different points over a 10-month period. Ascaris spp., hookworm, Toxocara spp., Trichuris spp. and Taenia spp. were the helminth eggs detected in both the water column and sediments, with mean Ascaris spp. eggs of 0-6.3 (± 5.1)/L in the water and 0-6.8 (± 5.2)/kg in sediment samples. The helminth egg concentrations showed seasonal variation, probably due to changes in infection levels of the populations or natural factors, such as rainfall. The informal settlements had a greater impact than treated wastewater. For every 10,000 recreational users of the rivers 19 to 58 may be infected under undisturbed conditions, increasing to 29-88 individuals when the riverbed is disturbed. The risk from agricultural use of the rivers was above the tolerable risk values applicable for wastewater reuse, recommended by the World Health Organization. This calls for a re-evaluation of the policies governing surface water quality assessment, where the inclusion of helminth eggs and sediment monitoring will be critical.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Águas Residuárias , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Rios , África do Sul
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 729, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study describes the disease burden, clinical characteristics, antibiotic management, impact of multidrug resistance and outcome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection (PABSI) among children admitted to a tertiary referral hospital for children in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted at a paediatric referral hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Demographic and clinical details, antibiotic management and patient outcome information were extracted from medical and laboratory records. Antibiotic susceptibility results of identified organisms were obtained from the National Health Laboratory Service database. RESULTS: The incidence risk of PABSI was 5.4 (95% CI: 4.34-6.54) PABSI episodes / 10,000 hospital admissions and the most common presenting feature was respiratory distress, 34/91 (37.4%). Overall, 69/91 (75.8%) of the PA isolates were susceptible to all antipseudomonal antibiotic classes evaluated. Fifty (54.9%) of the PABSI episodes were treated with appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy. The mortality rate was 24.2% and in multivariable analysis, empiric antibiotic therapy to which PA isolates were not susceptible, infections present on admission, and not being in the intensive care unit at the time that PABSI was diagnosed were significantly associated with 14-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: PABSI caused appreciable mortality, however, appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy was associated with reduced 14-day mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Pseudomonas/diagnóstico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/mortalidade , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária
13.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e039455, 2020 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868368

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus causing COVID-19, declared a global pandemic by the WHO, is a novel infection with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. In South Africa, 55 421 cases have been confirmed as of 10 June 2020, with most cases in the Western Cape Province. Coronavirus leaves us in a position of uncertainty regarding the best clinical approach to successfully manage the expected high number of severely ill patients with COVID-19. This presents a unique opportunity to gather data to inform best practices in clinical approach and public health interventions to control COVID-19 locally. Furthermore, this pandemic challenges our resolve due to the high burden of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) in our country as data are scarce. This study endeavours to determine the clinical presentation, severity and prognosis of patients with COVID-19 admitted to our hospital. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study will use multiple approaches taking into account the evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospective observational design to describe specific patterns of risk predictors of poor outcomes among patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to Tygerberg Hospital. Data will be collected from medical records of patients with severe COVID-19 admitted at Tygerberg Hospital. Using the Cox proportional hazards model, we will investigate the association between the survival time of patients with COVID-19 in relation to one or more of the predictor variables including HIV and TB. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The research team obtained ethical approval from the Health Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Research Committee of the Tygerberg Hospital. All procedures for the ethical conduct of scientific investigation will be adhered to by the research team. The findings will be disseminated in clinical seminars, scientific forums and conferences targeting clinical care providers and policy-makers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública , Projetos de Pesquisa , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes , Tuberculose/complicações
14.
S Afr Med J ; 110(9): 842-845, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880264

RESUMO

Antibody tests for the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV2, have been developed both as rapid diagnostic assays and for high-throughput formal serology platforms. Although these tests may be a useful adjunct to a diagnostic strategy, they have a number of limitations. Because of the antibody and viral dynamics of the coronavirus, their sensitivity can be variable, especially at early time points after symptom onset. Additional data are required on the performance of the tests in the South African population, especially with regard to development and persistence of antibody responses and whether antibodies are protective against reinfection. These tests may, however, be useful in guiding the public health response, providing data for research (including seroprevalence surveys and vaccine initiatives) and development of therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Testes Imunológicos/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
15.
S Afr Med J ; 110(8): 700-703, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880283

RESUMO

Letter by Gopalan et al. on article by Singh and Moodley (Singh JA, Moodley K. Critical care triaging in the shadow of COVID-19: Ethics considerations. S Afr Med J 2020;110(5):355-359. https://doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.2020.v110i5.14778); and response by Singh and Moodley.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Cuidados Críticos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública , África Austral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Alocação de Recursos , África do Sul
17.
S Afr Med J ; 110(8): 759-760, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880303

RESUMO

Convalescent plasma is being considered as a potential therapy for COVID-19. We highlight and contextualise the findings of a recent Cochrane rapid review that evaluated the effectiveness and safety of convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin transfusion in the treatment of people with COVID-19. The review found low-certainty evidence of the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of convalescent plasma. As the novel coronavirus continues to spread in South Africa (SA), convalescent plasma may offer a therapeutic ray of hope for mitigating the morbidity and mortality burdens of the disease. Further investigation of the clinical benefits of the therapy in well-designed studies is needed to provide more evidence that will guide COVID-19 treatment decision-making in the SA context.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , África do Sul , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 621-624, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880335

RESUMO

Infectious diseases pandemics have devastating health, social and economic consequences, especially in developing countries such as South Africa. Scarce medical resources must often be rationed effectively to contain the disease outbreak. In the case of COVID-19, even the best-resourced countries will have inadequate intensive care facilities for the large number of patients needing admission and ventilation. The scarcity of medical resources creates the need for national governments to establish admission criteria that are evidence-based and fair. Questions have been raised whether infection with HIV or tuberculosis (TB) may amplify the risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes and therefore whether these conditions should be factored in when deciding on the rationing of intensive care facilities. In light of these questions, clinical evidence regarding inclusion of these infections as comorbidities relevant to intensive care unit admission triage criteria is investigated in the first of a two-part series of articles. There is currently no evidence to indicate that HIV or TB infection on their own predispose to an increased risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 or worse outcomes for COVID-19. It is recommended that, as for other medical conditions, validated scoring systems for poor prognostic factors should be applied. A subsequent article examines the ethicolegal implications of limiting intensive care access of persons living with HIV or TB.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Triagem/organização & administração , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Pandemias/economia , Seleção de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia
19.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 625-628, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880336

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought discussions around the appropriate and fair rationing of scare resources to the forefront. This is of special importance in a country such as South Africa (SA), where scarce resources interface with high levels of need. A large proportion of the SA population has risk factors associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. Many people are also potentially medically and socially vulnerable secondary to the high levels of infection with HIV and tuberculosis (TB) in the country. This is the second of two articles. The first examined the clinical evidence regarding the inclusion of HIV and TB as comorbidities relevant to intensive care unit (ICU) admission triage criteria. Given the fact that patients with HIV or TB may potentially be excluded from admission to an ICU on the basis of an assumption of lack of clinical suitability for critical care, in this article we explore the ethicolegal implications of limiting ICU access of persons living with HIV or TB. We argue that all allocation and rationing decisions must be in terms of SA law, which prohibits unfair discrimination. In addition, ethical decision-making demands accurate and evidence-based strategies for the fair distribution of limited resources. Rationing decisions and processes should be fair and based on visible and consistent criteria that can be subjected to objective scrutiny, with the ultimate aim of ensuring accountability, equity and fairness.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Seleção de Pacientes/ética , Pneumonia Viral , Alocação de Recursos , Triagem , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Alocação de Recursos/legislação & jurisprudência , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Triagem/economia , Triagem/ética , Triagem/legislação & jurisprudência
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