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1.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e042750, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177146

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The current COVID-19 pandemic is a global threat. This elicits questions on the level of preparedness and capacity of health systems to respond to emergencies relative to other parts of the world. METHODS: This cross-sectional study uses publicly available core health data for 53 African countries to determine risk factors for cumulative COVID-19 deaths and cases per million in all countries in the continent. Descriptive statistics were determined for the indicators, and a negative binomial regression was used for modelling the risk factors. RESULTS: In sub-Saharan Africa, an increase in the number of nursing and midwifery personnel decreased the risk of COVID-19 deaths (p=0.0178), while a unit increase in universal healthcare (UHC) index of service coverage and prevalence of insufficient physical activity among adults increased the risk of COVID-19 deaths (p=0.0432 and p=0.0127). An increase in the proportion of infants initiating breast feeding reduced the number of cases per million (p<0.0001), while an increase in higher healthy life expectancy at birth increased the number of cases per million (p=0.0340). CONCLUSION: Despite its limited resources, Africa's preparedness and response to the COVID-19 pandemic can be improved by identifying and addressing specific gaps in the funding of health services delivery. These gaps impact negatively on service delivery in Africa, which requires more nursing personnel and increased UHC coverage to mitigate the effects of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Expectativa de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Assistência de Saúde Universal , África/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Tocologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/provisão & distribução , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade
2.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 8205261, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134395

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to cause havoc to many countries of the globe, with no end in sight, due to nonavailability of a given vaccine or treatment regimen. The pandemic has so far had a relatively limited impact on the African continent, which contributes more than 93% of global malaria burden. However, the limited burden of COVID-19 pandemic on the African region could have long-term implications on the health and wellbeing of affected inhabitants due to its malaria-endemic status. Malaria causes recurrent insulin resistance with episodes of infection at relatively low parasitaemia. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) which is widely distributed in the human body is implicated in the pathogenesis of malaria, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and COVID-19. Use of ACE2 by the COVID-19 virus induces inflammation and oxidative stress, which can lead to insulin resistance. Although COVID-19 patients in malaria-endemic African region may not exhibit severe signs and symptoms of the disease, their risk of exhibiting heightened insulin resistance and possible future development of T2DM is high due to their prior exposure to malaria. African governments must double efforts at containing the continued spread of the virus without neglecting existing malarial control measures if the region is to avert the plausible long-term impact of the pandemic in terms of future development of T2DM.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Malária/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Malária/complicações , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/patologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/virologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(18): 9753-9759, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The weather-related conditions change the ecosystem and pose a threat to social, economic and environmental development. It creates unprecedented or unanticipated human health problems in various places or times of the year. Africa is the world's second largest and most populous continent and has relatively changeable weather conditions. The present study aims to investigate the impact of weather conditions, heat and humidity on the incidence and mortality of COVID-19 pandemic in various regions of Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 16 highly populated countries from North, South, East, West, and Central African regions were selected. The data on COVID-19 pandemic including daily new cases and new deaths were recorded from World Health Organization. The daily temperature and humidity figures were obtained from the weather web "Time and Date". The daily cases, deaths, temperature and humidity were recorded from the date of appearance of first case of "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)" in the African region, from Feb 14 to August 2, 2020. RESULTS: In African countries, the daily basis mean temperature from Feb 14, 2020 to August 2, 2020 was 26.16±0.12°C, and humidity was 57.41±0.38%. The overall results revealed a significant inverse correlation between humidity and the number of cases (r= -0.192, p<0.001) and deaths (r= -0.213, p<0.001). Similarly, a significant inverse correlation was found between temperature and the number of cases (r= -0.25, p<0.001) and deaths (r=-0.18, p<0.001). Furthermore, the regression results showed that with 1% increase in humidity the number of cases and deaths was significantly reduced by 3.6% and 3.7% respectively. Congruently, with 1°C increase in temperature, the number of cases and deaths was also significantly reduced by 15.1% and 10.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Increase in relative humidity and temperature was associated with a decrease in the number of daily cases and deaths due to COVID-19 pandemic in various African countries. The study findings on weather events and COVID-19 pandemic have an impact at African regional levels to project the incidence and mortality trends with regional weather events which will enhance public health readiness and assist in planning to fight against this pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Umidade/efeitos adversos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Tempo (Meteorologia) , África/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Incidência
6.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 53(5): 307-310, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070501

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has placed unprecedented pressure on healthcare systems, even in advanced economies. While the number of cases of SARS-CoV-2 in Africa compared to other continents has so far been low, there are concerns about under-reporting, inadequate diagnostic tools, and insufficient treatment facilities. Moreover, proactiveness on the part of African governments has been under scrutiny. For instance, issues have emerged regarding the responsiveness of African countries in closing international borders to limit trans-continental transmission of the virus. Overdependence on imported products and outsourced services could have contributed to African governments' hesitation to shut down international air and seaports. In this era of emerging and re-emerging pathogens, we recommend that African nations should consider self-sufficiency in the health sector as an urgent priority, as this will not be the last outbreak to occur. In addition to the Regional Disease Surveillance Systems Enhancement fund (US$600 million) provided by the World Bank for strengthening health systems and disease surveillance, each country should further establish an epidemic emergency fund for epidemic preparedness and response. We also recommend that epidemic surveillance units should create a secure database of previous and ongoing pandemics in terms of aetiology, spread, and treatment, as well as financial management records. Strategic collection and analysis of data should also be a central focus of these units to facilitate studies of disease trends and to estimate the scale of requirements in preparation and response to any future pandemic or epidemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Planejamento em Desastres/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Viagem/legislação & jurisprudência , África/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Governo , Humanos , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 150, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109262

RESUMO

The ongoing pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 has spread rapidly to all countries of the world. Africa is particularly predisposed to an escalation of the pandemic and its negative impact given its weak economy and health systems. In addition, inadequate access to the social determinants of health such as water and sanitation and socio-cultural attributes may constrain the implementation of critical preventive measures such as hand washing and social distancing on the continent.Given these facts, the continent needs to focus on targeted and high impact prevention and control strategies and interventions which could break the chain of transmission quickly. We conclude that the available body of scientific evidence on the coronavirus disease 2019 holds the key to the development of such strategies and interventions.Going forward, we recommend that the African research community should scale up research to provide scientific evidence for a better characterization of the epidemiology, transmission dynamics, prevention and control of the virus on the continent.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desinfecção das Mãos , Educação em Saúde , Planejamento em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Política Pública , Saneamento
8.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(5): 499-518, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026346

RESUMO

The French society of clinical biology "Biochemical markers of COVID-19" has set up a working group with the primary aim of reviewing, analyzing and monitoring the evolution of biological prescriptions according to the patient's care path and to look for markers of progression and severity of the disease. This study covers all public and private sectors of medical biology located in metropolitan and overseas France and also extends to the French-speaking world. This article presents the testimonies and data obtained for the "Overseas and French-speaking countries" sub-working group made up of 45 volunteer correspondents, located in 20 regions of the world. In view of the delayed spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the overseas regions and the French-speaking regions have benefited from feedback from the first territories confronted with COVID-19. Thus, the entry of the virus or its spread in epidemic form could be avoided, thanks to the rapid closure of borders. The overseas territories depend very strongly on air and/or sea links with the metropolis or with the neighboring continent. The isolation of these countries is responsible for reagent supply difficulties and has necessitated emergency orders and the establishment of stocks lasting several months, in order to avoid shortages and maintain adequate patient care. In addition, in countries located in tropical or intertropical zones, the diagnosis of COVID-19 is complicated by the presence of various zoonoses (dengue, Zika, malaria, leptospirosis, etc.).


Assuntos
Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Medicina de Viagem/organização & administração , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/organização & administração , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ilhas/epidemiologia , Idioma , Laos/epidemiologia , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/organização & administração , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Medicina de Viagem/métodos , Medicina de Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Clima Tropical , Medicina Tropical/métodos , Medicina Tropical/organização & administração , Medicina Tropical/estatística & dados numéricos , Vietnã/epidemiologia
9.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(9): 586-587, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012857

RESUMO

The COVID 19 pandemic is exposing an important weakness in health systems: medical oxygen production and delivery. Tatum Anderson reports.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oxigênio/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias
11.
Virology ; 550: 70-77, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890979

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emergent RNA virus that spread around the planet in about 4 months. The consequences of this rapid dispersion are under investigation. In this work, we analyzed thousands of genomes and protein sequences from Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. We provide statistically significant evidence that SARS-CoV-2 phylogeny is spatially structured. Remarkably, the virus phylogeographic patterns were correlated with ancestral amino acidic substitutions, suggesting that such mutations emerged along colonization events. We hypothesize that geographic structuring is the result of founder effects occurring as a consequence of, and local evolution occurring after, long-distance dispersion. Based on previous studies, the possibility that this could significantly affect the virus biology is not remote.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , África/epidemiologia , América/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Oceania/epidemiologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Pandemias , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Proteínas Virais/genética
12.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(4): e20355, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created unprecedented challenges to the systematic and timely sharing of COVID-19 field data collection and management. The World Health Organization (WHO) is working with health partners on the rollout and implementation of a robust electronic field data collection platform. The delay in the deployment and rollout of this electronic platform in the WHO African Region, as a consequence of the application of large-scale public health and social measures including movement restrictions and geographical area quarantine, left a gap between data collection and management. This lead to the need to develop interim data management solutions to accurately monitor the evolution of the pandemic and support the deployment of appropriate public health interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to review the design, development, and implementation of the COVID-19 Data Summarization and Visualization (DSV) tool as a rapidly deployable solution to fill this critical data collection gap as an interim solution. METHODS: This paper reviews the processes undertaken to research and develop a tool to bridge the data collection gap between the onset of a COVID-19 outbreak and the start of data collection using a prioritized electronic platform such as Go.Data in the WHO African Region. RESULTS: In anticipation of the implementation of a prioritized tool for field data collection, the DSV tool was deployed in 18 member states for COVID-19 outbreak data management. We highlight preliminary findings and lessons learned from the DSV tool deployment in the WHO African Region. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a rapidly deployable tool for COVID-19 data collection and visualization in the WHO African Region. The lessons drawn on this experience offer an opportunity to learn and apply these to improve future similar public health informatics initiatives in an outbreak or similar humanitarian setting, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Gerenciamento de Dados/métodos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Software , África/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Visualização de Dados , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
14.
Rev Prat ; 70(3): 312-316, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877067

RESUMO

Yellow fever is still a current threat? Yellow fever is a mosquito-borne disease. Africa is the major endemic zone, although there have been epidemics of concern in South America in the last 3 years, especially in Brazil. The virus causes a febrile hepatitis, which can lead to hemorrhagic complications and death. Diagnosis is based on non-specific serological tests. There is no curative treatment. Prevention relies on protection against mosquito bites and on vaccination with a live attenuated vaccine. WHO recommends only one dose of vaccine but data from the literature about life-long protection are divergent on that point, and travel medicine French authorities still recommend a second dose in most at-risk situations.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Febre Amarela , Febre Amarela , África/epidemiologia , Animais , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Medicina de Viagem , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle
17.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 104, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874935

RESUMO

Despite predictions that the number of deaths in Africa due to COVID-19 will reach 10 million, overall, the continent has reported relatively few cases compared to the rest of the world. Many African countries have been successful in containing initial outbreaks by rapidly using evidence-based interventions through implementation strategies adapted from other countries' COVID-19 response as well as from prior epidemics. However, it is unclear whether these interventions will lead to long-term and complete success in stopping COVID-19 spread. Implementation research is a tool that can be used by countries to learn how to identify and understand contextual factors impacting COVID-19 prevention and control and select evidence-based interventions and strategies known to reduce spread of the virus. We identify seven key contextual factors that are facilitators or barriers to implementation of these interventions, and several strategies that can be leveraged if the factor is present or ones to strengthen if weak to improve implementation. These factors are: a culture of accountability, national coordination, financial stability of the population, culture of innovation, culture and capacity for research, health systems strength, and cross-border economies. Implementation science methods can serve to develop knowledge at a country and regional level on how to identify, utilize, and address these and other contextual factors, and inform relevant evidence-based interventions and implementation strategies. This approach can support African countries' ability to address key challenges as they arise, both in fighting COVID-19 and future health systems challenges.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis , África/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Difusão de Inovações , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239175, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941485

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak has forced most of the global population to lock-down and has put in check the health services all over the world. Current predictive models are complex, region-dependent, and might not be generalized to other countries. However, a 150-year old epidemics law promulgated by William Farr might be useful as a simple arithmetical model (percent increase [R1] and acceleration [R2] of new cases and deaths) to provide a first sight of the epidemic behavior and to detect regions with high predicted dynamics. Thus, this study tested Farr's Law assumptions by modeling COVID-19 data of new cases and deaths. COVID-19 data until April 10, 2020, was extracted from available countries, including income, urban index, and population characteristics. Farr's law first (R1) and second ratio (R2) were calculated. We constructed epidemic curves and predictive models for the available countries and performed ecological correlation analysis between R1 and R2 with demographic data. We extracted data from 210 countries, and it was possible to estimate the ratios of 170 of them. Around 42·94% of the countries were in an initial acceleration phase, while 23·5% already crossed the peak. We predicted a reduction close to zero with wide confidence intervals for 56 countries until June 10 (high-income countries from Asia and Oceania, with strict political actions). There was a significant association between high R1 of deaths and high urban index. Farr's law seems to be a useful model to give an overview of COVID-19 pandemic dynamics. The countries with high dynamics are from Africa and Latin America. Thus, this is a call to urgently prioritize actions in those countries to intensify surveillance, to re-allocate resources, and to build healthcare capacities based on multi-nation collaboration to limit onward transmission and to reduce the future impact on these regions in an eventual second wave.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Previsões , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Incidência , América Latina/epidemiologia , Morbidade/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Saúde da População Urbana
19.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 68(5): 302-305, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948360

RESUMO

Following the onset of the global COVID-19 pandemic and the alerts issued by the World Health Organization, for several months attention has been focused on Africa as a potentially severely endangered continent. A sizable number of African countries, mainly low and middle income, suffer from limited available resources, especially in critical care, and COVID-19 is liable to overwhelm their already fragile health systems. To effectively manage what is shaping up as a multidimensional crisis, the challenge unquestionably goes beyond the necessary upgrading of public health infrastructures. It is also a matter of anticipating and taking timely action with regard to factors that may mitigate the propagation of SARS-CoV2 and thereby cushion the shock of the pandemic on the African continent. While some of these factors are largely unmanageable (climate, geography…), several others (socio-cultural, religious, audio-visual, and potentially political…) could be more or less effectively dealt with by African governments and populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Recursos em Saúde/organização & administração , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/economia , Controle de Infecções/história , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Áreas de Pobreza , Papel Profissional , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/história , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais , Responsabilidade Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
20.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020023, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921745

RESUMO

The pandemic caused by Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 shows its devastating effects all over the world. The American and the European countries are the worst-hit by this COVID-19 pandemic. However, most of the African countries excepting a few are less affected by this virus as far as the number of cases and deaths are concerned. The correspondence proposes that just like the abnormal haemoglobins HbS and HbC are found to provide immunity to the African populations against infectious diseases such as Plasmodium falciparum malaria The possibility of these abnormal haemoglobins offering certain protection against the Novel Coronavirus infection in these populations needs to be explored.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , África/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
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