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1.
Science ; 370(6512): 38-39, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004504
2.
Zootaxa ; 4834(1): zootaxa.4834.1.4, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056132

RESUMO

A new species of freshwater sponges is described from Australia. The new species Radiospongilla fungosa is characterized by the following traits 'megascleres microspiny stout oxeas with scattered, small, simple spines except tips', and by having 'gemmuloscleres long, slim, spiny strongyles with scattered simple spines and hooked spines clustered at tips', 'gemmular theca with 2 layers of gemmuloscleres radially and tangentially arranged', 'pneumatic layer irregularly filamentous network (near inner layer) and thin laminae irregularly arranged (towards outer layer)'. We discuss the relationships of the new species to other members of the genus both from Australia, particularly North-Western Australia, and from other biogeographic regions on the basis of diagnostic morphotraits. An overview on the taxonomy, biogeographic pattern and phylogeny of the genus is supplied and updated to present, together with an updated identification key for Australia species. The diagnosis of the genus Radiospongilla is emended.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Animais , Austrália , Água Doce , Filogenia
3.
Zootaxa ; 4840(1): zootaxa.4840.1.1, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056795

RESUMO

All reared larvae of flies of the genus Colobaea Zetterstedt, 1837 (Diptera: Sciomyzidae), which comprises 15 valid species, kill and consume freshwater nonoperculate pulmonate snails. New data are presented on the geographic distribution, biology, morphology of immature stages, and classification of Colobaea. Life cycle information is provided from field data and laboratory rearings for four of the 11 Palearctic species-C. bifasciella (Fallén), C. deemingi Knutson Bratt n.sp., C. pectoralis (Zetterstedt), and C. punctata (Lundbeck)-and for one of the three Nearctic species, C. americana Steyskal. Colobaea bifasciella is shown to be one of the most highly specialized parasitoid Sciomyzini, laying eggs on shells of Galba truncatula (O.F. Müller) and Stagnicola palustris (O.F. Müller) in temporary, intermittent, or vernal semiterrestrial situations. Each larva feeds in only one host snail, which is not killed until shortly before the larva completes development. Puparia are strongly modified to fit tightly within the shell of the host. The other reared species are shown to be less specialized than C. bifasciella, with eggs being laid upon vegetation, the larvae behaving as parasitoids-predators-saprophages of exposed aquatic snails, and the puparia of all four species being adapted to a lesser degree than C. bifasciella to fitting within the shell of the host snail. In nature, C. americana attacks Gyraulus parvus (Say) and Physa Draparnaud sp.; C. pectoralis attacks Anisus vortex (L.) and Bathyomphalus contortus (L.); and C. punctata attacks Gyraulus albus O.F. Müller, Lymnaea "peregra," Planorbarius corneus (L.), and Planorbis planorbis (L.). In the laboratory, these species also attacked and consumed other freshwater nonoperculate snails; C. deemingi was reared on Gyraulus intermixtus (Mousson) and Radix gedrosiana (Say), and an adult fly of the Palearctic C. distincta (Meigen) emerged from a puparium found in the shell of Anisus spirorbis (L.) collected in nature. Described and figured are eggs, larvae of all three instars, and puparia of the five laboratory-reared species. To provide perspective on features of Colobaea, diagnostic features are summarized of the immature stages of the Sciomyzini and the suprageneric categories of Sciomyzidae. The biogeography of the tribe Sciomyzini is presented, along with details of known geographical distribution. The classification and phylogenetic position of Colobaea are discussed. Included are a checklist of all known taxa of Colobaea, maps of geographic distribution, and a key to adults of the 15 valid species.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Gastrópodes , Animais , Água Doce , Larva , Filogenia
4.
Zootaxa ; 4838(4): zootaxa.4838.4.2, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056801

RESUMO

A new species of potamid crab of the genus Badistemon Yeo Ng, 2007, is described from Kamjong district of Manipur, India. Badistemon fulvum n. sp., can be distinguished from congeners by a distinct combination of carapace and gonopod characters: carapace subquadrate, convex, dorsal surface glabrous, cervical groove superficial, anterolateral margin longer than posterolateral margin; cornea relatively large; sixth male pleonal somite trapezoidal in shape, male telson broader than long; terminal segment of male first gonopod relatively long, outwardly bent, sub cylindrical with low and short dorsal flap, tip pointed, groove for male second gonopod terminal. Holotype and paratypes of Potamiscus pealianus (Wood-mason, 1871) are re-examined, and the species is here referred to Badistemon as carapace morphology and male gonopods characters are found congeneric with the genus. A key for all the three species of Badistemon are provided.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Animais , Água Doce , Índia , Masculino
5.
J Environ Qual ; 49(3): 545-556, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016384

RESUMO

Water reuse is believed to be a sustainable solution to overcome the scarcity of freshwater. Aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors are becoming an effective technology for wastewater treatment and reuse. Aerobic membrane bioreactors show good nutrient removal, whereas those that are anaerobic have nutrient-rich effluent, enabling the direct agricultural use of the effluent. As a result, the end use will dictate the potential environmental impacts of the bioreactor's application. Therefore, with the consideration of the end use (i.e., discharge or reuse) of the effluent, this study aimed to compare the environmental and economic impacts associated with full-scale aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors for municipal wastewater treatment under different end use scenarios using life cycle assessment and cost analysis. The results of these analyses show that anaerobic bioreactors have greater environmental impacts and life cycle cost than aerobic bioreactors in the discharge scenario due to the incorporation of a biological nutrient removal system. In the reuse scenario, anaerobic membrane bioreactors have lower impacts that are attributable to the offset of the nutrients required for crops, and the potential benefits vary depending on the types of crops receiving the reclaimed water. Integrating anaerobic membrane bioreactors with agricultural fertigation resulted in effluent water nitrate concentrations (after crop uptake and soil treatment) of <2 mg L-1 in most U.S. states. This indicated that the use of the anaerobic membrane bioreactors effluent for fertigation could be a win-win solution to both irrigation water shortage and high environmental impact associated with nutrient removal.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Água Doce , Águas Residuárias
6.
J Environ Qual ; 49(4): 945-960, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016478

RESUMO

A variety of landscape and hydrological characteristics influence nutrient concentrations and suspended sediments in freshwater systems, yet the combined influence of these characteristics within nested agricultural catchments is still poorly understood, particularly across varying flow states. To tease apart potential drivers at within-catchment scales, it is necessary to sample at a spatiotemporal resolution that captures how landscape drivers change with time. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the relative influence of landscape and hydrological characteristics at sub-catchment scales in relation to total P (TP), soluble reactive P (SRP), the ratio of SRP and TP (SRP/TP), and total suspended solids (TSS) across varying flow conditions. Synoptic surveys were conducted at 13 longitudinal sampling sites under a variety of flow conditions (n = 14) between 2016 and 2017 in the Innisfil Creek watershed, southern Ontario. The surveys were grouped into baseflow and stormflow conditions, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to characterize the relationships between catchment characteristics, median concentrations of P, and TSS. Soil texture (i.e., clay dominated), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and constructed drain density had the largest influences on stormflow SRP and SRP/TP ratios, but measures of soil erosion, like the Bank Erosion Hazard Index and sinuosity, had the largest influence on stormflow TSS. During baseflow periods, these landscape characteristics were not informative, and they were difficult to tie to in-stream conditions. Overall, our PLSR models indicated that buried tile drainage was a major source of SRP in Innisfil Creek, whereas bank erosion was a dominant source of TSS.


Assuntos
Fósforo/análise , Rios , Agricultura , Água Doce , Hidrologia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4809(2): zootaxa.4809.2.2, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055935

RESUMO

The current status of the inland waters ichthyofauna of Turkey is revised, and an updated checklist of the freshwater fishes is presented. The latest checklist included all species listed in the available previous study that was published in 2015, which is now updated after a period of five years. We revised the validity of previously accepted species and added newly described and reported species in Turkey. Some previously erroneously reported species and not established alien fishes were excluded from this checklist. A total of 384 fish species belonging to 20 orders and 34 families have been reported in the inland waters of Turkey. Among these, 15 species (3.9%) are non-native and 208 species (54.2%) are considered as endemic to Turkey. A total of 119 species previously reported from Turkey have been excluded from Turkish ichthyofauna list, either in the present study or in previous studies.


Assuntos
Peixes , Lampreias , Animais , Água Doce , Turquia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4767(2): zootaxa.4767.2.1, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056562

RESUMO

In this study, 24 non-marine ostracod species were found in 142 samples collected from diverse water bodies from Hainan Island, south China. Among them, a new species Pseudocypretta lineata n. sp. is described and illustrated. Twelve species are new records for China. Among them, six species are identified: Microdarwinula zimmeri (Menzel, 1916), Pseudocypretta lineata n. sp., Pseudostrandesia mamarilorum (Victor Fernando, 1981c), Stenocypris malayica Victor Fernando, 1981b, Stenocypris orientalis Victor Fernando, 1981b and Strandesia freyi Victor Fernando, 1981c. Six species are left in open nomenclature: Batucypretta sp., Candonopsis? sp., Cypridoidea gen. et sp. indet. 1, Cypridoidea gen. et sp. indet. 2, Cyprinotus cf. kimberleyensis McKenzie, 1966 and Vestalenula sp. Additionally, a re-description of Strandesia freyi is provided.


Assuntos
Crustáceos , Animais , China , Água Doce , Ilhas
9.
Zootaxa ; 4820(3): zootaxa.4820.3.11, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056064

RESUMO

The Royal Museum of Central Africa at Tervuren, Belgium, includes a small collection of freshwater bryozoans from Congo and Rwanda. Included are: Plumatella philippinensis with both statoblast types, as well as holotypes of Plumatella ruandensis Wiebach, 1964, Plumatella marlieri Wiebach, 1970, and Plumatella pseudostolonata Borg, 1940. There are also two new species which had been previously misidentified: specimens designated as Plumatella javanica are now recognized as P. wiebachi n. sp.; and specimens labeled Stolella indica now recognized as Plumatella kisalensis n. sp. This paper includes full descriptions of the new species as well as fresh descriptions and illustrations of other species in the collection.


Assuntos
Briozoários , Animais , Água Doce
10.
Zootaxa ; 4810(3): zootaxa.4810.3.4, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055732

RESUMO

Helminthological examination of viscera of six freshwater fish species, collected from Misión la Paz, Pilcomayo River, Province of Salta, Argentina, revealed the presence of five species of parasitic nematodes belonging to the Camallanidae, Cystidicolidae, Cucullanidae and Anisakidae  The material also contained one unknown species, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) tomsici sp. nov. collected from Pimelodus albicans, Pygocentrus nattereri and Hoplias misionera. This species is distinguished from its congeners all over de world by possessing six pores distinctly surrounding the mouth aperture, a buccal capsule with 3-4 spiral thickenings complete, females possessing a lateral cuticular ornamentation along the body, and two pairs of preanal and three pairs of postanal papillae in males. The findings represent new hosts and geographical records.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Nematoides , Animais , Argentina , Feminino , Água Doce , Masculino , Rios
11.
Zootaxa ; 4820(2): zootaxa.4820.2.8, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056072

RESUMO

A new freshwater goby, Rhinogobius houheensis, is described based on 40 specimens in a freshwater stream from the Houhe National Nature Reserve, Hubei Province, China. The new species can be distinguished from all its congeneric species by the following combination of characters: thee first dorsal fin rays VI, the second dorsal fin rays I/9-I/10; anal fin rays I/7-I/8; pectoral-fin rays 16-17; longitudinal scale series 37-40; transverse scales 12-14; predorsal scale series 0; and vertebrae counts 12+18=30. The first three spinous rays in the first dorsal fin are colored with two dark-blue stripes and one black spot in alive.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Animais , China , Peixes , Água Doce , Rios
12.
Zootaxa ; 4763(1): zootaxa.4763.1.2, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056876

RESUMO

A compilation of the ciliated species found on freshwater and marine ostracods as epibiont or parasite (endobiont) has been carried out based on published records. The checklist includes the taxonomic position of each species of epibiontic and endobiontic ciliate, the species of basibiont ostracodes, the geographic zones and the bibliographic references where they were recorded. Altogether 7 suctorian, 29 peritrich, one apostome and one scuticociliatid species were listed. Two of recorded suctorian species are possible specific to marine ostracodes, whereas only one, Tokophrya sibirica to freshwater hosts. Fourteen species of peritrichs are likely specific to freshwater ostracodes, while three possible specific to marine ostracode hosts. Other suctorian and peritrich ciliate species were found on a variety of host taxa. One species of scuticociliatid was recorded as endobiont in ostracod.


Assuntos
Cilióforos , Animais , Crustáceos , Água Doce , Registros
13.
Zootaxa ; 4816(4): zootaxa.4816.4.3, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055684

RESUMO

The Gulf coastal drainages of central Mexico are a faunal transition zone between North and South America and harbor a unique assemblage of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionida). However, little information is available regarding the taxonomy, distribution, and evolutionary history of the Mexican mussel fauna due to limited sampling over the last 100 years. To address these knowledge gaps, we evaluated species-level diversity in the genus Popenaias Frierson, 1927, in Mexican Gulf coastal drainages as part of a larger effort to inform conservation efforts for members of this genus both in Mexico and the United States of America. Based on our analyses, we describe Popenaias berezai n. sp. from the Río Valles of the Río Pánuco basin, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. We also provide presumptive distributional range, phylogenetic structure, and molecular and morphological diagnoses of the new species and provide comments on the other species currently in Popenaias. Our findings highlight the high levels of endemism among freshwater mussels in Mexican Gulf coastal drainages and will help guide impending conservation actions for P. popeii, which is listed as "endangered" in the United States.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Unionidae , Animais , Água Doce , México , Filogenia , Rios
14.
Zootaxa ; 4780(2): zootaxa.4780.2.2, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055743

RESUMO

The family of non-biting midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) represent one of the most common and abundant group in freshwaters, inhabiting a wide variety of habitats and ecological niches. Although there is a long tradition of limnological research in Croatia, to date no extensive species list has been made for this insect family. Thus, we summarized the results of our research and reviewed published data on chironomid fauna of Croatia in various freshwater habitat types, including extreme ones, such as caves, peatbogs or marine littoral. A total of 239 species were recorded representing five subfamilies: Chironominae (125 species) Orthocladiinae (83 species), Tanypodinae (23 species), Diamesinae (6 species) and Prodiamesinae (2 species). The most frequent species were Cricotopus bicinctus, Dicrotendipes nervosus, Synorthocladius semivirens, each found in more than 20% of the studied localities. Ablabesmyia monilis and Procladius choreus represented the most frequent Tanypodinae species, recorded in more than 12% and 17% of the sites, respectively. The research of chironomid ecology, diversity and distribution continues, which will provide new data and information, but this first comprehensive checklist provides a good starting point for those studying Chironomidae or other freshwater Diptera, in Croatia and Europe.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Animais , Croácia , Ecossistema , Água Doce
15.
Zootaxa ; 4780(2): zootaxa.4780.2.9, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055750

RESUMO

Museum specimens of a previously unknown species of the Anchitrematidae from a freshwater fish collected from the River Nile at Qena, Egypt were examined. This species is somewhat similar to species of Anchitrema, but was found to have a thick, continuous, shelf-like rim around the periphery of the ventral aspect of the distome, the lateral aspect of the forebody was composed of large internal patches of lightly vacuolated, somewhat glandular cells that formed pad-like structures (pelops-like structures), and it possessed a uterine seminal receptacle; characteristics that previously have not been found in any species in the family. Species currently assigned to Anchitrema or Mujibia (the only two genera in the family) are known only from reptiles and mammals and no species has previously been reported from a freshwater fish. We feel that these differences are sufficient enough to warrant the erection of Piscianchitrema n. gen. and amendation of the family. We support the synonymies of Anchitrema congolense with Anchitrema latum, and Anchitrema lucknowensis with Anchitrema indicum. The current status of species previously described in the family is discussed, and keys to the genera and species of Anchitrema are provided.


Assuntos
Rios , Trematódeos , Animais , Egito , Peixes , Água Doce
16.
Zootaxa ; 4858(4): zootaxa.4858.4.3, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056212

RESUMO

Sets of small ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) and large ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA) sequences were obtained for Philometroides moraveci Vismanis Yunchis, 1994, Philometra kotlani (Molnár, 1969), Philometra rischta Skrjabin, 1923, Philometra cf. obturans (Prenant, 1886) (Philometridae), Sinoichthyonema amuri (Garkavi, 1972), Agrachanus scardinii (Molnár, 1966), Kalmanmolnaria intestinalis (Dogiel Bychowsky, 1934) and Skrjabillanus tincae Shigin Shigina, 1958 (Skrjabillanidae). Phylogenetic analysis of SSU rDNA data shows that dracunculoid nematodes are divided into two well-supported clades designated as Clade I and Clade II, respectively. Clade I includes the type species of the genus Philonema Kuitunen-Ekbaum, 1933, some species from the family Daniconematidae Moravec Køie, 1987 and two subfamilies of skrjabillanids, Skrjabillaninae Shigin Shigina, 1958 and Esocineminae Moravec, 2006. Clade II unites species from the families Dracunculidae Stiles, 1907, Micropleuridae Baylis Daubney, 1926 and Philometridae Baylis Daubney, 1926. Within the Philometridae, there are several well-supported groups of species, one of which unites freshwater Philometra spp. from the Palearctic cyprinids, identified as P. kotlani, P rischta, P. ovata (Zeder, 1803) and P. cyprinirutili (Creplin, 1825). However, the phylogenetic relationships of most philometrids are unresolved. An analysis of partial SSU and LSU rDNA sequences indicates that there is no direct phylogenetic relationship between Agrachanus Tikhomirova, 1971 (type species Skrjabillanus scardinii Molnár, 1966) and Skrjabillanus Shigin Shigina, 1958 (type species Sk. tincae), which means that the genus Agrachanus can be resurrected. Our study confirms that Philonematinae Ivashkin, Sobolev Khromova, 1971 should be elevated to the family rank. We formally establish the family Philonematidae Ivashkin, Sobolev Khromova, 1971 stat. nov. We also suggest combining the superfamilies Dracunculoidea Stiles, 1907 and Camallanoidea Railliet Henry, 1915 into the infraorder Camallanomorpha Roberts, Janovy Nadler, 2013.


Assuntos
Dracunculoidea , Rabditídios , Spirurina , Animais , Cromadoria , Água Doce , Filogenia
17.
Zootaxa ; 4766(3): zootaxa.4766.3.4, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056591

RESUMO

A new genus and new species of terrestrial freshwater crab, Calcipotamon puglabrum gen. nov. et sp. nov., is described from the limestone forests of Changjiang, Hainan Island, China, based on morphology and mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences. The new genus is closest to Neotiwaripotamon Dai Naiyanetr, 1994, and Tiwaripotamon Bott, 1970, but differs in a combination of carapace, third maxilliped, ambulatory leg and male gonopod characters. Molecular analysis shows that the new genus is closely related with but not clustered within other Hainan potamid genera. Notes on the general biology of this new species are also provided.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Animais , Carbonato de Cálcio , China , Água Doce , Ilhas , Masculino
18.
Zootaxa ; 4851(2): zootaxa.4851.2.9, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056733

RESUMO

A new species of Phallangothelphusa Pretzmann, 1965, is described from the foothills of the Serranía de San Lucas, Antioquia Department, Colombia. The number of the species increases to six: P. dispar (Zimmer, 1912), P. magdalenensis Campos, 1998, P. juansei Campos, 2010, P. martensis Cardona Campos, 2012, P. tangerina Campos, Lasso Arias, 2019, and P. zenuorum n. sp. The new species is distinguished from its congeners mainly by the length of the exopod of the third maxilliped and by the morphology of the first and second male gonopods, particularly on the first male gonopod the outline of apex, the shapes of the mesial and lateral processes, and on the second one the shape of the distal endopod. An updated key for the identification of the species of Phallangothelphusa is given.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Animais , Colômbia , Água Doce , Masculino
19.
Zootaxa ; 4759(4): zootaxa.4759.4.3, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056893

RESUMO

Based on morphological, molecular, and ecological evidences, a fourth species of cave-dwelling shrimp Macrobrachium tenuipes sp. nov. is described from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southwestern China. This new species with smooth carapace and the extremely slender pereiopods, can be separated from other congeners by the shape of rostrum; the segmental ratios, the arrangement of teeth on the cutting edge of the fingers of second pereiopod; the longer and narrower scaphocerite; and the longer uropodal diaeresis spine. The new taxon is genetically distinct from 18 other species of Macrobrachium for which COI and 18S rRNA sequences are available. The data observed on the habitat and ecology will contribute to the conservation for M. tenuipes sp. nov.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Palaemonidae , Animais , Cavernas , China , Água Doce
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238361, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866211

RESUMO

The San Francisco Bay outflow creates a tidally influenced low-salinity plume that affects adjacent coastal sites. In the study region, Anthopleura elegantissima (Cnidaria; Anthozoa) hosts a single symbiont, the dinoflagellate Breviolum muscatinei. Salinity, temperature, and aerial stress induce a bleaching response similar to corals where symbionts are expelled, causing further energetic stress. Using field observations of environmental conditions and symbiont abundance at sites on a gradient of exposure to estuarine outflow, along with a fully crossed multifactorial lab experiment, we tested for changes in symbiont abundance in response to various combinations of three stressors. Lab experiments were designed to mimic short term outflow events with low salinity, high temperature, and aerial exposure treatments. The lab aerial exposure treatment was a statistically significant factor in suppressing symbiont repopulation (ANOVA, p = .017). In the field, symbiont density decreased with increasing tidal height at the site closest to freshwater outflow (ANOVA, p = .007), suggesting that aerial exposure may affect symbiont density more than sea surface temperature and salinity. Unanticipated documentation of survival in 9 months of sand burial and subsequent repopulation of symbionts is reported as a six-month extension to past observations, exemplifying strong tolerance to environmental insult in this Cnidarian mutualism. The study of this symbiosis is useful in examining predicted changes in ocean conditions in tidepool communities and considering relative sources of stress.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Anêmonas-do-Mar/fisiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia , Animais , Água Doce , Temperatura Alta , São Francisco , Temperatura
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