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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 3931-3937, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Extracellular water-to-total body water ratio (ECW/TBW) measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) reportedly predicts clinical outcomes of various diseases. The aim of this retrospective study was to examine the association between ECW/TBW and therapeutic durability of chemotherapy and/or immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced lung cancer underwent BIA before chemotherapy and/or treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors at our hospital between June 2018 and November 2019. RESULTS: Of 75 patients, 18 with ECW/TBW ≥0.4 were assigned to the overhydrated group (OH-G) and 57 patients ECW/TBW <0.4 were assigned to the non-overhydrated group (NOH-G). The median time-to-treatment failure was significantly shorter in the OH-G than in the NOH-G (p=0.003). Multivariate analysis revealed that ECW/TBW ≥0.4 predicted treatment failure [hazard ratio (HR)=2.508, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.19-5.27; p=0.01]. CONCLUSION: The ECW/TBW may be an objective parameter for predicting therapeutic durability in advanced lung cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Água Corporal/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Composição Corporal , Impedância Elétrica , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
2.
Phys Ther ; 100(8): 1384-1392, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Following breast cancer surgery with lymph node removal, women are at risk of developing lymphedema in the upper extremity or trunk. Currently, trunk lymphedema diagnosis relies on a clinical assessment because no quantifiable standard method exists. Tissue dielectric constant (TDC) values are quantifiable measures of localized skin tissue water and may be able to detect trunk lymphedema. The goal of this study was to (1) compare parameters derived from TDC measurements with those derived from clinically accepted criteria for trunk lymphedema in women following breast cancer surgery and (2) explore the potential utility of TDC to detect trunk lymphedema early in its progression. METHODS: This prospective longitudinal study, a secondary analysis from a larger study, observed women with and without clinically determined truncal lymphedema following breast cancer surgery. TDC was measured on the lateral trunk wall at post-surgery weeks 2, 4, 12, and 78 in women who had surgical breast cancer treatment with lymph node removal. Clinical assessment for trunk lymphedema was determined at 78 weeks by a lymphedema expert. Comparison of TDC measurements in women with and without clinical trunk lymphedema was analyzed. RESULTS: Clinical assessment identified trunk lymphedema in 15 out of 32 women at 78 weeks. These women had TDC ratios statistically higher than women without truncal lymphedema. CONCLUSION: The overall findings indicate that TDC has the ability to quantify trunk lymphedema and might be valuable in early detection. IMPACT: TDC may be a beneficial tool in the early detection of breast cancer-related trunk lymphedema, which could trigger intervention. LAY SUMMARY: A new device may help recognize trunk lymphedema in patients with breast cancer so they could receive appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Água Corporal , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/etiologia , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/fisiopatologia , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Linfa , Estudos Prospectivos , Parede Torácica , Fatores de Tempo
3.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232450, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433692

RESUMO

Many insects show discontinuous respiration with three phases, open, closed, and fluttering, in which the spiracles open and close rapidly. The relative durations of the three phases and the rate of fluttering during the flutter phase vary for individual insects depending on developmental stage and activity, vary between insects of the same species, and vary even more between different species. We studied how the rate of oxygen uptake during the flutter phase depends on the rate of fluttering. Using a mathematical model of oxygen diffusion in the insect tracheal system, we derive a formula for oxygen uptake during the flutter phase and how it depends on the length of the tracheal system, percentage of time open during the flutter phase, and the flutter rate. Surprisingly, our results show that an insect can have its spiracles closed a high percentage of time during the flutter phase and yet receive almost as much oxygen as if the spiracles were always open, provided the spiracles open and close rapidly. We investigate the respiratory gain due to fluttering for four specific insects. Our formula shows that respiratory gain increases with body size and with increased rate of fluttering. Therefore, insects can regulate their rate of oxygen uptake by varying the rate of fluttering while keeping the spiracles closed during a large fraction of the time during the flutter phase. We also use a mathematical model to show that water loss is approximately proportional to the percentage of time the spiracles are open. Thus, insects can achieve both high oxygen intake and low water loss by keeping the spiracles closed most of the time and fluttering while open, thereby decoupling the challenge of preventing water loss from the challenge of obtaining adequate oxygen uptake.


Assuntos
Insetos/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Oxigênio/fisiologia , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Água Corporal/metabolismo , Himenópteros/fisiologia , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Lepidópteros/fisiologia , Conceitos Matemáticos , Respiração , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Traqueia/anatomia & histologia , Traqueia/fisiologia
4.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(5): 368-373, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360093

RESUMO

Imaging is involved in the management of uterine cervical cancer with several objectives: 1/to assess local and lymph node extension of the initial disease; 2/evaluate treatment response to conservative therapy; 3/detect recurrences. Pelvic MRI is the first-line examination in all these indications. It is the key element for delineation after image fusion when the indication of chemoradiation therapy is made. It is also essential for guiding the placement of applicators and optimising the dosimetry of brachytherapy. The diffusion-weighted acquisition is a sequence sensitive to the motion of water molecules. It allows distinguishing water molecules with free diffusion from water molecules with diffusion restricted by obstacles such as cell membranes or the cytoskeleton. The diffusion is thus connected to the cellularity of the explored tissue, and the cancers, being hypercellular, will present a high signal. It thus provides additional information thanks to a high contrast between the tumour and the surrounding tissues, facilitating detection, evaluation of the volume and extent of the disease.


Assuntos
Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Água Corporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Braquiterapia/métodos , Quimiorradioterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Órgãos em Risco/diagnóstico por imagem , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia
5.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(5): 599-608, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378658

RESUMO

Although oral drugs account for 80% of the world drug market, many difficulties arise in their development. The drug absorption profile after oral administration may be influenced by multiple factors, including dosing conditions and physiological state of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Variability in GI fluid volume may influence the absorption characteristics. Indeed, the contributions of passive diffusion, transporters, and metabolic enzymes depend on GI drug concentration, which is influenced by changes in GI fluid volume. However, this important variable has been neglected in many prediction methods for oral drug absorption and drug interactions, and for convenience it is often assumed that the GI water volume is fixed at a constant value. Major global regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), and Japanese Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) recommend using a constant fluid volume of 250 mL (the fluid volume of a glass of water) to estimate the theoretical GI concentration of drugs after oral administration. However, the actual volume of water in the GI tract is both time- and site-dependent as a result of water intake, absorption, secretion, and GI transit. This review article summarizes our data showing that luminal water volume is influenced by the osmolality of the applied solution, and illustrates how this effect may contribute to changes in GI drug concentration, resulting in altered drug absorption.


Assuntos
Interações Medicamentosas , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Administração Oral , Água Corporal/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Concentração Osmolar , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
7.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(5): 461-465, 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281566

RESUMO

This study includes an evaluation of friction on the fingers, palms, and forearms of 20 subjects using a sinusoidal motion friction evaluation system. The effects of the changing water content in the stratum corneum at each position as well as the skin elastic modulus on the friction parameters were analyzed to show the factors governing friction dynamics. We observed a significant delay time (δ) and a stick-slip phenomenon during the sinusoidal motion friction processes. These dynamic phenomena are due to the softness and viscoelastic properties of human skin. The findings regarding the response of human skin to frictional stimulation under accelerated conditions facilitates a better understanding of the dynamic and mechanical properties of human skin.


Assuntos
Fricção , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Adulto , Água Corporal/metabolismo , Elasticidade , Feminino , Dedos , Antebraço , Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Pele/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13357, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219956

RESUMO

Tight junctions (TJs) play an important role in intestinal barrier function. TJs in intestinal epithelial cells are composed of different junctional molecules, such as claudin and occludin, and regulate the paracellular permeability of water, ions, and macromolecules in adjacent cells. One of the most important roles of the TJ structure is to provide a physical barrier to luminal inflammatory molecules. Impaired integrity and structure of the TJ barrier result in a forcible activation of immune cells and chronic inflammation in different tissues. According to recent studies, the intestinal TJ barrier could be regulated, as a potential target, by dietary factors to prevent and reduce different inflammatory disorders, although the precise mechanisms underlying the dietary regulation remain unclear. This review summarizes currently available information on the regulation of the intestinal TJ barrier by food components.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Alimentos , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Nutrientes , Junções Íntimas/fisiologia , Animais , Água Corporal/metabolismo , Claudinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Inflamação , Intestinos/imunologia , Permeabilidade , Junções Íntimas/imunologia
9.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 318(3): R512-R514, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940233

RESUMO

Work in adult humans and animals suggest sodium (Na) is stored in tissue reservoirs without commensurate water retention. These stores may protect from water loss, regulate immune function, and participate in blood pressure regulation. A role for such stores early in life, during which total body Na sufficiency is vital for optimal growth, has not been explored. Using data from previously published literature, we calculated total body stores of Na, potassium (K), and chloride (Cl) during fetal development (24-40 wk gestation) using two methods 1) based on the distribution of body water mass within extracellular and intracellular compartments, and 2) reported total mineral content. Based on differences between the models, we argue that Na, and to a lesser extent Cl, but not K, are stored in osmotically inactive pools within the fetus that increase with advancing gestational age. Because human breastmilk is relatively Na deficient, we speculate the fetal osmotically inactive Na pool is vital for providing a sufficient total body Na content that supports optimal postnatal growth.


Assuntos
Feto/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Minerais/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Água Corporal/fisiologia , Humanos , Potássio/metabolismo , Comportamento Sedentário
10.
Neurology ; 94(14): e1480-e1487, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively describe the MRI fat infiltration pattern of muscle degeneration in Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) type 1A (CMT1A) disease and to look for correlations with clinical variables. METHODS: MRI fat fraction was assessed in lower-limb musculature of patients with CMT1A and healthy controls. More particularly, 14 muscle compartments were selected at leg and thigh levels and for proximal, distal, and medial slices. Muscle fat infiltration profile was determined quantitatively in each muscle compartment and along the entire volume of acquisition to determine a length-dependent gradient of fat infiltration. Clinical impairment was evaluated with muscle strength measurements and CMT Examination Scores (CMTESs). RESULTS: A total of 16 patients with CMT1A were enrolled and compared to 11 healthy controls. Patients with CMT1A showed a larger muscle fat fraction at leg and thigh levels with a proximal-to-distal gradient. At the leg level, the largest fat infiltration was quantified in the anterior and lateral compartments. CMTES was correlated with fat fraction, especially in the anterior compartment of leg muscles. Strength of plantar flexion was also correlated with fat fraction of the posterior compartments of leg muscles. CONCLUSION: On the basis of quantitative MRI measurements combined with a dedicated segmentation method, muscle fat infiltration quantified in patients with CMT1A disclosed a length-dependent peroneal-type pattern of fat infiltration and was correlated to main clinical variables. Quantification of fat fraction at different levels of the leg anterior compartment might be of interest in future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth/metabolismo , Extremidade Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Água Corporal , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Coxa da Perna/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 318(2): E117-E130, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743039

RESUMO

Short-term muscle disuse has been reported to lower both postabsorptive and postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis rates. This study assessed the impact of disuse on daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates following short-term (2 and 7 days) muscle disuse under free living conditions. Thirteen healthy young men (age: 20 ± 1 yr; BMI: 23 ± 1 kg/m-2) underwent 7 days of unilateral leg immobilization via a knee brace, with the nonimmobilized leg acting as a control. Four days before immobilization participants ingested 400 mL of 70% deuterated water, with 50-mL doses consumed daily thereafter. Upper leg bilateral MRI scans and muscle biopsies were collected before and after 2 and 7 days of immobilization to determine quadriceps volume and daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates. Immobilization reduced quadriceps volume in the immobilized leg by 1.7 ± 0.3 and 6.7 ± 0.6% after 2 and 7 days, respectively, with no changes in the control leg. Over the 1-wk immobilization period, myofibrillar protein synthesis rates were 36 ± 4% lower in the immobilized (0.81 ± 0.04%/day) compared with the control (1.26 ± 0.04%/day) leg (P < 0.001). Myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in the control leg did not change over time (P = 0.775), but in the immobilized leg they were numerically lower during the 0- to 2-day period (16 ± 6%, 1.11 ± 0.09%/day, P = 0.153) and were significantly lower during the 2- to 7-day period (44 ± 5%, 0.70 ± 0.06%/day, P < 0.001) when compared with the control leg. We conclude that 1 wk of muscle disuse induces a rapid and sustained decline in daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in healthy young men.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/biossíntese , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Água Corporal/metabolismo , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Expressão Gênica , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imobilização , Cinética , Perna (Membro) , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia Muscular/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Quadríceps/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Quadríceps/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 160-167, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734271

RESUMO

Overexposure to 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) can induce brain edema, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is the most prevalent water channel in the brain, and the pool of AQP4 facilitates brain edema by controlling the inflow and clearance of brain water. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of brain edema via RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. To explore the regulation role of AQP4 and microRNA in 1,2-DCE-induced brain edema, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and AQP4 knockout CD-1 mice were exposed to 1,2-DCE by inhalation for 7 days (0, 600, 1,800 mg/m3) and 28 days (0, 100, 350, 700 mg/m3), respectively. The results showed that 1,2-DCE induces brain edema, in both rats and mice, characterized by an increase in brain water content and vacuolations in the brain parenchyma and around the vessels of the cerebral cortex. Notably, 1,2-DCE exposure can down-regulate AQP4 expression, in both rats and mice. Also, deleting AQP4 intensifies 1,2-DCE-induced brain edema in mice. Meanwhile, microRNA-29b-3p (miR-29b) expression increases with 1,2-DCE exposure, in both rats and mice. A negative correlation was found between the expression of miR-29b and AQP4 in vivo. Moreover, the negative regulation of miR-29b by direct targeting to AQP4 was confirmed by dual luciferase reporter assay in vitro. Taken together, our findings indicate that AQP4 plays an important role in balancing water content in 1,2-DCE-induced brain edema. The dysregulation of miR-29b after 1,2-DCE exposure can aggravate brain edema by directly suppressing the expression of AQP4.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 4/efeitos dos fármacos , Edema Encefálico/induzido quimicamente , Dicloretos de Etileno/toxicidade , MicroRNAs/genética , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Aquaporina 4/genética , Água Corporal/metabolismo , Química Encefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Edema Encefálico/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Clin Sports Med ; 39(1): 1-12, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767101

RESUMO

The menisci are 2 fibrocartilaginous crescents anchored via bony and ligamentous attachments to surrounding structures. Their biochemical composition and multilayered structure make them ideal for converting compressive forces to tensile forces in addition to improving joint congruity and providing shock absorption to weight bearing. The medial meniscus maintains more attachments at both the horns and the midbody than the lateral meniscus, making it more susceptible to injury. Understanding of the gross anatomy, vascular anatomy, biochemical composition, and microstructure is key to understanding causes of meniscal pathology as well as treatment options for restoring its primary functions.


Assuntos
Meniscos Tibiais/anatomia & histologia , Meniscos Tibiais/fisiologia , Água Corporal/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo II/metabolismo , Glicosaminoglicanos/metabolismo , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/anatomia & histologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Líquido Sinovial/fisiologia , Lesões do Menisco Tibial/fisiopatologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia
14.
Neurobiol Aging ; 85: 131-139, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735379

RESUMO

The relationship between regional brain myelination and aging has been the subject of intense study, with magnetic resonance imaging perhaps the most effective modality for elucidating this. However, most of these studies have used nonspecific methods to probe myelin content, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetization transfer ratio, and relaxation times. In the present study, we used the BMC-mcDESPOT analysis, a direct and specific method for imaging of myelin water fraction (MWF), a surrogate of myelin content. We investigated age-related differences in MWF in several brain regions in a large cohort of cognitively unimpaired participants, spanning a wide age range. Our results indicate a quadratic, inverted U-shape, relationship between MWF and age in all brain regions investigated, suggesting that myelination continues until middle age followed by decreases at older ages. We also observed that these age-related differences vary across different brain regions, as expected. Our results provide evidence for nonlinear associations between age and myelin in a large sample of well-characterized adults, using a direct myelin content imaging method.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Água Corporal/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
BMC Surg ; 19(1): 184, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transthoracic esophagectomy, among the most invasive surgeries, is highly associated with postoperative infectious complications which adversely affect postoperative management including fluid dynamics. The aim of the study is to evaluate the utility of perioperative bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measurements for the patients after transthoracic esophagectomy. METHOD: Multi-frequency BIA measurements were conducted in 24 patients undergoing transthoracic esophagectomy preoperatively, at 1 h after surgery, and twice daily for the following 7 days. The amounts of extracellular water (ECW), internal cellular water (ICW), total body water (TBW), and fat-free mass (FFM) were calculated. Changing trends in variables were analyzed, and the patients were subdivided according to the presence of infectious surgical adverse events to identify differences in fluid dynamics. RESULTS: ECW was the major body fluid compartment showing an increase after surgery, and peaked on postoperative day (POD) 2. Twelve patients experienced infectious complications. The peaks of changes in ECW and ECW/TBW appeared earlier and their values at the highest peak were significantly lower in the group without infectious complications on POD 2. The ICW/FFM value showed a mild decrease as compared to POD1 and then gradually recovered. It was significantly lower even before surgery and showed the most significant stratification on POD2. ECW/TBW of 48% and ICW/FFM of 37% on POD2 were predictive cut-off values for infectious adverse events with high area-under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves: 0.80 or higher. CONCLUSION: BIA measurements are useful for monitoring fluid retention and may predict infectious complications in the early phase after transthoracic esophagectomy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registry name: UMIN-CTR, ID: UMIN000030734, Registered on January 9, 2018, retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Impedância Elétrica , Esofagectomia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Água Corporal/metabolismo , Esofagectomia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842289

RESUMO

Bioimpedance standards are well established for the normal healthy population and in clinical settings, but they are not available for many sports categories. The aim of this study was to develop reference values for male and female athletes using classic bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA). In this study, 1556 athletes engaged in different sports were evaluated during their off-season period. A tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance analyzer was used to determine measurements of resistance (R) and reactance (Xc). The classic BIVA procedure, which corrects bioelectrical values for body height, was applied, and fat-free mass, fat mass, and total body water were estimated. In order to verify the need for specific references, classic bioelectrical values were compared to the reference values for the general male and female populations. Additionally, athletes were divided into three groups: endurance, velocity/power, and team sports. In comparison with the general healthy male and female populations, the mean vectors of the athletes showed a shift to the left on the R-Xc graph. Considering the same set of modalities, BIVA confidence graphs showed that male and female endurance athletes presented lower body fluids, fat mass, and fat-free mass than other sets of modalities. This study provides BIVA reference values for an athletic population that can be used as a standard for assessing body composition in male and female athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas , Composição Corporal , Impedância Elétrica , Adolescente , Adulto , Estatura , Água Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resistência Física , Valores de Referência , Esportes , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739530

RESUMO

Malnutrition is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, current nutrition screening tools are not specific to the CKD population. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), a simple tool designed for assessing nutrition-related risks in the elderly population, is associated with unique aspects of CKD such as fluid status, residual renal function, proteinuria, and inflammation, and whether it predicts clinical outcomes. The GNRI was calculated by incorporating serum albumin and anthropometric measurements in 326 patients with nondialysis stage 3-5 CKD who were followed up from September 2011 to March 2017 for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the composite outcome of all-cause death and cardiovascular events. Patients were stratified into tertiles according to baseline GNRI levels. Patients in the lowest GNRI tertile were more likely to have significantly higher levels of overhydration, proteinuria, and serum inflammatory markers and tended to have lower lean body mass and estimated glomerular filtration rate when compared with patients in the middle and upper GNRI tertiles. In multivariate linear regression analyses, the GNRI was independently associated with overhydration, proteinuria, and interleukin-6. During a median follow-up of 4.9 years, 101 patients developed ESRD; 40 deaths, and 68 cardiovascular events occurred. Patients in the lowest GNRI tertile had significantly increased risks of ESRD (hazard ratio (HR): 3.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.95-5.07, p < 0.001) and the composite outcome (HR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.10-2.92, p = 0.019) in fully adjusted models (reference: middle and upper GNRI tertiles). The GNRI takes CKD-specific health conditions into account. In addition, CKD patients with lower GNRI scores had a significantly higher risk of adverse clinical outcomes. Our findings suggest that the GNRI is an appropriate tool for nutrition screening and a prognostic predictor among patients with nondialysis stage 3-5 CKD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Causas de Morte , Avaliação Geriátrica , Desnutrição/complicações , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Água Corporal/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Masculino , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Proteinúria/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Medição de Risco
18.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703309

RESUMO

At present, obesity and overweight are major public health concerns. Their classical determinants do not sufficiently explain the current situation and it is urgent to investigate other possible causes. In recent years, it has been suggested that water intake could have important implications for weight management. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of hydration status on body weight and composition in healthy adolescents from Spain. The study involved 372 subjects, aged 12-18 years. Water intake was assessed through the validated "hydration status questionnaire adolescent young". Anthropometric measurements were performed according to the recommendations of the International Standards for Anthropometric Assessment (ISAK) and body composition was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Water intake normalized by body weight was positively correlated with body water content (boys (B): r = 0.316, p = 0.000; girls (G): r = 0.245, p = 0.000) and inversely with body mass index (BMI) (B: r = -0.515, p = 0.000; G: r = -0.385, p =0.000) and fat body mass (B: r = -0.306, p = 0.000; G: r = -0.250, p = 0.001). Moreover, according to BMI, overweight/obese individuals consumed less water than normal weight ones. In conclusion, higher water balance and intake seems to be related with a healthier body composition. In conclusion, higher water balance and intake is associated with a healthier body composition.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Água Corporal/fisiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
19.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 8438-8446, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Hypernatremia is associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients, and an accurate assessment of water volume is important to determine appropriate fluid hydration. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a new, noninvasive, and relatively easy method for measuring hydration status. This study aimed to investigate whether bioelectrical impedance measurements of body water could reduce the frequency of blood sampling for fluid replacement in patients with hypernatremia. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifty-one hospitalized patients were studied with hypernatremia, defined as a serum sodium ≥150 mmol/L determined by laboratory testing. Laboratory and BIA measurements were compared, and water deficiency was calculated with a conventional formula (sodium-corrected Watson formula) and measured by BIA. RESULTS The value of the absolute fluid overload (AFO) equivalent to the overhydration (OH) value, determined using BIA, did not accurately represent water deficit in patients with hypernatremia (r=0.137, P=0.347). Although the total body water (TBW) measured by BIA showed a significant correlation with that determined by the conventional formula (r=0.861, P<0.001), there was a proportional bias (r=0.617, P<0.001). The intracellular water (ICW) measured by BIA underestimated the TBW level calculated by the conventional formula by about 14.06±4.0 L in the Bland-Altman analysis. CONCLUSIONS It is not currently possible to replace blood testing with BIA for assessing volume status in hypernatremic patients. However, ICW value measured by BIA might represent plasma sodium level more accurately than extracellular water (ECW) or TBW value in patients with hypernatremia.


Assuntos
Hipernatremia/diagnóstico , Hipernatremia/metabolismo , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo/fisiologia , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Água Corporal/fisiologia , Desidratação/diagnóstico , Impedância Elétrica , Espaço Extracelular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Água
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(10)2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The causative factors or conditions leading to increased intestinal permeability (IIP) have only been partly elucidated, suggesting excessive zonulin release to be a key factor among them. Likewise, it is known that athletic activity predisposes individuals towards the development of IIP; however, little is understood about the nature of this phenomenon. We decided to test the actual coincidence between IIP and increased stool zonulin (ISZ) in actively training athletes. Materials and Methods: We compared intestinal permeability tested with lactulose/mannitol differential absorption (lactulose/mannitol (L/M) test) and zonulin concentration in stool in 20 professional athletes (PRO), 9 amateur athletes (AMA), and 9 non-athletes (CTR). Results: The results confirmed that professional athletic activity showed significant positive association with intestinal permeability. ISZ was observed exclusively in athletes (CTR vs. AMA vs. PRO, respectively, 0% vs. 22% vs. 55%), and its prevalence was significantly higher in PRO than CTR. When we divided the participants into four categories related to exceeding the upper reference limits for both tested parameters (ISZ + or - and IIP + or -), significant differences were found between CTR and PRO; however, no significant differences were found between CTR and AMA or AMA and PRO. Conclusions: Our trial confirmed previous findings that professional athletic activity predisposes individuals to IIP. We also demonstrated that although ISZ was associated with intense training, there was no statistically significant association between ISZ and IIP in the tested group of professional athletes, which suggests the existence of additional mechanisms causing IIP.


Assuntos
Atletas , Fezes/química , Haptoglobinas/análise , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Precursores de Proteínas/análise , Adulto , Água Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactulose/metabolismo , Masculino , Manitol/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Urinálise , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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