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1.
Zootaxa ; 4638(2): zootaxa.4638.2.4, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712476

RESUMO

Eniacomorpha hermetiae Delvare sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae, Dirhininae), reared from pupae of black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera, Stratiomyidae), is described and illustrated from Africa and compared with other similar species newly considered as forming the ehrhorni species-group within Eniacomorpha Girault, 1915. The newly described parasitic wasp may have a negative impact on efforts to mass produce BSF in Africa as a feed supplement for domestic animals. Eniacomorpha is removed from synonymy under Dirhinus Dalman, 1818, revised status, for the Afrotropical species of Dirhininae previously placed in Dirhinus subgenus Pareniaca Crawford, 1913. A checklist of the 10 recognized species of Afrotropical Eniacomorpha is given, of which 9 are new generic combinations.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Simuliidae , Vespas , África , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Larva , Pupa
2.
Zootaxa ; 4626(1): zootaxa.4626.1.1, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712544

RESUMO

Five species in five genera of extinct endemic rails have been described from the Mascarene Islands of Mauritius, Réunion and Rodrigues: the Mauritian Red Rail or Poule Rouge Aphanapteryx bonasia; Mascarene Coot or Poule d'eau Fulica newtonii; which occurred on Mauritius and Réunion; Réunion Wood Rail Dryolimnas augusti; Réunion Gallinule or Oiseaux bleu 'Porphyrio caerulescens'; and Rodrigues or Leguat's Rail Erythromachus leguati. All are known from fossil remains and/or from contemporary accounts and illustrations. A sixth species of rail Dryolimnas sp. nov. is described herein from fossils from Mauritius, but was not unequivocally previously reported in the contemporary literature. This paper provides an analysis of the Rallidae of the Mascarene Islands based on existing and newly discovered fossil remains, and details historical reports and accounts. Comprehensive osteological descriptions and synonymies are also included. Their ecology and extinction chronologies are interpreted from historical ev-idence. The relationships of Aphanapteryx and Erythromachus are unresolved, having clearly been isolated for a considerable time; the middle Miocene is the earliest their ancestors could have arrived on the Mascarenes, but this may have happened more recently. Mascarene derivatives of Fulica, Porphyrio and Dryolimnas are of much more recent origin, and appear to have originated in Africa or Madagascar. All terrestrial rails on Mauritius, Réunion and Rodrigues, were probable victims of cat predation following their historic introduction to the islands, whereas over-hunting by humans was probably the primary cause of extinction of 'Porphyrio caerulescens' on Réunion. The only extant rail on the Mascarenes today, the Madagascar race of Eurasian Moorhen Gallinula chloropus pyrrhorrhoa, is a recent arrival, having colonised Mauritius and Réunion after the extinction of Fulica newtonii.


Assuntos
Aves , África , Animais , Gatos , Ilhas , Madagáscar , Maurício , Comportamento Predatório , Reunião
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 298, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692770

RESUMO

In Africa, training programmes as well as institutional policies on research integrity are lacking. Institutions have a responsibility to oversee research integrity through various efforts, including policies and training. We developed, implemented and evaluated an institutional approach to promote research integrity at African institutions, comprising a workshop for researchers ("bottom-up") and discussions with senior faculty on institutional policies ("top-down"). During the first day, we facilitated a workshop to introduce research integrity and promote best practices with regards to authorship, plagiarism, redundant publication and conflicts of interest. We used a variety of interactive teaching approaches to facilitate learning, including individual and group activities, small group discussions and case-based learning. We met with senior faculty on the following day to provide feedback and insights from the workshop, review current institutional policies and provide examples of what other research groups are doing. We evaluated the process. Participants actively engaged in discussions, recognised the importance of the topic and acknowledged that poor practices occurred at their institution. Discussions with senior researchers resulted in the establishment of a working group tasked with developing a publication policy for the institution. Our approach kick-started conversations on research integrity at institutions. There is a need for continued discussions, integrated training programmes and implementation of institutional policies and guidelines to promote good practices.


Assuntos
Política Organizacional , Pesquisadores/organização & administração , Pesquisa/normas , África , Autoria/normas , Humanos , Publicações/normas , Pesquisa/educação , Pesquisadores/educação
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 313, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692862

RESUMO

The role of a Medical Science Liaison (MSL) is of growing importance to pharmaceutical, biotechnology, diagnostic and medical device companies. Through scientific engagement MSLs add value to clinical practice, ultimately benefiting patients. The MSL role is dynamic and encompasses in-depth product and disease knowledge together with the ability to communicate relevant, unbiased scientific information concisely and timely. Tasks are focused on contributing towards the advancement of medical knowledge, scientific data generation and dissemination. Professional relationships are developed, fostering collaboration between external experts and typically the medical affairs departments of pharmaceutical companies through a credible liaison. Through such relationships, critical insights are shared that shape the development pipeline, promote successful clinical translation and guide the market deployment strategy of therapeutic interventions through-out their life cycle. Despite the rising number of MSLs in the field and the implicit medical value of the role, there remains a lack of understanding for what the roles of a MSL entails. In Africa, where exponential growth of the pharmaceutical industry is expected, the number of MSLs will increase rapidly. Given the complexities of the African continent, the MSLs in this burgeoning environment will face various challenges including remote locations, time-constraints, regulatory and bureaucratic hurdles and importantly physician misperception of the MSL role that collectively may thwart the goal of meaningful scientific engagement; but these challenges can be surmounted through astute proactive planning and utilization of opportunities including digital communication strategies.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Indústria Farmacêutica/organização & administração , África , Humanos , Indústria Manufatureira/organização & administração , Papel Profissional
8.
Zootaxa ; 4568(2): zootaxa.4568.2.8, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715862

RESUMO

The pseudoscorpion genus Verrucachernes Chamberlin, 1947 is widely distributed in the Old World tropics, with three named Australasian and West Pacific species and two from Africa. A review of some pseudoscorpions described from India has revealed that Withius parvus Beier, 1930 (currently in the genus Metawithius) and Pselaphochernes indicus Beier, 1974 are misplaced and actually belong to the genus Verrucachernes Chamberlin, 1947, forming the new combinations V. parvus (Beier, 1930) comb. nov. and V. indicus (Beier, 1974) comb. nov., respectively. Both species possess the single, large, rounded spermatheca and other features typical of Verrucachernes.


Assuntos
Aracnídeos , África , Animais , Índia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4652(3): zootaxa.4652.3.1, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716853

RESUMO

A total of 346 male specimens of Manota collected from 13 countries in Africa are studied. They belong to 40 different species including 12 new to science. The new species are: M. burundiensis (Burundi), M. cornuta (Ghana), M. fuscinula (Ghana), M. geniculata (Gabon), M. kirkspriggsi (Madagascar), M. kjaerandseni (Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire), M. leptochaeta (Madagascar), M. limai (São Tomé and Principe), M. oronnai (Nigeria), M. platychaeta (Madagascar), M. polylobata (Nigeria) and M. triseta (Ghana, Guinea). New records of the following 28 species are presented: M. aculifera Hippa Kurina, 2012 (Ghana), M. afra Hippa Kurina, 2012 (Ghana, Democratic Republic of Congo), M. clinochaeta Hippa, 2008 (Madagascar), M. clurina Hippa Kurina, 2012 (Côte d'Ivoire), M. comata Hippa Kurina, 2012 (Ghana, Guinea, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda), M. cultigera Hippa, 2008 (Madagascar), M. dissidens Hippa Kurina, 2012 (Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire), M. foliolata Hippa Kurina, 2012 (Cameroon), M. ghanaensis Hippa Kurina, 2012 (Ghana), M. grootaerti Kurina Hippa, 2014 (Democratic Republic of Congo), M. katusabei Hippa Kurina, 2012 (Ghana, Guinea, Uganda), M. lachaisei Matile, 1972 (Democratic Republic of Congo), M. mabokeensis Matile, 1972 (Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda), M. macrodon Hippa, 2008 (Madagascar), M. mazumbaiensis Søli, 1993 (Ghana, Guinea, Uganda), M. natalensis Jaschhof Mostovski, 2006 (Republic of South Africa), M. peltata Kurina Hippa, 2014 (Ghana), M. peltigera Kurina Hippa, 2014 (Ghana, Uganda), M. petiolata Hippa Kurina, 2012 (Ghana), M. phyllochaeta Hippa, 2008 (Madagascar), M. pilosa Hippa Kurina, 2012 (Ghana, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Nigeria), M. pinnata Hippa Kurina, 2012 (Democratic Republic of Congo), M. pinnulata Hippa Kurina, 2012 (Ghana), M. reclinata Kurina Hippa, 2014 (Ghana, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire), M. relicina Hippa Kurina, 2012 (Uganda), M. senticosa Hippa Kurina, 2012 (Ghana, Gabon, Guinea, Central African Republic), M. uncinata Hippa, 2008 (Madagascar) and M. whiteleyi Jaschhof Mostovski, 2006 (Ghana, Cameroon). An updated key to the Afrotropical Manota species is provided and their distribution briefly discussed. Altogether 68 species of Manota are now known from the Afrotropical region, while the genus holds 314 described species worldwide.


Assuntos
Dípteros , África , Animais , Masculino
10.
Zootaxa ; 4604(3): zootaxa.4604.3.5, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717179

RESUMO

Pachnoda iskuulka Král, Sommer Sípek, new species from the Sanaag region of north-eastern Somaliland is described. The new species is compared with the morphologically similar taxa Pachnoda abyssinica abyssinica Reiche, 1847, P. a. meriteti Di Gennaro, 2017, P. massajae Gestro, 1881, and P. werneri Beinhundner, 1992, all of which occur in the Horn of Africa. Relevant diagnostic characters (e.g., dorsal and ventral surface color pattern, male external genitalia) are illustrated. The third instar larva of the new species is described and biological notes are provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , África , Animais , Genitália Masculina , Larva , Masculino
11.
Zootaxa ; 4603(3): zootaxa.4603.3.1, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717211

RESUMO

The phylogeny of the mite genus Pterygosoma Peters, 1849 (Acariformes: Pterygosomatidae), permanent parasites of lizards of the families Agamidae, Gerrhosauridae and Liolaemidae (Reptilia: Squamata), was inferred with maximum parsimony, successive weighting and implied weighting approaches based on 182 characters of 48 ingroup and 12 outgroup species. All undertaken analyses questioned the monophyly of the genus. Based on this research, Pterygosoma includes 56 mite species associated with agamas from Africa and Asia (Sauria: Agamidae). Within the genus seven natural species groups were found: mutabilis, inermis, melanum, caucasica, fimbriata, singularis and foliosetis; 13 species of the genus were not assigned to any of the groups due to their unique morphological characters. For the ligare group of the subgenus Pterygosoma s. str. (7 species) associated with the South American tree lizards from the family Liolaemidae, a new genus, Neopterygosoma gen. nov., is established. The subgenus Gerrhosaurobia Lawrence, 1959 (3 species) associated with the African plated lizards of the family Gerrhosauridae is elevated to the genus rank. Diagnoses for the three genera are presented. Historical associations are reconstructed by fitting the obtained mite tree into the host topology on the family level. Results of coevolutionary analysis highlight the coincidence of both trees. The studies suggest that the ancestor of the genus Pterygosoma switched from the hosts of Gerrhosaurobia i.e. from the plated lizards (Gerrhosauridae) to the agamas (Agamidae), and the genus Pterygosoma has its biogeographic origin in North Africa, and colonized Asia via the Arabian Peninsula, which is congruent with the historical biogeography of its hosts.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Ácaros , África , África do Norte , Animais , Arábia , Ásia , Filogenia
12.
Zootaxa ; 4576(2): zootaxa.4576.2.13, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715771

RESUMO

Cyana Walker, 1854 is one of the most species-rich genera within the tribe Lithosiini Billberg of the subfamily Arctiinae Leach, family Erebidae Leach. The genus is widely distributed in tropics of Africa and Madagascar, south of the Arabian Peninsula, South and East Asia (including Russian Far East, Korean Peninsula and Japan), New Guinea and Australia. The African fauna was recently revised by Karisch (2013). In his revision, Karish offered a subdivision of the genus into 24 subgenera based on the differences in venation, configuration of androconial forewing lobes in males, pattern and genitalia structure.


Assuntos
Mariposas , África , Animais , Arábia , Austrália , Extremo Oriente , Japão , Madagáscar , Masculino , Nova Guiné , Federação Russa
13.
Zootaxa ; 4567(2): zootaxa.4567.2.1, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715894

RESUMO

Ptilothyris Walsingham, 1897, a poorly known Afrotropical genus of Lecithoceridae, is revised. Eight new species are described and illustrated: P. subcucullata Park, sp. nov., P. crassiella Park, sp. nov., P. drepanodes Park, sp. nov., P. enormisella Park, sp. nov., P. hylodes Park, sp. nov., P. leifaarviki Park, sp. nov., P. pilosa Park, sp. nov., and P. vokaensis Park, sp. nov. Each species is compared with type specimens of the related species deposited in various museums worldwide. COI barcode sequences of six species were successfully obtained and are provided. Of the 13 previously known African species of the genus, P. serangota ab. cyanea Ghesquière, 1940 is synonymized with P. serangota Meyrick, 1932, and the following three species are excluded from the genus: brachysema Meyrick, 1938, crocophracta Meyrick, 1938, and nemophorella Ghesquière, 1940. The latter three will be transferred to related genera in forthcoming studies. Adults and genitalia of all the known species including the new species are illustrated, and a key to the species is provided.


Assuntos
Mariposas , África , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Anuros , Genitália , Cifozoários
14.
Zootaxa ; 4671(4): zootaxa.4671.4.5, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716033

RESUMO

A new Ischnomera from northern Sicily is described. Besides this species, in the western Mediterranean I. xanthoderes complex were distinct one species from the Iberian peninsula and southern France (I. xanthoderes), and one from northwestern Africa (I. tenietensis). All species are figured and a key to the species is published.


Assuntos
Besouros , África , Animais , França , Sicília
15.
Zootaxa ; 4615(3): zootaxa.4615.3.5, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716333

RESUMO

Members of the genus Notoalona Rajapaksa Fernando, 1987 (Cladocera: Chydoridae: Aloninae) are small-sized chydorids, inhabiting tropical water bodies around the World. Based on morphological features two species, N. globulosa (Daday, 1898) and N. pseudomacronyx Van Damme, Maiphae Sa-Ardrit, 2013, were revealed in tropical Asia, but the status of African populations has remained unclear for a long time. Some authors identified African specimens as N. globulosa, others considered them as potentially new species awaiting description. Here we reexamined morphology of Notoalona populations from tropical Asia (Thailand, Laos) and Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan and Madagascar). Although parthenogenetic females from Asia and Africa are basically similar, a single stable difference was found. In N. globulosa, the length of the basal spine and claw base are almost equal to each other, while in all investigated African specimens the basal spine is two times longer than base of postabdominal claw. This feature allows us to identify African populations as N. pseudomacronyx. Length of the setules in the basal group near the postabdominal basal spine, which was previously discussed in the literature as a specific feature for African populations, in fact, is overly variable and cannot be considered as diagnostic characteristic for the description of African populations as a separate taxon. Thus, the distribution range of N. pseudomacronyx is hereby expanded from South Africa to South East Asia, while N. globulosa s.l. occupies water bodies from tropical Asia to Australia. The same distribution patterns, when sibling species occur together in tropical Asia, have been shown for some other cladocerans as well. No doubt, the Asian tropics may be a particularly interesting area for future investigations on co-occurrence of sibling cladocerans, their ecology, behavior, genetics and potential hybridization.


Assuntos
Cladóceros , África , Animais , Ásia , Feminino
16.
Zootaxa ; 4614(3): zootaxa.4614.3.10, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716374

RESUMO

The identity of the Old World grass feeding leafhopper species Soractellus nigrominutus Evans, 1966 is clarified and its distribution revised. Based on examination of material, from throughout its range, the following species are placed as new subjective junior synonyms of S. nigrominutus: S. jianfengensis Xing Li, 2014, syn. nov., and S. lalianensis Naveed Zhang, 2018, syn. nov. The following new country records for S. nigrominutus are recorded: Thailand, Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda, Senegal, Ethiopia and Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , África , Animais , Ásia , Poaceae
17.
Zootaxa ; 4614(1): zootaxa.4614.1.11, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716395

RESUMO

Urothrips is one of a group of 10 genera of fungus-feeding Phlaeothripinae in which species have the tenth abdominal segment greatly elongate and bearing long anal setae (Mound 1972; Okajima 2006). The genus is recorded from Africa, Asia and Australia (ThripsWiki 2019), and currently comprises 11 species. A key to nine of these species was provided by Ulitzka and Mound (2014), to which two further species from China were added subsequently (Tong Zhao 2017; Zhao Tong 2017). The purpose of this paper is to describe a new species of Urothrips. This is the fifth member of the genus recorded from China, the others being U. calvus Tong Zhao, U. lancangensis Zhao Tong, U. gibberosa Kudo and U. tarai Stannard.


Assuntos
Tisanópteros , África , Animais , Ásia , Austrália , China , Florestas
18.
Zootaxa ; 4565(3): zootaxa.4565.3.11, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716471

RESUMO

This paper attempts to establish the correct status of three species names in the mealybug genus Rastrococcus Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae). At present, 31 species are included in the genus (García Morales et al. 2019). The natural distribution of the species is southern Asia and Australasia, but two species have been introduced into Africa and one of them has reached French Guiana.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , África , Animais , Ásia , Australásia , Guiana Francesa
19.
Zootaxa ; 4664(3): zootaxa.4664.3.2, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716664

RESUMO

The cystoid nematodes of the subfamilies Ataloderinae and Meloidoderinae include 32 recognized species belonging to 10 genera. The geographical distribution and preferred hosts of these nematodes are reviewed in the present paper. Most genera in Ataloderinae are believed to have evolved in North America, but some genera currently show different or wider distributions. Although members of Bellodera, Ekphymatodera, Rhizonemella and Sarisodera have only been recovered from North America, those of Atalodera may be found in both North America and South America. Species of the other genera tend to occur in different geographical locations: Cryphodera species have been recorded in Asia and Oceania while Camelodera and Hylonema species have only reported from Asia and Africa, respectively. Members of Meloidoderinae (Meloidodera spp.) are distributed in North America, Asia and Europe. Plant hosts for the cystoid nematodes are distributed among both monocots and dicots. Nematologists suggest an ancient origin for genera such as Meloidodera, Cryphodera and Rhizonemella which can parasitize gymnosperms.


Assuntos
Nematoides , África , Animais , Ásia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Europa (Continente) , América do Norte , América do Sul
20.
Zootaxa ; 4691(3): zootaxa.4691.3.10, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719398

RESUMO

The rhyparochromid Pamera noctuabunda Bergroth, 1907 is shown to belong in the genus Stalaria Harrington, 1980, not in the genus Remaudiereana Hoberlandt, 1954, where it was placed by Harrington (1980). Stalaria nysias (Linnavouri, 1978) is synonymized with S. noctuabunda. The four species described in Stalaria are confined to Africa: their distribution is outlined. Specimens examined are listed, and a revised key to the species of Stalaria is appended.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , África , Distribuição Animal , Animais
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