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2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 89, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466191

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2 was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. As of 21st April 2021, the disease had affected more than 143 million people with more than 3 million deaths worldwide. Urgent effective strategies are required to control the scourge of the pandemic. Rapid sample collection and effective testing of appropriate specimens from patients meeting the suspect case definition for COVID-19 is a priority for clinical management and outbreak control. The WHO recommends that suspected cases be screened for SARS-CoV-2 virus with nucleic acid amplification tests such as real-time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR). Other COVID-19 screening techniques such as serological and antigen tests have been developed and are currently being used for testing at ports of entry and for general surveillance of population exposure in some countries. However, there are limited testing options, equipment, and trained personnel in many African countries. Previously, positive patients have been screened more than twice to determine viral clearance prior to discharge after treatment. In a new policy directive, the WHO now recommends direct discharge after treatment of all positive cases without repeated testing. In this review, we discuss COVID-19 testing capacity, various diagnostic methods, test accuracy, as well as logistical challenges in Africa with respect to the WHO early discharge policy.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , África , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Manejo de Espécimes , Organização Mundial da Saúde
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 93, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466195

RESUMO

Widespread vaccination provides a means for countries to lift strict COVID-19 restrictions previously imposed to contain the spread of the disease. However, to date, Africa has secured enough COVID-19 vaccine doses for less than 5% of its population. With widespread vaccination not on the horizon for Africa, there is a strong emphasis on non-pharmaceutical interventions which include movement restrictions (lockdowns). This general COVID-19 pandemic response of imposing lockdowns, however, neglects to factor in non-fatal consequences leading to disruption socio-economic wellbeing of the society at large. The economy in most African countries can no longer sustain lockdown restrictions. Some studies have indicated that a hard lockdown statistical value of the extra lives saved would be dwarfed by its long-term cost. At the same time not responding to the threat of the pandemic will cost lives and disrupts the social fabric. This paper proffers ways to mitigate the both and advocate for better policymaking that addresses specific challenges in defined communities thus yield higher population welfare.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/provisão & distribuição , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Tecnologia Digital , Política de Saúde , África , COVID-19/economia , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Quarentena/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e2, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476969

RESUMO

No abstract available.


Assuntos
Inquéritos e Questionários , África , Humanos
6.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1972561, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common mental disorders (CMDs) are highly prevalent conditions that constitute a major public health and economic burden on society in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the increased demand for economic evidence to support resource allocation for scaled-up implementation of mental health services in these contexts, economic evaluations of psychological treatments for CMDs remain scarce. OBJECTIVE: The proposed systematic review aims to synthesize findings on methods and outcomes of economic evaluations of psychological treatments for CMDs in LMICs and appraise quality. METHODS: We will identify, select, and extract data from published economic evaluations of psychological interventions for CMDs conducted in LMICs. We will search bibliographic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, EconLit, PsycINFO, Africa-Wide Information, Cochrane library, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD), Cost Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) Registry), and the African Journals Online (AJOL) and Google Scholar platforms. Only full economic evaluations (Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA), Cost-Utility Analysis (CUA), Cost-Consequence Analysis (CCA), or Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA)) of psychological treatments for CMDs (defined as depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders) conducted in LMICs will be included. There will be no restrictions based on date of publication, perspective, follow-up duration or sample size. Data extraction will be guided by the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist. RESULTS: The results presented will be examined using a narrative synthesis approach. The quality of included studies will be assessed using the Drummond & Jefferson checklist. CONCLUSION: The fledgling evidence base in this area provides an opportunity to promote improved economic evaluation methods in line with repeated calls for economic evidence alongside effectiveness evidence in these settings. A rigorously developed economic evaluation evidence base will support resource allocation decisions for scaled up implementation of psychological interventions in LMIC settings. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020185277.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Transtornos Mentais , África , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pobreza
7.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(9): 627-639, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475600

RESUMO

Objective: To analyse subnational inequality in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) immunization dropout in 24 African countries using administrative data on receipt of the first and third vaccine doses (DTP1 and DTP3, respectively) collected by the Joint Reporting Process of the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund. Methods: Districts in each country were grouped into quintiles according to the proportion of children who dropped out between DTP1 and DTP3 (i.e. the dropout rate). We used six summary measures to quantify inequalities in dropout rates between districts and compared rates with national dropout rates and DTP1 and DTP3 immunization coverage. Findings: The median dropout rate across countries was 2.4% in quintiles with the lowest rate and 14.6% in quintiles with the highest rate. In eight countries, the difference between the highest and lowest quintiles was 14.9 percentage points or more. In most countries, underperforming districts in the quintile with the highest rate tended to lag disproportionately behind the others. This divergence was not evident from looking only at national dropout rates. Countries with the largest inequalities in absolute subnational dropout rate tended to have lower estimated national DTP1 and DTP3 immunization coverage. Conclusion: There were marked inequalities in DTP immunization dropout rates between districts in most countries studied. Monitoring dropout at the subnational level could help guide immunization interventions that address inequalities in underserved areas, thereby improving overall DTP3 coverage. The quality of administrative data should be improved to ensure accurate and timely assessment of geographical inequalities in immunization.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Difteria/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Tétano/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , África , Criança , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Imunização , Lactente , Masculino , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(9): e391-e399, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478675

RESUMO

The number of patients with cancer in Africa has been predicted to increase from 844 279 in 2012 to more than 1·5 million in 2030. However, many countries in Africa still lack access to radiotherapy as a part of comprehensive cancer care. The objective of this analysis is to present an updated overview of radiotherapy resources in Africa and to analyse the gaps and needs of the continent for 2030 in the context of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Data from 54 African countries on teletherapy megavoltage units and brachytherapy afterloaders were extracted from the Directory for Radiotherapy Centres, an electronic, centralised, and continuously updated database of radiotherapy centres. Cancer incidence and future predictions were taken from the GLOBOCAN 2018 database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Radiotherapy need was estimated using a 64% radiotherapy utilisation rate, while assuming a machine throughput of 500 patients per year. As of March, 2020, 28 (52%) of 54 countries had access to external beam radiotherapy, 21 (39%) had brachytherapy capacity, and no country had a capacity that matched the estimated treatment need. Median income was an important predictor of the availability of megavoltage machines: US$1883 (IQR 914-3269) in countries without any machines versus $4485 (3079-12480) in countries with at least one megavoltage machine (p=0·0003). If radiotherapy expansion continues at the rate observed over the past 7 years, it is unlikely that the continent will meet its radiotherapy needs. This access gap might impact the ability to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, particularly the target to reduce preventable, premature mortality by a third, and meet the target of the cervical cancer elimination strategy of 90% with access to treatment. Urgent, novel initiatives in financing and human capacity building are needed to change the trajectory and provide comprehensive cancer care to patients in Africa in the next decade.


Assuntos
Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Radioterapia/tendências , África/epidemiologia , Previsões , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Radioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
11.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 17(9): 515-532, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34345022

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with protean manifestations that predominantly affects young women. Certain ethnic groups are more vulnerable than others to developing SLE and experience increased morbidity and mortality. Reports of the global incidence and prevalence of SLE vary widely, owing to inherent variation in population demographics, environmental exposures and socioeconomic factors. Differences in study design and case definitions also contribute to inconsistent reporting. Very little is known about the incidence of SLE in Africa and Australasia. Identifying and remediating such gaps in epidemiology is critical to understanding the global burden of SLE and improving patient outcomes. Mortality from SLE is still two to three times higher than that of the general population. Internationally, the frequent causes of death for patients with SLE include infection and cardiovascular disease. Even without new therapies, mortality can potentially be mitigated with enhanced quality of care. This Review focuses primarily on the past 5 years of global epidemiological studies and discusses the regional incidence and prevalence of SLE and top causes of mortality.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Australásia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/mortalidade , Prevalência , América do Sul/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444386

RESUMO

The differential spread and impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), across regions is a major focus for researchers and policy makers. Africa has attracted tremendous attention, due to predictions of catastrophic impacts that have not yet materialized. Early in the pandemic, the seemingly low African case count was largely attributed to low testing and case reporting. However, there is reason to consider that many African countries attenuated the spread and impacts early on. Factors explaining low spread include early government community-wide actions, population distribution, social contacts, and ecology of human habitation. While recent data from seroprevalence studies posit more extensive circulation of the virus, continuing low COVID-19 burden may be explained by the demographic pyramid, prevalence of pre-existing conditions, trained immunity, genetics, and broader sociocultural dynamics. Though all these prongs contribute to the observed profile of COVID-19 in Africa, some provide stronger evidence than others. This review is important to expand what is known about the differential impacts of pandemics, enhancing scientific understanding and gearing appropriate public health responses. Furthermore, it highlights potential lessons to draw from Africa for global health on assumptions regarding deadly viral pandemics, given its long experience with infectious diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , África/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 331, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In Africa, most countries continue to battle COVID-19 with cases of newly infected still being recorded. In this note, we investigate how socioeconomic and demographic factors affected individuals awareness on the methods for controlling/preventing the spread of COVID-19 in some parts of Africa at the onset of the pandemic. RESULTS: Based on regression modelling, we find that having full awareness does not depend on religious affiliation. Men, urban dwelling, holding bachelors or higher degrees, operating multiple social media accounts or being employed are associated with having full awareness of the recommended practices for the prevention and control of COVID-19 at the early stage of the pandemic. No occupation, business or older people are associated with not having full awareness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mídias Sociais , África , Idoso , Demografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 57, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422180

RESUMO

Introduction: Neisseria meningitides is the leading cause of meningitis in the African Meningitis Belt. The objective of this study was to conduct a trend analysis of the burden of meningococcal meningitis in the African Meningitis Belt countries from 2009 to 2014. Methods: secondary data on incidence and death cases were collected from the World Health Organization (WHO) and analyzed to determine the trends of meningitis in the African Meningitis Belt countries using Microsoft excel and Stata 14. Results: these data show unstable meningococcal meningitis outbreaks in the Meningitis Belt before and after the introduction of meningococcal A vaccine (MenAfriVac). The vaccine was introduced at different times in the different countries. E.g. it was introduced in 2010 across Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger while it was introduced from 2011 to 2016 in other countries through mass campaigns. Ever since the vaccine was introduced, there has been a decrease in the number of cases in the countries hence a reduction in the burden of the disease. Conclusion: after the introduction of the MenAfriVac, there has been a decline in the meningitis cases in Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Ghana, Niger and Nigeria while Sudan shows a decrease only in 2014.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Meningite Meningocócica/epidemiologia , Vacinas Meningocócicas/administração & dosagem , Neisseria meningitidis/isolamento & purificação , África/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Incidência , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle
16.
J Exp Biol ; 224(7)2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424974

RESUMO

Venom spitting is a defence mechanism based on airborne venom delivery used by a number of different African and Asian elapid snake species ('spitting cobras'; Naja spp. and Hemachatus spp.). Adaptations underpinning venom spitting have been studied extensively at both behavioural and morphological level in cobras, but the role of the physical properties of venom itself in its effective projection remains largely unstudied. We hereby provide the first comparative study of the physical properties of venom in spitting and non-spitting cobras. We measured the viscosity, protein concentration and pH of the venom of 13 cobra species of the genus Naja from Africa and Asia, alongside the spitting elapid Hemachatus haemachatus and the non-spitting viper Bitis arietans. By using published microCT scans, we calculated the pressure required to eject venom through the fangs of a spitting and a non-spitting cobra. Despite the differences in the modes of venom delivery, we found no significant differences between spitters and non-spitters in the rheological and physical properties of the studied venoms. Furthermore, all analysed venoms showed a Newtonian flow behaviour, in contrast to previous reports. Although our results imply that the evolution of venom spitting did not significantly affect venom viscosity, our models of fang pressure suggests that the pressure requirements to eject venom are lower in spitting cobras than in non-spitting cobras.


Assuntos
Venenos Elapídicos , Dente , África , Animais , Elapidae
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444309

RESUMO

Child labour remains a prevalent global concern, and progress toward eradicating harmful children's work appears to have stalled in the African continent and henceforth, integrated social policy intervention is still required to address the problem. Among several forms of social policy interventions, stomach infrastructure (i.e., in-kind and/or cash transfers) have been a key policy approach to support vulnerable families to lighten households' resources burden, which forces them to consider child labour as a coping strategy. There is growing evidence on the impacts of these programs in child labour. However, this evidence is often mixed regarding children's work outcomes, and the existing studies hardly describe such heterogeneous outcomes from the child-sensitive approach. To this end, a systematic literature search was conducted for studies in African countries. From 743 references retrieved in this study, 27 studies were included for the review, and a narrative approach has been employed to analyse extracted evidence. Results from the current study also demonstrate a mixed effect of in-kind and cash transfers for poor households on child labour decisions. Hence, the finding from the current review also demonstrates a reduced participation of children in paid and unpaid work outside the household due to in-kind and cash transfers to poor households, but children's time spent in economic and non-economic household labour and farm and non-farm labour, which are detrimental to child health and schooling, has been reported increasing due to the program interventions. The question remains how these programs can effectively consider child-specific and household-related key characteristics. To this end, a child-sensitive social protection perspective has been applied in this study to explain these mixed outcomes to inform policy design.


Assuntos
Trabalho Infantil , África , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Características da Família , Humanos , Estômago
18.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211041208, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435530

RESUMO

Corona virus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an extraordinary threat with significant implications in all aspects of human life; therefore, it represents the most immediate challenge for the countries all over the world. This study, hence, is intended to identify the best GIS-based model that can explore, quantify, and model the determinants of COVID-19 incidence and fatality. For this purpose, geospatial models were developed to estimate COVID-19 incidence and fatality rates in Africa, up to 16th of August 2020 at the national level. The models involved Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) analysis using ArcGIS. Spatial autocorrelation analysis recorded a positive spatial autocorrelation in COVID-19 incidence (Moran index 0.16, P = 0.1) and fatality (Moran index 0.26, P = 0.01) rates within different African countries. GWR model had higher R2 than OLS for prediction of incidence and mortality (58% vs 45% and 55% vs 53%). The main predictors of COVID-19 incidence rate were overcrowding, health expenditure, HIV infections, air pollution, and BCG vaccination (mean ß = 3.10, 1.66, 0.01, 3.79, and -66.60 respectively, P < 0.05). The main determinants of COVID-19 fatality were prevalence of bronchial asthma, tobacco use, poverty, aging, and cardiovascular diseases fatality (mean ß = 0.00162, 0.00004, -0.00025, -0.00144, and -0.00027 respectively, P < 0.05). Application of the suggested model can assist in guiding intervention strategies, particularly at the local and community level whenever the data on COVID-19 cases and predictors variables are available.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , África/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Incidência , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 671988, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336768

RESUMO

Background: Over 250 million children in low- and middle-income countries are at risk of not achieving their fullest developmental potential due to co-occurring risks such as poor nutrition and inadequate learning opportunities. Early intervention programs integrating the aspects of nurturing care, that is, good health, adequate nutrition, safety and security, responsive caregiving, and learning opportunities, may ameliorate against the negative impact of these adverse conditions. Methods: This meta-analytic review updates the evidence base of parenting interventions comprising stimulation and responsive caregiving components on developmental outcomes for children under age 2 years in low- and middle-income countries. It also describes and assesses the moderation effects of population characteristics and implementation features on the intervention effectiveness. Studies were identified based on previous systematic reviews and an updated literature search in eight databases and the gray literature up to December 2020. A random-effect model was used to explore the pooled effect sizes accounted for by the intervention for developmental outcome of cognition, language, motor, and social-emotional capacities. Exploratory moderation analyses were also conducted. Results: Twenty-one randomized controlled trials representing over 10,400 children from 12 low- and middle-income countries and regions across three continents (Africa, Latin America, and Asia) were identified. The interventions showed overall small-to-moderate effects on children's cognitive development (ES = 0.44; 95% CI = [0.30, 0.57]); language development (ES = 0.33; 95% CI = [0.18, 0.49]); and motor skills (ES = 0.21; 95% CI = [0.10, 0.32]). The overall effect on social-emotional development was non-significant (ES = 0.17; 95% CI = [-0.01, 0.34]). Effect sizes (ES) varied significantly across the studies. Parenting programs that targeted vulnerable groups, including rural communities and caregivers with lower education levels, had more significant effects on children's development. Group sessions (vs. individual visits) and high program dose (≥12 sessions) were also associated with stronger effects on child development. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of the workforce and training on programmatic outcomes. Conclusion: The findings indicate that parenting interventions that encourage nurturing care are effective in improving the early development of children, especially among vulnerable populations. We discuss opportunities to strengthen the implementation of research-based parenting interventions in such contexts.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Poder Familiar , África , Ásia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos
20.
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