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1.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(4)2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Untreated or inadequately treated maternal syphilis infection may be transmitted from mother to child resulting in congenital syphilis (CS) infection. In South Africa (SA), CS is a notifiable medical condition (NMC). The NMC surveillance system (NMCSS) was improved by introducing an electronic notification application, a new case notification form and training resources in July 2017. We describe CS surveillance in SA and report on experiences from implementing an improved NMCSS from August 2017 to December 2019. METHODS: We present the CS case definition, data collected by the CS case investigation and notification forms and data flow through the NMCSS. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse CS notifications received from August 2017 to December 2019. Qualitative inductive analysis of the stakeholder communications diary was conducted to identify CS surveillance challenges. RESULTS: There were 418 CS notifications submitted from 80 facilities in 35 out of 52 districts. Of the notified cases, 194 (46.8%) were male and the median age at notification was 7 days (interquartile range: 3-16 days). The majority were diagnosed in hospital (98.6%). KwaZulu-Natal Province notified the most cases (52.9%) followed by Gauteng (28.0%). Challenges in CS surveillance included the lack of awareness of the CS case definition, completed paper-based notifications not reaching the NMCSS and the limited ability of the system to distinguish improved notifications from increase in disease burden. CONCLUSION: Improved CS surveillance through NMCSS was implemented in SA. Training, support and mentoring on CS and the notification system will be needed to inform elimination efforts.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Sífilis Congênita , Criança , Notificação de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Mães , Vigilância da População , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/diagnóstico , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(Suppl 1): 194, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa is committed to advancing universal health coverage (UHC). The usefulness and potential of using routine health facility data for monitoring progress towards UHC, in the form of the 16-tracer WHO service coverage index (SCI), was assessed. METHODS: Alternative approaches to calculating the WHO SCI from routine data, allowing for disaggregation to district level, were explored. Data extraction, coding, transformation and modelling processes were applied to generate time series for these alternatives. Equity was assessed using socio-economic quintiles by district. RESULTS: The UHC SCI at a national level was 46.1 in 2007-2008 and 56.9 in 2016-2017. Only for the latter period, could the index be calculated for all indicators at a district level. Alternative indicators were formulated for 9 of 16 tracers in the index. Routine or repeated survey data could be used for 14 tracers. Apart from the NCD indicators, a gradient of poorer performance in the most deprived districts was evident in 2016-2017. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to construct the UHC SCI for South Africa from predominantly routine data sources. Overall, there is evidence from district level data of a trend towards reduced inequity in relation to specific categories (notably RMNCH). Progress towards UHC has the potential to overcome fragmentation and enable harmonisation and interoperability of information systems. Private sector reporting of data into routine information systems should be encouraged.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Humanos , Setor Privado , África do Sul/epidemiologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27030, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477133

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seropositive prevalence among women with cervical cancer varies in different parts of the world and even within a country. This study aimed to document the prevalence of HIV infection in women with newly diagnosed cervical cancer at a secondary hospital in South Africa.This study is a retrospective review of records of 89 women who were newly diagnosed with cervical cancer between 01 June 2010 and 31 May 2013 at Pelonomi Hospital, Mangaung, South Africa. Data such as age, parity, gravidity, marital status, occupation, HIV status, CD4 count, on anti-retroviral treatment, clinical stage of disease were retrieved from the case files, the Meditech-patient record and Disa laboratory system. Data analysis was done using the SAS statistical package.HIV-seropositive prevalence was 52.4%, with the highest prevalence (91.3%) in the age group 40 years and younger. In HIV-positive women, the mean CD4 cell count was 280 cell/mm3 and 43% of them were not on anti-retroviral treatment. The majority (86%) of all patients presented with late stage disease (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage III and IV) when newly diagnosed with cervical cancer.This study highlights high HIV-seropositive prevalence; severe immunosuppression and late presentation of the disease in women newly diagnosed with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer screening programs need to be fully reinforced into existing HIV health care services to allow for ideal prevention and early detection of the disease. Anti-retroviral treatment needs to be prioritized for HIV-positive women.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Correlação de Dados , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1642, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological theory and many empirical studies support the hypothesis that there is a protective effect of male circumcision against some sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, there is a paucity of randomized control trials (RCTs) to test this hypothesis in the South African population. Due to the infeasibility of conducting RCTs, estimating marginal or average treatment effects with observational data increases interest. Using targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE), a doubly robust estimation technique, we aim to provide evidence of an association between medical male circumcision (MMC) and two STI outcomes. METHODS: HIV and HSV-2 status were the two primary outcomes for this study. We investigated the associations between MMC and these STI outcomes, using cross-sectional data from the HIV Incidence Provincial Surveillance System (HIPSS) study in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. HIV antibodies were tested from the blood samples collected in the study. For HSV-2, serum samples were tested for HSV-2 antibodies via an ELISA-based anti-HSV-2 IgG. We estimated marginal prevalence ratios (PR) using TMLE and compared estimates with those from propensity score full matching (PSFM) and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). RESULTS: From a total 2850 male participants included in the analytic sample, the overall weighted prevalence of HIV was 32.4% (n = 941) and HSV-2 was 53.2% (n = 1529). TMLE estimates suggest that MMC was associated with 31% lower HIV prevalence (PR: 0.690; 95% CI: 0.614, 0.777) and 21.1% lower HSV-2 prevalence (PR: 0.789; 95% CI: 0.734, 0.848). The propensity score analyses also provided evidence of association of MMC with lower prevalence of HIV and HSV-2. For PSFM: HIV (PR: 0.689; 95% CI: 0.537, 0.885), and HSV-2 (PR: 0.832; 95% CI: 0.709, 0.975). For IPTW: HIV (PR: 0.708; 95% CI: 0.572, 0.875), and HSV-2 (PR: 0.837; 95% CI: 0.738, 0.949). CONCLUSION: Using a TMLE approach, we present further evidence of a protective association of MMC against HIV and HSV-2 in this hyper-endemic South African setting. TMLE has the potential to enhance the evidence base for recommendations that embrace the effect of public health interventions on health or disease outcomes.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina , Infecções por HIV , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Prevalência , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , África do Sul/epidemiologia
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 652887, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414151

RESUMO

Background: KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates globally. Persons <35 years and men have lower rates of HIV testing. HIV self-testing (HIVST) may overcome many barriers of facility-based HIV testing in order to identify HIV positive young persons and men and link them to care. We investigated whether HIVST distribution was a feasible approach to reach men and assessed the proportion of participants who reported their HIVST results, tested positive and linked to care. Methods: Teams comprised of a nurse, clinic research assistant, and recruiters distributed HIVST kits in rural uMkhanyakude, KwaZulu-Natal from August-November 2018 with a focus on testing men. Workplaces (farms), social venues, taxi ranks, and homesteads were used as HIVST kit distribution points following community sensitisation through community advisory boards and community leaders. HIVST kits, demonstration of use, and small incentives to report testing outcomes were provided. The Department of Health provided confirmatory testing and HIV care at clinics. Results: Over 11 weeks in late 2018, we distributed 2,634 HIVST kits of which 2,113 (80%) were distributed to persons aged <35 years, 2,591 (98%) to men and 356 (14%) to first time testers. Of the HIVST distributed, 2,107 (80%) reported their results to the study team, and 157 (7%) tested positive. Of persons who tested positive, 107/130 (82%) reported having a confirmatory test of which 102/107 (95%) were positive and initiated on ART. No emergencies or social harms were reported. Conclusion: Large scale distribution of HIVST kits targeting men in rural KwaZulu-Natal is feasible and highly effective in reaching men, including those who had not previously tested for HIV. While two-thirds of persons who tested HIV positive initiated ART, additional linkage strategies are needed for those who do not link after HIVST. HIVST should be used as a tool to reach men in order to achieve 95% coverage in the UNAIDS testing and care cascade in KwaZulu-Natal.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Autoteste , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , População Rural , África do Sul/epidemiologia
7.
Lancet HIV ; 8(9): e554-e567, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The interaction between COVID-19, non-communicable diseases, and chronic infectious diseases such as HIV and tuberculosis is unclear, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries in Africa. South Africa has a national HIV prevalence of 19% among people aged 15-49 years and a tuberculosis prevalence of 0·7% in people of all ages. Using a nationally representative hospital surveillance system in South Africa, we aimed to investigate the factors associated with in-hospital mortality among patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this cohort study, we used data submitted to DATCOV, a national active hospital surveillance system for COVID-19 hospital admissions, for patients admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 5, 2020, and March 27, 2021. Age, sex, race or ethnicity, and comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, chronic cardiac disease, chronic pulmonary disease and asthma, chronic renal disease, malignancy in the past 5 years, HIV, and past and current tuberculosis) were considered as risk factors for COVID-19-related in-hospital mortality. COVID-19 in-hospital mortality, the main outcome, was defined as a death related to COVID-19 that occurred during the hospital stay and excluded deaths that occurred because of other causes or after discharge from hospital; therefore, only patients with a known in-hospital outcome (died or discharged alive) were included. Chained equation multiple imputation was used to account for missing data and random-effects multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the role of HIV status and underlying comorbidities on COVID-19 in-hospital mortality. FINDINGS: Among the 219 265 individuals admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and known in-hospital outcome data, 51 037 (23·3%) died. Most commonly observed comorbidities among individuals with available data were hypertension in 61 098 (37·4%) of 163 350, diabetes in 43 885 (27·4%) of 159 932, and HIV in 13 793 (9·1%) of 151 779. Tuberculosis was reported in 5282 (3·6%) of 146 381 individuals. Increasing age was the strongest predictor of COVID-19 in-hospital mortality. Other factors associated were HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio 1·34, 95% CI 1·27-1·43), past tuberculosis (1·26, 1·15-1·38), current tuberculosis (1·42, 1·22-1·64), and both past and current tuberculosis (1·48, 1·32-1·67) compared with never tuberculosis, as well as other described risk factors for COVID-19, such as male sex; non-White race; underlying hypertension, diabetes, chronic cardiac disease, chronic renal disease, and malignancy in the past 5 years; and treatment in the public health sector. After adjusting for other factors, people with HIV not on antiretroviral therapy (ART; adjusted odds ratio 1·45, 95% CI 1·22-1·72) were more likely to die in hospital than were people with HIV on ART. Among people with HIV, the prevalence of other comorbidities was 29·2% compared with 30·8% among HIV-uninfected individuals. Increasing number of comorbidities was associated with increased COVID-19 in-hospital mortality risk in both people with HIV and HIV-uninfected individuals. INTERPRETATION: Individuals identified as being at high risk of COVID-19 in-hospital mortality (older individuals and those with chronic comorbidities and people with HIV, particularly those not on ART) would benefit from COVID-19 prevention programmes such as vaccine prioritisation as well as early referral and treatment. FUNDING: South African National Government.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , África do Sul/epidemiologia
8.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 60(4): 103207, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353706

RESUMO

Blood transfusions come with risks and high costs, and should be utilized only when clinically indicated. Decisions to transfuse are however not always well informed, and lack of clinician knowledge and education on good clinical transfusion practices contribute to the inappropriate use of blood. Low and middle-income countries in particular take much strain in their efforts to address blood safety challenges, demand-supply imbalances, high blood costs as well as high disease burdens, all of which impact blood usage and blood collections. Patient blood management (PBM), which is a patient-focused approach aimed at improving patient outcomes by preemptively diagnosing and correcting anaemia and limiting blood loss by cell salvage, coagulation optimization and other measures, has become a major approach to addressing many of the challenges mentioned. The associated decrease in the use of blood and blood products may be perceived as being in competition with blood conservation measures, which is the more traditional, but primarily product-focused approach. In this article, we hope to convey the message that PBM and blood conservation should not be seen as competing concepts, but rather complimentary strategies with the common goal of improving patient care. This offers opportunity to improve the culture of transfusion practices with relief to blood establishments and clinical services, not only in South Africa and LMICs, but everywhere. With the COVID-19 pandemic impacting blood supplies worldwide, this is an ideal time to call for educational interventions and awareness as an active strategy to improve transfusion practices, immediately and beyond.


Assuntos
Bancos de Sangue/organização & administração , Transfusão de Sangue , Procedimentos Médicos e Cirúrgicos sem Sangue , Anemia/terapia , Bancos de Sangue/economia , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Segurança do Sangue , Transfusão de Sangue/economia , Infecções Transmitidas por Sangue/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Médicos e Cirúrgicos sem Sangue/economia , COVID-19 , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Países em Desenvolvimento , Seleção do Doador/economia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Prevalência , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , SARS-CoV-2 , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Medicina Transfusional/educação
9.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452378

RESUMO

Endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV) are capable of causing a range of diseases from the common cold to pneumonia. We evaluated the epidemiology and seasonality of endemic HCoVs in children hospitalized with clinical pneumonia and among community controls living in countries with a high HIV burden, namely South Africa and Zambia, between August 2011 to October 2013. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected from all cases and controls and tested for endemic HCoV species and 12 other respiratory viruses using a multiplex real-time PCR assay. We found that the likelihood of detecting endemic HCoV species was higher among asymptomatic controls than cases (11% vs. 7.2%; 95% CI: 1.2-2.0). This was however only observed among children > 6 months and was mainly driven by the Betacoronavirus endemic species (HCoV-OC43 and -HKU1). Endemic HCoV species were detected through the year; however, in Zambia, the endemic Betacoronavirus species tended to peak during the winter months (May-August). There was no association between HIV status and endemic HCoV detection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nasofaringe/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estações do Ano , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1560, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In South Africa (SA), stroke is the second highest cause of mortality and disability. Apart from being the main killer and cause of disability, stroke is an expensive disease to live with. Stroke costs include death and medical costs. Little is known about the stroke burden, particularly the stroke direct costs in SA. Identification of stroke costs predictors using appropriate statistical methods can help formulate appropriate health programs and policies aimed at reducing the stroke burden. Analysis of stroke costs have in the main, concentrated on mean regression, yet modelling with quantile regression (QR) is more appropriate than using mean regression. This is because the QR provides flexibility to analyse the stroke costs predictors corresponding to quantiles of interest. This study aims to estimate stroke direct costs, identify and quantify its predictors through QR analysis. METHODS: Hospital-based data from 35,730 stroke cases were retrieved from selected private and public hospitals between January 2014 and December 2018. The model used, QR provides richer information about the predictors on costs. The prevalence-based approach was used to estimate the total stroke costs. Thus, stroke direct costs were estimated by taking into account the costs of all stroke patients admitted during the study period. QR analysis was used to assess the effect of each predictor on stroke costs distribution. Quantiles of stroke direct costs, with a focus on predictors, were modelled and the impact of predictors determined. QR plots of slopes were developed to visually examine the impact of the predictors across selected quantiles. RESULTS: Of the 35,730 stroke cases, 22,183 were diabetic. The estimated total direct costs over five years were R7.3 trillion, with R2.6 billion from inpatient care. The economic stroke burden was found to increase in people with hypertension, heart problems, and diabetes. The age group 55-75 years had a bigger effect on costs distribution at the lower than upper quantiles. CONCLUSIONS: The identified predictors can be used to raise awareness on modifiable predictors and promote campaigns for healthy dietary choices. Modelling costs predictors using multivariate QR models could be beneficial for addressing the stroke burden in SA.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
11.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444895

RESUMO

(1) Background: Early childhood malnutrition may result in increased fat mass (FM) among school-aged children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We explored whether South African children with shorter stature have greater overall and abdominal FM compared to normal stature children. (2) Methods: Baseline assessments of body composition and weight were determined among school-aged children enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multiple linear regression models tested associations of children's height and degree of stunting with FM, fat free mass (FFM), truncal fat mass (TrFM), and truncal fat free mass (TrFFM) overall and by sex. (3) Results: A total of 1287 children (619 girls, 668 boys) were assessed at baseline. Reduced child height was associated with higher FM and lower FFM and TrFFM, but these associations were reversed with increases in height. Girls classified as mildly or moderately/severely stunted had higher FM and TrFM but lower FFM and TrFFM, while no association was found for boys. (4) Conclusions: Our study suggests that efforts to reduce the non-communicable disease burden in LMICs should target growth-impaired children who may have greater overall FM and greater abdominal FM.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Composição Corporal , Estatura , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo , Criança , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1591, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved understanding of barriers to HIV testing is important for reaching the first of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, which states that 90% of HIV positive individuals ought to know their HIV status. This study examined socio-economic status (SES) differences in HIV testing uptake and associated factors among youth and adults 15 years and older in South Africa. METHODS: This study used data from a national cross-sectional, population-based household survey conducted in 2017 using a multi-stage sampling design. A composite SES score was created using multiple correspondence analyses of household assets; households were classified into wealth quintiles and dichotomised into low SES/poorest (lowest 3 quintiles) and high SES/less-poor (highest 2 quintiles). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with the uptake of HIV testing in low and high SES households. RESULTS: HIV testing uptake was 73.8 and 76.7% among low and high SES households, respectively, both of which were below the first 90 targets. Among both low and high SES households, increased HIV testing uptake was significantly associated with females than males. The decreased likelihood was significantly associated with residing in rural formal areas than urban areas, those with no education or low levels of educational attainment and alcohol drinkers among low SES households. Whites and Indians/Asians had a decreased likelihood than Black Africans in high SES households. CONCLUSIONS: HIV testing interventions should target males, residents in rural formal areas, those with no or low education and those that consume alcohol in low SES households, including Whites and Indians/Asians from high SES households in order to bridge socio-economic disparities in the uptake of HIV testing. This should entail expanding HIV testing beyond traditional centres for voluntary counselling and testing through outreach efforts, including mobile testing and home-based testing.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Teste de HIV , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
13.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(9): e323-e332, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, very few childhood deaths have been attributed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated clinical, microbiologic and postmortem histopathologic findings in childhood deaths in whom severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified antemortem or postmortem. METHODS: Surveillance of childhood deaths was ongoing during the initial COVID-19 outbreak in South Africa from April 14, 2020, to August 31, 2020. All children hospitalized during this time had a SARS-CoV-2 test done as part of standard of care. Postmortem sampling included minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) of lung, liver and heart tissue; blood and lung samples for bacterial culture and molecular detection of viruses (including SARS-CoV-2) and bacteria. The cause of death attribution was undertaken by a multidisciplinary team and reported using World Health Organization framework for cause of death attribution. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was identified on antemortem and/or postmortem sampling in 11.7% (20/171) of deceased children, including 13.2% (12/91) in whom MITS was done. Eighteen (90%) of 20 deaths with SARS-CoV-2 infection were <12 months age. COVID-19 was attributed in the causal pathway to death in 91.7% (11/12) and 87.5% (7/8) cases with and without MITS, respectively. Lung histopathologic features in COVID-19-related deaths included diffuse alveolar damage (n = 6, 54.5%), type 2 pneumocyte proliferation (n = 6, 54.5%) and hyaline membrane formation (n = 5, 36.4%). Culture-confirmed invasive bacterial disease was evident in 54.5% (6/11) of COVID-19 attributed deaths investigated with MITS. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 was in the causal pathway of 10.5% (18/171) of all childhood deaths under surveillance. The postmortem histopathologic features in fatal COVID-19 cases in children were consistent with reports on COVID-19 deaths in adults; although there was a high prevalence of invasive bacterial disease in the children.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gastroenterite/complicações , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Respiração Artificial , Doenças Respiratórias/complicações , Convulsões/complicações , África do Sul/epidemiologia
15.
S Afr Med J ; 111(7): 668-673, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 national lockdown measures in South Africa (SA) have been under scrutiny since they were implemented in March 2020. Currently there are no studies showing the effect of the first lockdown on hospital admissions in the northern provinces of SA. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of national lockdown restrictions on musculoskeletal injury admissions in three hospitals across three provinces (Gauteng, Limpopo and North West). METHODS: In a retrospective review, we compared orthopaedic trauma admissions from 1 April 2020 to 30 June 2020 (during alert level 5 of the national lockdown) with cases admitted during the same period in 2019 (non-lockdown). We reviewed the number of admissions, demographic data and mechanisms of injury in the adult and paediatric population groups. RESULTS: A total of 449 patients were admitted with musculoskeletal injuries during the lockdown period compared with 664 patients in 2019, equating to a 32% reduction in total admissions. While there was an 8% increase in paediatric admissions during lockdown at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, adult admissions decreased in all centres. More young males were admitted during both lockdown (mean age 39.8 years) and non-lockdown (mean age 41.2 years) periods than females (p=0.004). There were significant reductions in the number of injuries due to motor vehicle accidents (59%) and in the number of gunshot wounds (36%) during lockdown. However, we observed an 11% rise in injuries related to suicide attempts among adult admissions during the lockdown period. CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown restrictions resulted in a significant reduction in orthopaedic trauma admissions, and were effective in terms of allowing institutions to direct resources to the management of COVID-19 patients. In the light of the increased suicide attempts observed during lockdown, future lockdown regulations should include comprehensive measures to relieve socioeconomic stress.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
S Afr Med J ; 111(6): 570-574, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted cancer diagnostic services. A decline in the number of new cancers being diagnosed over a relatively short term implies a delay in diagnosis and subsequent treatment. This delay is expected to have a negative effect on cancerrelated morbidity and mortality. The impact of the pandemic on the number of new cancer diagnoses in our setting is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of COVID-19 on the number of new cancers diagnosed at our institution in the first 3 months following the implementation of lockdown restrictions, by focusing on common non-cutaneous cancers. METHODS: A retrospective laboratory-based audit was performed at a large anatomical pathology laboratory in Western Cape Province, South Africa. The numbers of new diagnoses for six common cancers (breast, prostate, cervix, large bowel, oesophagus and stomach) from 1 April 2020 to 30 June 2020 were compared with the corresponding period in 2019. RESULTS: Histopathological diagnoses for the six cancers combined decreased by 192 (-36.2%), from 531 new cases in the 2019 study period to 339 in the corresponding period in 2020. Substantial declines were seen for prostate (-58.2%), oesophageal (-44.1%), breast (-32.9%), gastric (-32.6%) and colorectal cancer (-29.2%). The smallest decline was seen in cervical cancer (-7%). New breast cancers diagnosed by cytopathology declined by 61.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated response resulted in a substantial decline in the number of new cancer diagnoses, implying a delay in diagnosis. Cancer-related morbidity and mortality is expected to rise as a result, with the greatest increase in mortality expected from breast and colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
19.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e3, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342476

RESUMO

During the start of the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, two family physicians in Tshwane, South Africa, reviewed the people at high-risk within their Health Catchment Area. The largest residential mental health care facility in Gauteng fell under their care, and they were responsible for providing care and support to this facility. Family physicians have to lead the primary care team and simultaneously take care of the well-being of their team members. This report discusses how these family physicians used digital platforms and virtual care to successfully coordinate and manage the response to an outbreak of COVID-19 at this mental healthcare facility.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pandemias , Médicos de Família , Telemedicina , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , SARS-CoV-2 , África do Sul/epidemiologia
20.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e6, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is an enormous, growing clinical and public health problem, which together with hypertension contributes significantly to the high risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) globally. AIM: To examine the indirect and direct effects of risk factors simultaneously as a network of multiple pathways leading to diabetes in the rurally based adult population (aged 15+) using a household survey. METHODS: This investigation was based on a predictive model using a cross-sectional community-based study to identify the direct and indirect effects of diabetes risk factors in the Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) consisting of 15 villages, with 7200 households and a total population of approximately 36 000. Fasting blood glucose and total cholesterol were measured using ILAB 300 with the following cut-off values: high fasting blood glucose 7 mmol/L and triglycerides 1.70 mmol/L. RESULTS: A total of 1407 individuals were interviewed, of whom 1281 had their blood pressure (BP) measured. The conceptual model was validated by the goodness-of-fit indexes (comparative fit index [CFI] = 1.00, Tucker Lewis index [TLI] = 1.041, root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.001). Hypertension had the strongest direct effect of 0.0918 on diabetes, followed by age (0.0039) and high waist circumference (-0.0023). Hypertension also mediates the effects that high waist circumference (0.0005) and triglycerides (0.0060) have on diabetes status. CONCLUSION: The results in this study confirm the conceptual model considered in the risk factors for diabetes and suggest that hypertension, age and high waist circumference are the key variables directly affecting the diabetes status in the South African rural black population. The direct effect of triglycerides on diabetes suggests mediation by some measured factor(s).


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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