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2.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(9): 586-587, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012857

RESUMO

The COVID 19 pandemic is exposing an important weakness in health systems: medical oxygen production and delivery. Tatum Anderson reports.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oxigênio/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(709): 1849-1852, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026726

RESUMO

For safe procedures, the surgeon performing thyroid gland surgeries must know precisely the anatomical relationships of the inferior laryngeal nerve with other cervical structures, in particular the inferior laryngeal artery and its branches. Classic descriptions of these relationships are based almost exclusively on the observation of Caucasian populations. However, this study shows that there are important differences between Caucasian and Sub-Saharian ethnic group, differences that any surgeon having the opportunity to operate in Africa should know to limit the risk of iatrogenic nerve damage and its morbid consequences.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Artérias/cirurgia , Grupos Étnicos , Nervo Laríngeo Recorrente/cirurgia , Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , África/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Laringe/irrigação sanguínea , Laringe/cirurgia
5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(8)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863269

RESUMO

Respiratory viruses can be transmitted through contact, droplet and airborne routes. Viruses that are not naturally airborne may be aerosolised during medical procedures and transmitted to healthcare workers. Most resource-limited healthcare settings lack complex air handling systems to filter air and create pressure gradients that are necessary for minimising viral transmission. This review explores the association between ventilation and the transmission of respiratory viruses like SAR-CoV-2. When used appropriately, both natural and mechanical ventilation can decrease the concentration of viral aerosols, thereby reducing transmission. Although mechanical ventilation systems are more efficient, installation and maintenance costs limit their use in resource-limited settings, whereas the prevailing climate conditions make natural ventilation less desirable. Cost-effective hybrid systems of natural and mechanical ventilation may overcome these limitations.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Ambiente Controlado , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Respiração Artificial , África , Microbiologia do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Isolamento de Pacientes , Quartos de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 158, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874422

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a non-infectious disease and has affected about 425 million adults globally and nearly 15.9 million of them reside in Africa. Moreover, the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus is very high in Africa and approximates to around 62%. Nearly 75% of the total deaths due to diabetes are in individuals lesser than 60 years of age. The multifaceted disease of diabetes mellitus produces chronic complications such as, neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, microangiopathy etc. These patients of diabetes mellitus are more susceptible to infections due to compromised immune system. Hence these patients of diabetes mellitus and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of contracting COVID-19 infections. The dual impact of pathophysiology of COVID-19 infections in diabetes mellitus may increase morbidity and mortality in these patients. Hence there is need of health awareness in diabetics as well in the high-risk group for diabetes such as persons with hypertension and obesity. The scarcity of health resources, shortage of trained medical personnel and disease burden of infectious and non-infectious diseases has laid a heavy impact on the economy in Africa and this has been further strained due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The practice of preventive measures by the risk group of Undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus patients will prevent them from getting infected by COVID-19 and at the same time decrease mortality rates and hence the undiscovered group that is the patients of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus needs to be vigilant regarding safe preventive practices.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Complicações do Diabetes/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Environ Manage ; 263: 110332, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883471

RESUMO

The carbon-emission transfer between two representative developing economies - China and Africa - behind the international trade has aroused quite a few controversies, which have not been fully estimated and understood yet. In this paper, the Multiregional Input-Output (MRIO) method is applied to the participants of Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) from the global perspective to reveal the roles both China and Africa have played in the global supply chain as either the original emitter or the final consumer, and to depict the evolution pattern of carbon transfer via Sino-Africa trade from the year 2000-2015. The findings are as follows: 1) China has played the role of net exporter of embodied carbon-emission in Sino-Africa trade, for the amount of emitted carbon China had born yet resulted by consumption in Africa well surpassed that vice versa. 2) Compared to the carbon-emission flows embodied in EU-Africa and US-Africa trades, China has shouldered more carbon-emission derived from Africa's consumption. 3) The sectoral contribution and intensities of embodied carbon-emission correspond to the trading pattern between China and Africa, which stems from the two parties' comparative advantages and economic complementarity. 4) The intensities of embodied carbon-emission on both sides are declining towards a rosy prospect, which indicates an improving carbon-emission efficiency of both economies. From a global perspective, both China and Africa play a positive part in carbon-emission reduction. The results in this study can facilitate low-carbon and high-efficiency trading link between the two economies.


Assuntos
Comércio , Internacionalidade , África , Carbono , China
9.
Rev Prat ; 70(3): 312-316, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877067

RESUMO

Yellow fever is still a current threat? Yellow fever is a mosquito-borne disease. Africa is the major endemic zone, although there have been epidemics of concern in South America in the last 3 years, especially in Brazil. The virus causes a febrile hepatitis, which can lead to hemorrhagic complications and death. Diagnosis is based on non-specific serological tests. There is no curative treatment. Prevention relies on protection against mosquito bites and on vaccination with a live attenuated vaccine. WHO recommends only one dose of vaccine but data from the literature about life-long protection are divergent on that point, and travel medicine French authorities still recommend a second dose in most at-risk situations.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Febre Amarela , Febre Amarela , África/epidemiologia , Animais , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Medicina de Viagem , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle
13.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 104, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874935

RESUMO

Despite predictions that the number of deaths in Africa due to COVID-19 will reach 10 million, overall, the continent has reported relatively few cases compared to the rest of the world. Many African countries have been successful in containing initial outbreaks by rapidly using evidence-based interventions through implementation strategies adapted from other countries' COVID-19 response as well as from prior epidemics. However, it is unclear whether these interventions will lead to long-term and complete success in stopping COVID-19 spread. Implementation research is a tool that can be used by countries to learn how to identify and understand contextual factors impacting COVID-19 prevention and control and select evidence-based interventions and strategies known to reduce spread of the virus. We identify seven key contextual factors that are facilitators or barriers to implementation of these interventions, and several strategies that can be leveraged if the factor is present or ones to strengthen if weak to improve implementation. These factors are: a culture of accountability, national coordination, financial stability of the population, culture of innovation, culture and capacity for research, health systems strength, and cross-border economies. Implementation science methods can serve to develop knowledge at a country and regional level on how to identify, utilize, and address these and other contextual factors, and inform relevant evidence-based interventions and implementation strategies. This approach can support African countries' ability to address key challenges as they arise, both in fighting COVID-19 and future health systems challenges.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis , África/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Difusão de Inovações , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
S Afr Med J ; 110(9): 858-863, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880268

RESUMO

As COVID-19 spreads rapidly across Africa, causing havoc to economies and disruption to already fragile healthcare systems, it is becoming clear that despite standardised global health strategies, national and local government responses must be tailored to their individual settings. Some African countries have adopted stringent measures such as national lockdown, quarantine or isolation, in combination with good hand hygiene, mandatory wearing of masks and physical distancing, to prevent an impending healthcare crisis. The impact of stringent measures in low- to middle-income African countries has bought time for healthcare facilities to prepare for the onslaught of COVID-19 cases, but some measures have been challenging to implement. In some settings, public health measures have been associated with serious violations of individual rights owing to abuse of power and gaps in implementation of well-intentioned policy. Collateral damage with regard to non-COVID-19 diseases that were suboptimally managed in pre-pandemic times may mean that lives lost from other diseases could exceed those saved from COVID-19. While individuals complying with lockdown regulations have embraced an acceptance of the concept of the common good, at a broad community level many are finding the transition from individualism to collective thinking required during a pandemic difficult to navigate. In this article, we look at government responses to the pandemic in six African countries (Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana), and highlight ethical concerns arising in these contexts.


Assuntos
Direitos Civis/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Autonomia Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/ética , África , Betacoronavirus , Botsuana , Direitos Civis/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Liberdade , Humanos , Malaui , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , África do Sul , Uganda , Zâmbia , Zimbábue
15.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 68(5): 302-305, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948360

RESUMO

Following the onset of the global COVID-19 pandemic and the alerts issued by the World Health Organization, for several months attention has been focused on Africa as a potentially severely endangered continent. A sizable number of African countries, mainly low and middle income, suffer from limited available resources, especially in critical care, and COVID-19 is liable to overwhelm their already fragile health systems. To effectively manage what is shaping up as a multidimensional crisis, the challenge unquestionably goes beyond the necessary upgrading of public health infrastructures. It is also a matter of anticipating and taking timely action with regard to factors that may mitigate the propagation of SARS-CoV2 and thereby cushion the shock of the pandemic on the African continent. While some of these factors are largely unmanageable (climate, geography…), several others (socio-cultural, religious, audio-visual, and potentially political…) could be more or less effectively dealt with by African governments and populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Recursos em Saúde/organização & administração , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/economia , Controle de Infecções/história , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Áreas de Pobreza , Papel Profissional , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/história , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais , Responsabilidade Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(9)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948617

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since its emergence in late December 2019, COVID-19 has rapidly developed into a pandemic in mid of March with many countries suffering heavy human loss and declaring emergency conditions to contain its spread. The impact of the disease, while it has been relatively low in the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as of May 2020, is feared to be potentially devastating given the less developed and fragmented healthcare system in the continent. In addition, most emergency measures practised may not be effective due to their limited affordability as well as the communal way people in SSA live in relative isolation in clusters of large as well as smaller population centres. METHODS: To address the acute need for estimates of the potential impacts of the disease once it sweeps through the African region, we developed a process-based model with key parameters obtained from recent studies, taking local context into consideration. We further used the model to estimate the number of infections within a year of sustained local transmissions under scenarios that cover different population sizes, urban status, effectiveness and coverage of social distancing, contact tracing and usage of cloth face mask. RESULTS: We showed that when implemented early, 50% coverage of contact tracing and face mask, with 33% effective social distancing policies can bringing the epidemic to a manageable level for all population sizes and settings we assessed. Relaxing of social distancing in urban settings from 33% to 25% could be matched by introduction and maintenance of face mask use at 43%. CONCLUSIONS: In SSA countries with limited healthcare workforce, hospital resources and intensive care units, a robust system of social distancing, contact tracing and face mask use could yield in outcomes that prevent several millions of infections and thousands of deaths across the continent.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Máscaras , Quarentena , Distância Social
17.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127333, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947666

RESUMO

Increasing use of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in Africa raises environmental and public health concerns. But there is a large uncertainty about their occurrence and the composition of pesticide mixtures on this continent. This paper investigates the presence of 27 CUPs in air across 20 sampling sites in Africa. 166 passive air samples, consisting of polyurethane foam (PUF), were collected in 12 African countries between 2010 and 2018. Samples were extracted with methanol and analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The detection frequencies of CUPs per site were compared to land use patterns and sampling years, while their similarities were assessed using hierarchical cluster analysis. Overall, 24 CUPs were detected at least once. In 93% of all samples, at least one CUP was detected, while 78% of the samples had mixtures of two or more CUPs (median 3, interquartile range 5). Atrazine and chlorpyrifos were detected in 19 out of 20 sampling sites. Carbaryl, metazachlor, simazine, tebuconazole and terbuthylazine had the highest detection frequencies at sampling sites dominated by croplands. Across all the sampling years, 16 CUPs were present. Seven CUPs were newly detected from 2016 onwards (azinfos-methyl, dimetachlor, chlorsulfuron, chlortoluron, isoproturon, prochloraz and pyrazon), while metamitron was only present before 2012. Sites within a radius of about 200 km showed similarities in detected CUP mixtures across all samples. Our results show the presence of CUP mixtures across multiple agricultural and urban locations in Africa which requires further investigation of related environmental and human health risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Praguicidas/análise , África , Agricultura , Atrazina/análise , Clorpirifos/análise , Humanos , Poliuretanos
18.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(10): 60-65, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978928

RESUMO

Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) disables millions in Asia and Africa. Epidemiological data and clinical studies in India have reported a significant decline in its prevalence in last century. Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study estimated that RHD in India led to 395/100000 disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and 9.2/100000 deaths in 1990. This declined to 270/100000 and 7.9/100000, respectively, in 2017. School-based epidemiological studies in India have reported decline in clinically diagnosed RHD. On the other hand, GBD study has reported that in terms of absolute numbers, India contributes to one-third of global RHD burden. RHD in 1990 led to 3.44 million DALYs and 80,470 deaths which has increased to 3.73 million DALYs and 108,460 deaths in 2017. India Disease Burden Initiative has reported high RHD burden in many less developed states of the country, e.g., Bihar, Odisha, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, etc. Echocardiographic epidemiology studies have reported high burden of subclinical RHD. Significant proportions of patients in hospital-based echocardiographic clinics have RHD and it contributes to 25-45% of cardiac surgeries in government hospitals. The continuing burden of RHD needs proper public health and clinical response.


Assuntos
Cardiopatia Reumática/epidemiologia , África , Ásia , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
19.
AIDS ; 34(12): 1761-1763, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889851

RESUMO

: As coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) restrictions upend the community bonds that have enabled African communities to thrive in the face of numerous challenges, it is vital that the gains made in community-based healthcare are preserved by adapting our approaches. Instead of reversing the many gains made through locally driven development partnerships with international funding agencies for other viral diseases like HIV, we must use this opportunity to adapt the many lessons learned to address the burden of Covid-19. Programs like the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare are currently leveraging widely available technologies in Africa to prevent patients from experiencing significant interruptions in care as the healthcare system adjusts to the challenges presented by Covid-19. These approaches are designed to preserve social contact while incorporating physical distancing. The gains and successes made through approaches like group-based medical care must not only continue but can help expand upon the extraordinary success of programs like President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Modelos Organizacionais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , África , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Governo Federal , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
20.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020023, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921745

RESUMO

The pandemic caused by Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 shows its devastating effects all over the world. The American and the European countries are the worst-hit by this COVID-19 pandemic. However, most of the African countries excepting a few are less affected by this virus as far as the number of cases and deaths are concerned. The correspondence proposes that just like the abnormal haemoglobins HbS and HbC are found to provide immunity to the African populations against infectious diseases such as Plasmodium falciparum malaria The possibility of these abnormal haemoglobins offering certain protection against the Novel Coronavirus infection in these populations needs to be explored.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , África/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
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