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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 729, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study describes the disease burden, clinical characteristics, antibiotic management, impact of multidrug resistance and outcome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection (PABSI) among children admitted to a tertiary referral hospital for children in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted at a paediatric referral hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Demographic and clinical details, antibiotic management and patient outcome information were extracted from medical and laboratory records. Antibiotic susceptibility results of identified organisms were obtained from the National Health Laboratory Service database. RESULTS: The incidence risk of PABSI was 5.4 (95% CI: 4.34-6.54) PABSI episodes / 10,000 hospital admissions and the most common presenting feature was respiratory distress, 34/91 (37.4%). Overall, 69/91 (75.8%) of the PA isolates were susceptible to all antipseudomonal antibiotic classes evaluated. Fifty (54.9%) of the PABSI episodes were treated with appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy. The mortality rate was 24.2% and in multivariable analysis, empiric antibiotic therapy to which PA isolates were not susceptible, infections present on admission, and not being in the intensive care unit at the time that PABSI was diagnosed were significantly associated with 14-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: PABSI caused appreciable mortality, however, appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy was associated with reduced 14-day mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Pseudomonas/diagnóstico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/mortalidade , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 655, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who use drugs including people who inject drugs (PWUD/ID), sex workers (SWs) and men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HIV and viral hepatitis infection. Limited epidemiological data on the infections exists in key populations (KPs) in South Africa. We investigated the prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV and selected risk factors among these KPs to inform effective responses. METHODS: We used convenience sampling to recruit a targeted 3500 KPs accessing HIV-related health services across Cape Town (SWs, MSM, PWUD/ID), Durban (SWs, PWUD/ID), Pietermaritzburg (SWs), Mthatha (SWs), Port Elizabeth (SWs), Johannesburg (MSM) and Pretoria (MSM and PWUD/ID) into a cross-sectional survey. An interviewer questionnaire to assess socio-demographic characteristics, drug use and sexual risk practices, was administered. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg); HCV antibody, viral load and genotype, and HIV antibody, was tested. RESULTS: Among the 3439 people included in the study (1528 SWs, 746 MSM, 1165 PWUD/ID) the median age was 29 years, most participants were black African (60%), and 24% reported homelessness. 82% reported substance use in the last month, including alcohol (46%) and heroin (33%). 75% were sexually active in the previous month, with condom use at last sex at 74%. HIV prevalence was 37% (highest among SWs at 47%), HBsAg prevalence 4% (similar across KPs) and HCV prevalence was 16% (highest among PWUD/ID at 46%). CONCLUSIONS: HBV, HCV and HIV pose a health burden for KPs in South Africa. While HIV is key for all included KPs, HCV is of particular importance to PWUD/ID. For KPs, HBV vaccination and behavioural change interventions that support consistent condom and lubricant access and use are needed. Coverage of opioid substitution therapy and needle and syringe services, and access to HCV treatment for PWUD/ID need to be expanded.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV/imunologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/etiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite C/etiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Profissionais do Sexo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e039455, 2020 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868368

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus causing COVID-19, declared a global pandemic by the WHO, is a novel infection with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. In South Africa, 55 421 cases have been confirmed as of 10 June 2020, with most cases in the Western Cape Province. Coronavirus leaves us in a position of uncertainty regarding the best clinical approach to successfully manage the expected high number of severely ill patients with COVID-19. This presents a unique opportunity to gather data to inform best practices in clinical approach and public health interventions to control COVID-19 locally. Furthermore, this pandemic challenges our resolve due to the high burden of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) in our country as data are scarce. This study endeavours to determine the clinical presentation, severity and prognosis of patients with COVID-19 admitted to our hospital. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study will use multiple approaches taking into account the evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospective observational design to describe specific patterns of risk predictors of poor outcomes among patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to Tygerberg Hospital. Data will be collected from medical records of patients with severe COVID-19 admitted at Tygerberg Hospital. Using the Cox proportional hazards model, we will investigate the association between the survival time of patients with COVID-19 in relation to one or more of the predictor variables including HIV and TB. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The research team obtained ethical approval from the Health Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Research Committee of the Tygerberg Hospital. All procedures for the ethical conduct of scientific investigation will be adhered to by the research team. The findings will be disseminated in clinical seminars, scientific forums and conferences targeting clinical care providers and policy-makers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública , Projetos de Pesquisa , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes , Tuberculose/complicações
5.
S Afr Med J ; 110(9): 842-845, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880264

RESUMO

Antibody tests for the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV2, have been developed both as rapid diagnostic assays and for high-throughput formal serology platforms. Although these tests may be a useful adjunct to a diagnostic strategy, they have a number of limitations. Because of the antibody and viral dynamics of the coronavirus, their sensitivity can be variable, especially at early time points after symptom onset. Additional data are required on the performance of the tests in the South African population, especially with regard to development and persistence of antibody responses and whether antibodies are protective against reinfection. These tests may, however, be useful in guiding the public health response, providing data for research (including seroprevalence surveys and vaccine initiatives) and development of therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Testes Imunológicos/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
6.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 621-624, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880335

RESUMO

Infectious diseases pandemics have devastating health, social and economic consequences, especially in developing countries such as South Africa. Scarce medical resources must often be rationed effectively to contain the disease outbreak. In the case of COVID-19, even the best-resourced countries will have inadequate intensive care facilities for the large number of patients needing admission and ventilation. The scarcity of medical resources creates the need for national governments to establish admission criteria that are evidence-based and fair. Questions have been raised whether infection with HIV or tuberculosis (TB) may amplify the risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes and therefore whether these conditions should be factored in when deciding on the rationing of intensive care facilities. In light of these questions, clinical evidence regarding inclusion of these infections as comorbidities relevant to intensive care unit admission triage criteria is investigated in the first of a two-part series of articles. There is currently no evidence to indicate that HIV or TB infection on their own predispose to an increased risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 or worse outcomes for COVID-19. It is recommended that, as for other medical conditions, validated scoring systems for poor prognostic factors should be applied. A subsequent article examines the ethicolegal implications of limiting intensive care access of persons living with HIV or TB.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Triagem/organização & administração , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Pandemias/economia , Seleção de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia
7.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 625-628, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880336

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought discussions around the appropriate and fair rationing of scare resources to the forefront. This is of special importance in a country such as South Africa (SA), where scarce resources interface with high levels of need. A large proportion of the SA population has risk factors associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. Many people are also potentially medically and socially vulnerable secondary to the high levels of infection with HIV and tuberculosis (TB) in the country. This is the second of two articles. The first examined the clinical evidence regarding the inclusion of HIV and TB as comorbidities relevant to intensive care unit (ICU) admission triage criteria. Given the fact that patients with HIV or TB may potentially be excluded from admission to an ICU on the basis of an assumption of lack of clinical suitability for critical care, in this article we explore the ethicolegal implications of limiting ICU access of persons living with HIV or TB. We argue that all allocation and rationing decisions must be in terms of SA law, which prohibits unfair discrimination. In addition, ethical decision-making demands accurate and evidence-based strategies for the fair distribution of limited resources. Rationing decisions and processes should be fair and based on visible and consistent criteria that can be subjected to objective scrutiny, with the ultimate aim of ensuring accountability, equity and fairness.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Seleção de Pacientes/ética , Pneumonia Viral , Alocação de Recursos , Triagem , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Alocação de Recursos/legislação & jurisprudência , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Triagem/economia , Triagem/ética , Triagem/legislação & jurisprudência
12.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 445-446, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880545

RESUMO

Less than 3 months after the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, and within a month of the WHO declaring COVID19 a global pandemic, COVID-19 infections and fatalities have grown exponentially, globally. Now, more than ever, the world needs responsible political leadership, evidence-based decision-making, and co-ordinated global health action.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Política , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Liderança , Pandemias , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração
13.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 453-455, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880549

RESUMO

Since community transmission of COVID-19 became established in South Africa, individuals who test positive for COVID-19 and who do not require hospitalisation have been permitted to self-isolate in their homes to reduce the burden on the health system. The Premier of KwaZulu-Natal Province has since announced that self-isolation will no longer be permitted in the province. Instead, mandatory isolation in state-designated isolation sites would apply. This policy change marks a dangerous departure from the country's prevailing position on home-based self-isolation and should not be replicated elsewhere.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Isolamento de Pacientes/legislação & jurisprudência , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
14.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 456-457, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880550

RESUMO

In the midst of an unprecedented public health crisis, extraordinary containment measures must be implemented. These include both isolation and quarantine, either on a voluntary basis or enforced. In the transition from voluntary to mandatory isolation, conflicts arise at the intersection of ethics, human rights and the law. The Siracusa Principles adopted by the United Nations Economic and Social Council in 1985 and enshrined in international human rights legislation and guidelines specify conditions under which civil liberties may be infringed. In order for isolation processes in South Africa to claim legitimacy, it is important that these principles as well as national laws and constitutional rights are embedded in state action.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Isolamento de Pacientes/legislação & jurisprudência , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ética Médica , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , África do Sul/epidemiologia
15.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 458-460, 2020 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880551

RESUMO

In March 2020, two cases of attempted murder were opened against people who had tested positive for COVID-19 and had not remained in quarantine. Criminal law has previously been used to criminalise intentional transmission of HIV in both South Africa (SA) and other countries. However, it has been found that criminalisation laws undermine public health and measures to control outbreaks by stigmatising those infected and deterring testing. This article explores whether SA's existing HIV criminalisation laws can be applied to the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and the potential effect such measures could have on efforts to control the COVID-19 epidemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Criminoso , Direito Penal/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , África do Sul/epidemiologia
16.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 463-465, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880553

RESUMO

While many countries are preparing to face the COVID-19 pandemic, the reported cases in Africa remain low. With a high burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease and a resource-constrained public healthcare system, sub-Saharan Africa is preparing for the coming crisis as best it can. We describe our early response as a designated COVID-19 provincial hospital in Cape Town, South Africa (SA).While the first cases reported were related to international travel, at the time of writing there was evidence of early community spread. The SAgovernment announced a countrywide lockdown from midnight 26 March 2020 to midnight 30 April 2020 to stem the pandemic and save lives. However, many questions remain on how the COVID-19 threat will unfold in SA, given the significant informal sector overcrowding and poverty in our communities. There is no doubt that leadership and teamwork at all levels is critical in influencing outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Liderança , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pobreza , África do Sul/epidemiologia
17.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 466-468, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880554

RESUMO

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is key to protecting healthcare workers from COVID-19 infection, but the pandemic has disrupted supply chains globally and necessitated rapid review of the scientific evidence for PPE re-use. In South Africa, where the COVID-19 epidemic is still developing, healthcare facilities have a short window of opportunity to improve PPE supply chains, train staff on prudent PPE use, and devise plans to track and manage the inevitable increases in PPE demand. This article discusses the available PPE preservation strategies and addresses the issue of decontamination and re-use of N95 respirators as a last-resort strategy for critical shortages during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
18.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 469-472, 2020 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880555

RESUMO

Quarantine is a very effective method for containing the spread of highly infectious diseases in large populations during a pandemic, but it is only effective if properly implemented. The co-operation and compliance of people entering quarantine are critical to its success. However, owing to the isolating and social distancing nature of quarantine, it often leads to extreme economic hardship and shortages in basic needs such as food, medicine, water and communication - and to the curtailment of certain universal social norms such as attending a parent's funeral. To escape these hardships, people often refuse to enter voluntary quarantine, or breach quarantine rules. In these circumstances, health authorities are obliged to act in the best interests of the public and obtain court orders to force some people into quarantine. In further extreme circumstances, when a national lockdown is ordered, non-compliance with quarantine measures may result in arrests and penalties. The scope of this article is limited to the period prior to and following such a lockdown, during which quarantine may still be vital for the containment of COVID-19. Because a quarantine order will deprive an individual of his or her freedom, this must be carefully balanced with the public interest. This article explains the legal and ethical considerations of this balancing exercise and provides practical guidance for obtaining quarantine orders.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/ética , Quarentena/ética , África do Sul/epidemiologia
19.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 476-477, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880557

RESUMO

In March 2020, the South African government implemented various non-pharmacological prevention and control measures (e.g. isolation, social distancing and quarantine) in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We summarise evidence from a rapid Cochrane review on the effect of quarantine alone v. quarantine plus combination measures to prevent transmission of and mortality caused by COVID-19. The findings show that when started earlier, quarantine combined with other prevention and control measures can be more effective than quarantine alone, and cost less.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Quarentena , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Isolamento Social , África do Sul/epidemiologia
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