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4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1154: 71-103, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297760

RESUMO

Fascioliasis is a major parasitic disease caused by the digenetic trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The disease is a well-known veterinary problem of worldwide distribution. Fascioliasis is the vector-borne parasitic disease presenting the widest latitudinal, longitudinal, and altitudinal distribution known at present. In the last two decades, many surveys have shown it to be an important public health problem as well, including estimations of 2.4 million, up to 17 million people, or even higher depending on the hitherto unknown situations mainly in several regions of Asia and Africa. In recent years, the increasing number of human case reports in many countries of the five continents and the results of studies on pathogenicity and immunity, mainly regarding the chronic period of the disease, were the reasons why it was decided to no longer consider fascioliasis merely a secondary zoonotic disease but an important human parasitic disease. In this chapter, we review the most relevant features in relation to fascioliasis, including from the most traditional to the most innovative aspects.


Assuntos
Fasciolíase , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Fasciola , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Fasciolíase/prevenção & controle , Humanos
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1154: 279-319, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297766

RESUMO

This chapter analyses the taxonomic position of Dicrocoeliidae family and several of its genus and species. The biology of the major species causing veterinary diseases such Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Dicrocoelium hospes, Dicrocoelium chinensis, Eurytrema pancreaticum and Platynosomum fastosum, has been reviewed. All these species have an indirect life cycle, involving two intermediate hosts (molluscs as first and ants, grasshoppers and lizards as second). Dicrocoelium dendriticum is a very widespread hepatic trematode in the ruminants of many countries in Europe, Asia, North Africa and North America, even affecting humans. Dicrocoelium hospes is widely distributed in the savanna areas of Africa south of the Sahara, whilst D. chinensis has mainly been found in ruminants in East Asia and some European countries (probably imported from Asia). Eurytrema pancreaticum is a common parasite whose adults live in ruminant bile ducts, gall bladder, pancreatic ducts and intestines in Europe, Madagascar, Asia and South America. Adult P. fastosum live in the liver, gall bladder and pancreas of birds and mammals in Europe, Africa, Asia, North, Central and South America. Information about the epidemiology, pathology, clinical aspect, diagnosis, treatment, control, prevention and economic impact mainly of Dicrocoeliosis produced by D. dendriticum, as well as of Eurytrematodosis and Platynosomiosis, has been included.


Assuntos
Dicrocoeliidae , Infecções por Trematódeos , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Dicrocoeliidae/classificação , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/diagnóstico , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/prevenção & controle
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 651, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A, caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), is a vaccine preventable disease. In Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), poor hygiene and sanitation conditions are the main risk factors contributing to HAV infection. There have been, however, notable improvements in hygiene and sanitation conditions in many LMICs. As a result, there are studies showing a possible transition of some LMICs from high to intermediate HAV endemicity. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries should routinely collect, analyse and review local factors (including disease burden) to guide the development of hepatitis A vaccination programs. Up-to-date information on hepatitis A burden is, therefore, critical in aiding the development of country-specific recommendations on hepatitis A vaccination. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to present an up-to-date, comprehensive synthesis of hepatitis A epidemiological data in Africa. RESULTS: The main results of this review include: 1) the reported HAV seroprevalence data suggests that Africa, as a whole, should not be considered as a high HAV endemic region; 2) the IgM anti-HAV seroprevalence data showed similar risk of acute hepatitis A infection among all age-groups; 3) South Africa could be experiencing a possible transition from high to intermediate HAV endemicity. The results of this review should be interpreted with caution as the reported data represents research work with significant sociocultural, economic and environmental diversity from 13 out of 54 African countries. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that priority should be given to collecting HAV seroprevalence data and re-assessing the current hepatitis A control strategies in Africa to prevent future disease outbreaks.


Assuntos
Hepatite A/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Hepatite A/mortalidade , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite A/sangue , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Pobreza , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
9.
Nat Med ; 25(8): 1205-1212, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332393

RESUMO

Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF)-giving infants only breast-milk (and medications, oral rehydration salts and vitamins as needed) with no additional food or drink for their first six months of life-is one of the most effective strategies for preventing child mortality1-4. Despite these advantages, only 37% of infants under 6 months of age in Africa were exclusively breastfed in 20175, and the practice of EBF varies by population. Here, we present a fine-scale geospatial analysis of EBF prevalence and trends in 49 African countries from 2000-2017, providing policy-relevant administrative- and national-level estimates. Previous national-level analyses found that most countries will not meet the World Health Organization's Global Nutrition Target of 50% EBF prevalence by 20256. Our analyses show that even fewer will achieve this ambition in all subnational areas. Our estimates provide the ability to visualize subnational EBF variability and identify populations in need of additional breastfeeding support.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , África/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Prevalência , Fatores de Tempo , Organização Mundial da Saúde
10.
Lancet ; 394(10195): 332-343, 2019 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax exacts a significant toll on health worldwide, yet few efforts to date have quantified the extent and temporal trends of its global distribution. Given the challenges associated with the proper diagnosis and treatment of P vivax, national malaria programmes-particularly those pursuing malaria elimination strategies-require up to date assessments of P vivax endemicity and disease impact. This study presents the first global maps of P vivax clinical burden from 2000 to 2017. METHODS: In this spatial and temporal modelling study, we adjusted routine malariometric surveillance data for known biases and used socioeconomic indicators to generate time series of the clinical burden of P vivax. These data informed Bayesian geospatial models, which produced fine-scale predictions of P vivax clinical incidence and infection prevalence over time. Within sub-Saharan Africa, where routine surveillance for P vivax is not standard practice, we combined predicted surfaces of Plasmodium falciparum with country-specific ratios of P vivax to P falciparum. These results were combined with surveillance-based outputs outside of Africa to generate global maps. FINDINGS: We present the first high-resolution maps of P vivax burden. These results are combined with those for P falciparum (published separately) to form the malaria estimates for the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study. The burden of P vivax malaria decreased by 41·6%, from 24·5 million cases (95% uncertainty interval 22·5-27·0) in 2000 to 14·3 million cases (13·7-15·0) in 2017. The Americas had a reduction of 56·8% (47·6-67·0) in total cases since 2000, while South-East Asia recorded declines of 50·5% (50·3-50·6) and the Western Pacific regions recorded declines of 51·3% (48·0-55·4). Europe achieved zero P vivax cases during the study period. Nonetheless, rates of decline have stalled in the past five years for many countries, with particular increases noted in regions affected by political and economic instability. INTERPRETATION: Our study highlights important spatial and temporal patterns in the clinical burden and prevalence of P vivax. Amid substantial progress worldwide, plateauing gains and areas of increased burden signal the potential for challenges that are greater than expected on the road to malaria elimination. These results support global monitoring systems and can inform the optimisation of diagnosis and treatment where P vivax has most impact. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Américas/epidemiologia , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Saúde Global , Humanos , Oceania/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Análise Espaço-Temporal
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 519, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been a number of studies about seroprevalence of HEV among pregnant women in Africa. However, the finding of seroprevalence of HEV infection among pregnant women is variable and inconsistent. Therefore; this systematic review intended to provide the pooled seroprevalence of HEV among pregnant women in Africa. METHODS: We searched, Pub Med, Science direct, African online journals and Google scholar electronic data bases and all available references until August 30, 2018. We included cross sectional studies and cohort studies. The search was further limited studies done in African pregnant women. Statistical analysis done by using Stata (version 11) software. The overall pooled prevalence of HEV presented by using the forest plot with 95% CI. The methodological qualities of included studies were assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instruments. RESULT: The pooled seroprevalence of HEV among pregnant women in Africa was 29.13% (95% CI 14.63-43.63). The highest seroprevalence was 84.3% in Egypt and the lowest 6.6% reported in Gabon. There was highest heterogeneity level where I2 = 99.7%; P < 0.0001.The observed heterogeneity attributed to geographic location/ region, country, assay method used in each study and year of study published. Moreover, HEV seroprevalence varies between countries and within countries. The HEV infection among African pregnant women seems to have a decreasing trend over time. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of HEV among pregnant women in Africa is high. The seroprevalence of HEV among pregnant women differ with geographic location and assay method. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct further research on commercial ELISA kit sensitivity and specificity, molecular tests, incidence, morbidity and mortality and vertical transmission of HEV from mother to infant in Africa. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRD42018084963 .


Assuntos
Hepatite E/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , África/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prevalência
12.
PLoS Genet ; 15(6): e1008233, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233504

RESUMO

Pathogenic Salmonella strains that cause gastroenteritis are able to colonize and replicate within the intestines of multiple host species. In general, these strains have retained an ability to form the rdar morphotype, a resistant biofilm physiology hypothesized to be important for Salmonella transmission. In contrast, Salmonella strains that are host-adapted or even host-restricted like Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, tend to cause systemic infections and have lost the ability to form the rdar morphotype. Here, we investigated the rdar morphotype and CsgD-regulated biofilm formation in two non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) strains that caused invasive disease in Malawian children, S. Typhimurium D23580 and S. Enteritidis D7795, and compared them to a panel of NTS strains associated with gastroenteritis, as well as S. Typhi strains. Sequence comparisons combined with luciferase reporter technology identified key SNPs in the promoter region of csgD that either shut off biofilm formation completely (D7795) or reduced transcription of this key biofilm regulator (D23580). Phylogenetic analysis showed that these SNPs are conserved throughout the African clades of invasive isolates, dating as far back as 80 years ago. S. Typhi isolates were negative for the rdar morphotype due to truncation of eight amino acids from the C-terminus of CsgD. We present new evidence in support of parallel evolution between lineages of nontyphoidal Salmonella associated with invasive disease in Africa and the archetypal host-restricted invasive serovar; S. Typhi. We hypothesize that the African invasive isolates are becoming human-adapted and 'niche specialized' with less reliance on environmental survival, as compared to gastroenteritis-causing isolates.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Gastroenterite/genética , Infecções por Salmonella/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , África/epidemiologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/transmissão , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade , Transativadores/genética
13.
PLoS Genet ; 15(6): e1008204, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181058

RESUMO

We learn about population history and underlying evolutionary biology through patterns of genetic polymorphism. Many approaches to reconstruct evolutionary histories focus on a limited number of informative statistics describing distributions of allele frequencies or patterns of linkage disequilibrium. We show that many commonly used statistics are part of a broad family of two-locus moments whose expectation can be computed jointly and rapidly under a wide range of scenarios, including complex multi-population demographies with continuous migration and admixture events. A full inspection of these statistics reveals that widely used models of human history fail to predict simple patterns of linkage disequilibrium. To jointly capture the information contained in classical and novel statistics, we implemented a tractable likelihood-based inference framework for demographic history. Using this approach, we show that human evolutionary models that include archaic admixture in Africa, Asia, and Europe provide a much better description of patterns of genetic diversity across the human genome. We estimate that an unidentified, deeply diverged population admixed with modern humans within Africa both before and after the split of African and Eurasian populations, contributing 4 - 8% genetic ancestry to individuals in world-wide populations.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano/genética , Hominidae/genética , África/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Fluxo Gênico/genética , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo Genético/genética
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007406, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has recently reemphasized the importance of providing preventive chemotherapy to women of reproductive age in countries endemic for soil-transmitted helminthiasis as they are at heightened risk of associated morbidity. The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program is responsible for collecting and disseminating accurate, nationally representative data on health and population in developing countries. Our study aims to estimate the number of pregnant women at risk of soil-transmitted helminthiasis that self-reported deworming by antenatal services in endemic countries that conducted Demographic and Health Surveys. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The number of pregnant women living in endemic countries was extrapolated from the United Nations World Population Prospects 2015. National deworming coverage among pregnant women were extracted from Demographic and Health Surveys and applied to total numbers of pregnant women in the country. Sub-national DHS with data on self-reported deworming were available from 49 of the 102 endemic countries. In some regions more than 73% of STH endemic countries had a DHS. The DHS report an average deworming coverage of 23% (CI 19-28), ranging from 2% (CI 1-3) to 35% (CI 29-40) in the different regions, meaning more than 16 million pregnant women were dewormed in countries surveyed by DHS. The deworming rates amongst the 43 million pregnant women in STH endemic countries not surveyed by DHS remains unknown. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These estimates will serve to establish baseline numbers of deworming coverage among pregnant women, monitor progress, and urge endemic countries to continue working toward reducing the burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. The DHS program should be extended to STH-endemic countries currently not covering the topic of deworming during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Solo/parasitologia , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
15.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 86(1): e1-e15, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038322

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminant (PPR) is a highly contagious, infectious viral disease of small ruminant species which is caused by the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), the prototype member of the Morbillivirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Peste des petits ruminant was first described in West Africa, where it has probably been endemic in sheep and goats since the emergence of the rinderpest pandemic and was always misdiagnosed with rinderpest in sheep and goats. Since its discovery PPR has had a major impact on sheep and goat breeders in Africa and has therefore been a key focus of research at the veterinary research institutes and university faculties of veterinary medicine in Africa. Several key discoveries were made at these institutions, including the isolation and propagation of African PPR virus isolates, notable amongst which was the Nigerian PPRV 75/1 that was used in the scientific study to understand the taxonomy, molecular dynamics, lineage differentiation of PPRV and the development of vaccine seeds for immunisation against PPR. African sheep and goat breeds including camels and wild ruminants are frequently infected, manifesting clinical signs of the disease, whereas cattle and pigs are asymptomatic but can seroconvert for PPR. The immunisation of susceptible sheep and goats remains the most effective and practical control measure against PPR. To carry out PPR vaccination in tropical African countries with a very high temperature, a thermostable vaccine using the rinderpest lyophilisation method to the attenuated Nigeria 75/1 PPR vaccine strain has been developed, which will greatly facilitate the delivery of vaccination in the control, prevention and global eradication of PPR. Apart from vaccination, other important questions that will contribute towards the control and prevention of PPR need to be answered, for example, to identify the period when a susceptible naïve animal becomes infectious when in contact with an infected animal and when an infectious animal becomes contagious.


Assuntos
Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/isolamento & purificação , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Cabras , Epidemiologia Molecular , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/prevenção & controle , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Ovinos , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(21): 474-477, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145718

RESUMO

In 2017, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that worldwide, 36.9 million persons were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the virus infection that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Among persons with HIV infection, approximately 75% were aware of their HIV status, leaving 9.4 million persons with undiagnosed infection (1). Index testing, also known as partner notification or contact tracing, is an effective case-finding strategy that targets the exposed contacts of HIV-positive persons for HIV testing services. This report summarizes data from HIV tests using index testing in 20 countries supported by CDC through the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) during October 1, 2016-March 31, 2018. During this 18-month period, 1,700,998 HIV tests with 99,201 (5.8%) positive results were reported using index testing. The positivity rate for index testing was 9.8% among persons aged ≥15 years and 1.5% among persons aged <15 years. During the reporting period, HIV positivity increased 64% among persons aged ≥15 years (from 7.6% to 12.5%) and 67% among persons aged <15 years (from 1.2% to 2.0%). Expanding index testing services could help increase the number of persons with HIV infection who know their status, are initiated onto antiretroviral treatment, and consequently reduce the number of persons who can transmit the virus.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 34, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In onchocerciasis-endemic areas, particularly in those with a sub-optimal onchocerciasis control programme, a high prevalence of epilepsy is observed. Both onchocerciasis and epilepsy are stigmatizing conditions. The first international workshop on onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE) was held in Antwerp, Belgium (12-14 October 2017) and during this meeting, an OAE alliance was established. In this paper, we review what is known about epilepsy-associated stigma in onchocerciasis-endemic regions, and present the recommendations of the OAE alliance working group on stigma. MAIN BODY: For this scoping review, literature searches were performed on the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct using the search terms "epilepsy AND onchocerciasis AND stigma". Hand searches were also undertaken using Google Scholar, and in total seven papers were identified that addressed epilepsy-related stigma in an onchocercisasis-endemic area. Due to the limited number of published research papers on epilepsy-associated stigma in onchocerciasis-endemic areas, other relevant literature that describes important aspects related to stigma is discussed. The thematic presentation of this scoping review follows key insights on the barriers to alleviating the social consequences of stigma in highly affected onchocerciasis-endemic areas, which were established by experts during the working group on stigma and discrimination at the first international workshop on OAE. These themes are: knowledge gaps, perceived disease aetiology, access to education, marriage restrictions, psycho-social well-being, burden on the care-giver and treatment seeking behaviour. Based on the literature and expert discussions during the OAE working group on stigma, this paper describes important issues regarding epilepsy-related stigma in onchocerciasis-endemic regions and recommends interventions that are needed to reduce stigma and discrimination for the improvement of the psycho-social well-being of persons with epilepsy. CONCLUSIONS: Educating healthcare workers and communities about OAE, strengthening onchocerciasis elimination programs, decreasing the anti-epileptic treatment gap, improving the care of epilepsy-related injuries, and prioritising epilepsy research is the way forward to decreasing the stigma associated with epilepsy in onchocerciasis-endemic regions.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estigma Social , Comitês Consultivos , África/epidemiologia , Bélgica , Cuidadores , Doenças Endêmicas , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oncocercose/complicações , Oncocercose/epidemiologia
18.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 36, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drylands, which are among the biosphere's most naturally limiting and environmentally variable ecosystems, constitute three-quarters of the African continent. As a result, environmental sustainability and human development along with vector-borne disease (VBD) control historically have been especially challenging in Africa, particularly in the sub-Saharan and Sahelian drylands. Here, the VBD burden, food insecurity, environmental degradation, and social vulnerability are particularly severe. Changing climate can exacerbate the legion of environmental health threats in Africa, the social dimensions of which are now part of the international development agenda. Accordingly, the need to better understand the dynamics and complex coupling of populations and environments as exemplified by drylands is increasingly recognized as critical to the design of more sustainable interventions. MAIN BODY: This scoping review examines the challenge of vector-borne disease control in drylands with a focus on Africa, and the dramatic, ongoing environmental and social changes taking place. Dryland societies persisted and even flourished in the past despite changing climates, extreme and unpredictable weather, and marginal conditions for agriculture. Yet intrusive forces largely out of the control of traditional dryland societies, along with the negative impacts of globalization, have contributed to the erosion of dryland's cultural and natural resources. This has led to the loss of resilience underlying the adaptive capacity formerly widely exhibited among dryland societies. A growing body of evidence from studies of environmental and natural resource management demonstrates how, in light of dryland system's inherent complexity, these factors and top-down interventions can impede sustainable development and vector-borne disease control. Strengthening adaptive capacity through community-based, participatory methods that build on local knowledge and are tailored to local ecological conditions, hold the best promise of reversing current trends. CONCLUSIONS: A significant opportunity exists to simultaneously address the increasing threat of vector-borne diseases and climate change through methods aimed at strengthening adaptive capacity. The integrative framework and methods based on social-ecological systems and resilience theory offers a novel set of tools that allow multiple threats and sources of vulnerability to be addressed in combination. Integration of recent advances in vector borne disease ecology and wider deployment of these tools could help reverse the negative social and environmental trends currently seen in African drylands.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Clima Desértico , Ecossistema , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , África/epidemiologia , Agricultura , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Vetores de Doenças , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 269: 42-52, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079827

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is an important disease with worldwide distribution. Infection can occur from ingesting raw or undercooked infected meat, and among food animal species, pork is known to be one of the main sources of meat-borne infection. Here, we present results of the first systematic review and meta-analysis on the global T. gondii seroprevalence in pigs. PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and EMBASE databases were comprehensively searched for relevant studies published between January 1, 1990 and October 25, 2018. We used a random effects model to calculate pooled seroprevalence estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and analyzed data from five continents. We also conducted subgroup and meta-regression analyses to evaluate the effects of geographical and climate variables on pooled seroprevalence rates. Among 1542 publications identified, 148 studies containing 150 datasets were included in the meta-analysis, and comprised 148,092 pigs from 47 countries. The pooled global T. gondii seroprevalence in pigs was estimated to be 19% (95%CI, 17-22%; 23,696/148,092), with the lowest seroprevalence in Europe (13%; 10-15%) and highest seroprevalence in Africa (25%; 17-34%) and North America (25%; 19-33%). The seropositivity rates in Asia and South America regions were (21%, 16-26%) and (23%; 17-30%), respectively. A significantly higher T. gondii seroprevalence was associated with higher mean annual temperature and lower geographical latitude. The presence of cats on farms was identified as a potential risk factor for T. gondii seropositivity (OR, 1.41; 95%CI, 1.00-2.02). Our findings highlight the importance of pigs as a possible source of human T. gondii infections.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Carne Vermelha/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Zoonoses
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