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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 784: 147167, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088063

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of imidacloprid on structural (invertebrates and primary producers) and functional (organic matter decomposition and physicochemical parameters) characteristics of tropical freshwaters using acute single species and mesocosm studies performed in Ethiopia. The recovery of affected endpoints was also studied by using a mesocosm study period of 21 weeks. Our acute toxicity test showed that Cloeon dipterum (96-h EC50 = 1.5 µg/L) and Caenis horaria (96-h EC50 = 1.9 µg/L) are relatively sensitive arthropods to imidacloprid. The mesocosm experiment evaluated the effects of four applications of imidacloprid with a weekly interval and the results showed that the macroinvertebrate and zooplankton community structure changed significantly due to imidacloprid contamination in mesocosms repeatedly dosed with ≥0.1 and ≥ 0.01 µg/L, respectively (time weighted average concentrations of 112 days (TWA112d) of ≥0.124 and ≥ ≈0.02 µg/L, respectively). The largest responses were found for C. dipterum, C. horaria, Brachionus sp. and Filinia sp. Chlorophyll-a concentrations of periphyton and phytoplankton significantly increased in the ≥0.1 µg/L treatments levels which are indirect effects as a result of the release of grazing pressure. A significant, but quantitatively small, decrease of organic matter decomposition rate was observed in mesocosms treated with repeated doses of 1 µg/L (TWA112d of 2.09 µg/L). No recovery was observed for the macroinvertebrates community during the study period of 21 weeks, but zooplankton recovered after 9 weeks. We observed spatio-temporal related toxicity differences between tropical and temperate aquatic taxa, with tropical taxa generally being more sensitive. This suggests that use of temperate toxicity data for the risk assessment of imidacloprid in tropical region is not recommended.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Etiópia , Água Doce , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097598

RESUMO

In Iran, polyphasic studies of unicellular cyanobacteria are still scarce, with more emphasis being placed on filamentous cyanobacteria in paddy fields and fresh water regions. In an effort to increase the knowledge of the diversity of unicellular cyanobacteria from paddy fields in Iran, we have isolated and characterized a new unicellular cyanobacterium strain. The strain was studied using a polyphasic approach based on morphological, ecological and phylogenetic analyses of the 16S-23S ITS rRNA gene region. Complementarily, we have searched for the presence of cyanotoxin genes and analysed the pigment content of the strain. Results showed that the strain was morphologically indistinguishable from the genus Chroococcus, but phylogenetic analyses based on the Bayesian inference and maximum-likelihood methods placed the strain in a separated monophyletic and highly supported (0.99/98, posterior probability/maximum-likelihood) genus-level cluster, distant from Chroococcus sensu stricto and with Chalicogloea cavernicola as sister taxa. The calculated p-distance for the 16S rRNA gene also reinforced the presence of a new genus, by showing 92 % similarity to C. cavernicola. The D1-D1', Box-B and V3 ITS secondary structures showed the uniqueness of this strain, as it shared no similar pattern with closest genera within the Chroococcales. For all these reasons, and in accordance with the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants, we here proposed the description of a new genus with the name Alborzia gen. nov. along with the description of a new species, Alborzia kermanshahica sp. nov. (holotype: CCC1399-a; reference strains CCC1399-b; MCC 4116).


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/classificação , Água Doce/microbiologia , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Irã (Geográfico) , Oryza , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
3.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e236345, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105665

RESUMO

A first checklist of Rotifera species in freshwater environments in Bahia State, in northeastern Brazil, is provided. The list includes sampling data from 26 aquatic environments (lotic and lentic) undertaken from 2010 to 2016. One hundred and fifty-five species were recorded, with 68 new records for the state. The family Brachionidae and Lecanidae were the most representative (54.8%). The greatest richness was recorded in the Colônia River (57 species). Those results reflect the low numbers of studies previously undertaken in the region, indicating more research needs to be focused on Rotifera biodiversity in Bahia, the fifth largest state in Brazil (567,295 km2) with large numbers of freshwater bodies.


Assuntos
Rotíferos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Água Doce , Rios
4.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 145: 63-77, 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137377

RESUMO

A sample of 30 thick-shelled river mussels Unio crassus Philipsson (Unionida: Unionidae) was collected from the River Sauer in Luxembourg to acquire data on parasitic infestations of the mussels. Among other parasites, different development stages of freshwater mites were collected from the gills and the mantle of the mussels and were documented with bright-field, stereo, and confocal laser scanning microscopy and microscopic X-ray computed tomography. The retrieved data allowed a morphological description of larvae and female adults of the mites and assigning them to the genus Unionicola Haldeman (Trombidiformes: Unionicolidae) and the subgenus Pentatax Thor. Additionally, adult stages and larvae were barcoded by sequencing a section of the mitochondrial COI and 18S rRNA genes. This resulted in 4 new, similar Unionicola lineages from the adult stages, which differ in at least 14.7% (uncorrected p distance) from those already published. Barcoding of larval DNA was not successful. The comparison with known European species of the genus Unionicola and analysis of the barcoding results allowed the proposal of a new species of the genus Unionicola. The species was named Unionicola sauerensis sp. nov. after the River Sauer in Luxembourg, where the infested mussels were collected.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Ácaros , Unio , Animais , Feminino , Água Doce , Rios
5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238096, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133555

RESUMO

Pakistan is the country with mega freshwater fish diversity of native and alien species. In the presence of enormous native fishes varies species of exotic fishes have been introduced into the freshwater bodies of Pakistan which are competing with native freshwater fish fauna and making them deprive of food and habitat as well. Intentional or accidental introductions of animals, plants and pathogens away from their native niche is considered as major leading problem for biodiversity of invaded habitat. Three years study (from January 2017 to December 2019) was conducted in freshwater bodies of Province Punjab, Pakistan. Study was designed to know exotic species impacts on the distribution of native species of fishes. During current survey a total of 68 (indigenous and exotic) fish species belonging to 14 families were recorded from head Qadirabad, head Baloki, Islam headworks and Rasul barrage. Statistical analysis showed that Shannon-Wiener diversity index was the highest (1.41) at both Rasul barrage and Islam headworks but, invasive species were present in very less number in these study sites i.e. Oreochromis mozambicus, O. niloticus, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Carassius auratus, Ctenophryngdon idella, Cyprinus carpio and H. molitrix. The diversity index showed that comparatively low diversity was present in both area head Qadirabad (1.30) and head Baloki (1.4) due to high pressure of invasive species. Direct observation of species and statistical analysis showed that aliens' species produced negative impact on the local fish fauna diversity, evenness, and numbers. It is concluded that many factors are impacts on the diversity of native fishes, but alien (invasive) species also play a major role to reduction of native species, because aliens' species produce competition for native species. So it is urgent need to analysis the aliens and native food web and roosting sites in Pakistan, in future.


Assuntos
Carpas , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Peixes , Água Doce , Paquistão
6.
Chemosphere ; 279: 130623, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134419

RESUMO

Phytoplankton occupies a key trophic level in aquatic ecosystems. Chemical impacts on these primary producers can disrupt the integrity of an entire ecosystem. Two freshwater (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata-Ps and Scenedesmus obliquus-S) and three marine (Phaeodactylum tricornutum-P, Isochrysis galbana-I, Tetraselmis suecica-T) microalgae species were exposed to dilutions of four chemicals: nanoparticles (n-TiO2, n-ZnO), amoxicillin (antibiotic), and white musk (personal care fragrance) to determine the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) after 72 h of exposure under standardized and controlled environmental conditions. Cell cultures were exposed to EC50 to determine sublethal effects (72 h) based on biochemical (chlorophylls a, b, c), molecular (changes in outer cell wall structure), and morphological alterations. We report for the first time EC50 values for nanoparticles in not standardized species (S, I and T) and for amoxicillin and white musk in all tested species. Standardized species (Ps and P) were less sensitive than non-standardized in some cases. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy showed a marked spectral alteration (from 10.44% to 90.93%) of treated cultures compared to negative controls; however, principal component analysis disclosed no differences in molecular alteration between the five microalgae species or the two aquatic habitats considered. There was a significant decrease in chlorophylls content in all species exposed to EC50 compared to controls (Kruskal Wallis test; p < 0.05). There was a significant increase in cell-size (Mann-Whitney U test; p < 0.05) in I, P and T exposed to white musk and S exposed to amoxicillin. Findings highlight ecotoxicological risks from new generation pollutants for primary producers in aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Microalgas , Nanopartículas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Amoxicilina/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Água Doce , Fitoplâncton , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
7.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20190691, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076034

RESUMO

Our main objective was to perform a preliminary survey of the non-marine gastropods at the Estação Biológica Fiocruz Mata Atlântica (EFMA) and its adjacent urban areas, also considering samples from other localities of the Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca received as donation, in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Infection by larval helminths of medical and veterinary importance was also investigated in 348 specimens of five freshwater species and two specimens of the terrestrial species Achatina fulica. In all, 584 samples of molluscs from 34 collection sites were obtained. They represented 31 species classified in 16 families. Fifteen species were exclusive to the EFMA area. In the urban area mainly exotic and/or synanthropic species were found. Some of them were found in the forest border as well. The freshwater Biomphalaria tenagophila, an intermediate host of the trematode that causes schistosomiasis mansoni, was found parasitized by Xiphidiocercarie cercariae and the Afro-asiatic Melanoides tuberculata by Pleurolophocercus cercaria. The finding of endemic and exotic species, including transmitters of parasites, demonstrate the importance of fast surveys such as the present study. However, considering the great diversity of endemic molluscs found in a relatively small part of the EFMA, we highlight the necessity of further additional studies.


Assuntos
Biomphalaria , Animais , Brasil , Florestas , Água Doce , Humanos , Caramujos
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 786: 147434, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964776

RESUMO

Sertraline hydrochloride (Ser-HCl) is an effective and commonly used antidepressant drug, which is also frequently detected in aquatic environments. Our previous research showed that Ser-HCl changes the community composition of aquatic microbiome, but the understanding of the expression of functional pathways in microbial communities is still incomplete; to address this knowledge gap, we used meta-transcriptomics analysis to evaluate the toxicity of Ser-HCl to natural aquatic microbial communities cultured in laboratory microcosms. Meta-transcriptomic results show that a 15-day exposure to 50 µg/L Ser-HCl significantly changed the functional expression activity of aquatic microbial communities. Pathways related to lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, membrane transport function, and genetic information processing in the aquatic microbial community were severely inhibited under Ser-HCl treatment, but metabolism of cofactors and vitamins to alleviate biological toxicity after Ser-HCl exposure was enhanced. Our study thus reveals details of the effects of sertraline on the functioning of aquatic microbiome. Due to the extensive use of Ser-HCl and its strong biological activity, it should not continue to be an overlooked pollutant. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the negative effects of such biologically active drugs on the expression of aquatic microbiome.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Antidepressivos/toxicidade , Água Doce , Sertralina/toxicidade , Transcriptoma , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 786: 147491, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965814

RESUMO

Patterns of species rarity have long fascinated ecologists, yet most of what we know about the natural world stems from studies of common species. A large proportion of freshwater plant species has small range sizes and are therefore considered rare. However, little is known about the mechanisms and geographical distribution of rarity in the aquatic realm and to what extent diversity of rare species in freshwater plants follows their terrestrial counterparts. Here, we present the first in-depth analysis of geographical patterns, potential deterministic ecogeographical factors and projected scenarios of freshwater vascular plant rarity using 50 × 50 km grid cells across Europe (41°N-71°N) and North America (25°N-78°N). Our results suggest that diversity of rare species shows different patterns in relation to latitude on the two continents, and that hotspots of rarity concentrate in a relatively small proportion of the European and North American land surface, especially in mountainous as well as in climatically rare and stable areas. Interestingly, we found no differences among alternative rarity definitions and measures when delineating areas with notably high diversity of rare species. Our findings also indicate that few variables, namely a combination of current climate, Late Quaternary climate-change velocity and human footprint, are able to accurately predict the location of continental centers of rare species diversity. However, these relationships are not geographically homogeneous, and the underlying factors likely act synergistically. Perhaps more importantly, we provide empirical evidence that current centers of rare species diversity are characterized by higher anthropogenic impacts and might shrink disproportionately within this century as the climate changes. Our reported distributional patterns of species rarity align with the known trends in species richness of other freshwater organisms and may help conservation planners make informed decisions mitigating the effects of climate change and other anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Europa (Continente) , Água Doce , Humanos , América do Norte
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 786: 147407, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965828

RESUMO

Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a globally widespread phenomenon potentially affecting ecosystem processes, such as leaf litter breakdown, which is a source of organic matter in fresh waters. Here, we conducted a long-term experiment to test the effects of ALAN (2 lx) differing in spectral composition: white LEDs and high pressure sodium lamps (HPS) on leaf consumption, growth and activity of two macroinvertebrate species of shredders: Gammarus jazdzewskii and Dikerogammarus villosus (Crustacea, Amphipoda), compared to the undisturbed light-dark cycle. We also tested if the nocturnal illumination would influence the algal community colonising leaves, which is an important component of the leaf-shredder diet. We found that LED light increased the consumption of leaves by both species, which was nearly twice as high as in other treatments, and supressed the growth rate of G. jazdzewskii, whereas the growth of D. villosus was not affected by either light type. Moreover, D. villosus reduced its activity when exposed to ALAN of both types. As ALAN-induced changes in shredder growth and consumption were not associated with their increased activity or decreased food quality, we suggest that LED light may be a source of physiological stress for shredders, raising their energy expenditure, which was compensated by increased food intake. We have shown that LED illumination induces greater effects on wildlife than alternative, narrow wavelength spectrum light sources, such as HPS lamps, and may potentially alter the litter breakdown in aquatic ecosystems. It may accelerate the turnover of leaves by shredders, but on the other hand, it may negatively affect the fitness of macroinvertebrates and thus disturb the leaf processing over a longer term.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Ecossistema , Animais , Dieta , Água Doce , Folhas de Planta
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 786: 147410, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971606

RESUMO

Diatoms are important organisms in freshwater ecosystems due to their position as primary producers and therefore, analyzing their assemblages provides relevant information on ecosystem functioning. Diatoms have historically been identified based on morphological traits, which is time-consuming and requires well-trained specialists. Nevertheless, DNA barcoding offers an alternative approach to overcome some limitations of the morphological method. Here, we assess if both approaches are comparable methods to study patterns and mechanisms (including environmental filtering and dispersal limitation) of epiphytic diatom metacommunities using a comprehensive dataset from 22 Mediterranean ponds at different taxonomic resolutions. We used a fragment of rbcL barcode gene combined with High-Throughput Sequencing to infer diatom community composition. The overall degree of correspondence between both approaches was assessed by Procrustean rotation analysis and Procrustean randomization tests, whereas the role of local environmental variables and geographical distances was studied using a comprehensive combination of BIOENV, Mantel tests and distance-based redundancy analysis. Our results showed a relatively poor correspondence in the compositional variation of diatom metacommunity between both approaches. We speculate that the incompleteness of the reference database and the bioinformatics processing are the biases most likely affecting the molecular approach, whereas the limited counting effort and the presence of cryptic species are presumably the major biases related with the morphological method. On the other hand, variation in diatom community composition detected with both approaches was strongly related to the environmental template, which may be related with the narrow community-environment relationships in diatoms. Nevertheless, we found no significant relationship between compositional variation and geographical distances. Overall, our work shows the complementary nature of both approaches and highlights the importance of DNA metabarcoding to address empirical research questions of community ecology in freshwaters, especially once the reference databases include most genotypes of occurring taxa and bioinformatics biases are overcome.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , DNA , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Diatomáceas/genética , Ecossistema , Água Doce
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125576, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030418

RESUMO

Soil contamination and crop risks of heavy metal(loid)s are widely reported after the long-term irrigation of treated wastewater, causing an adverse influence on agricultural sustainability. Here, we collected soils after 50 years of wastewater irrigation to cultivate cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.), rape (Brassica chinensis L.), carrots (Daucus carota L.), and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), using surface and sprinkler irrigation with freshwater and wastewater. In general, we found the statistically insignificant influence of short-term freshwater irrigation on the soil and vegetable metal(loid) concentrations. Most of the vegetables had potential adverse health risks with the relatively lower risks in carrots and potatoes, and most of the risks were contributed by As and Cd. Nevertheless, we observed negligible health risks for all studied metal(loid)s in potatoes under the freshwater irrigations. Besides, compared to wastewater irrigations, freshwater irrigations produced lower Cd health risks in all four vegetable species. Sprinkler irrigation with freshwater was a favorable approach for reducing the uptake of metal(loid)s from soils and the metal(loid) concentrations in aboveground parts. Our study highlights the possibility of reducing vegetable metal(loid) risks in contaminated farmlands via a combined approach of coupling the short-term decrease in their levels in irrigation water with vegetable species selection.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Irrigação Agrícola , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Água Doce , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras , Águas Residuárias/análise
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 144757, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940701

RESUMO

The Clinch River watershed of the upper Tennessee River Basin of Virginia and Tennessee, USA supports one of North America's greatest concentrations of freshwater biodiversity, including 46 extant species of native freshwater mussels (Order Unionida), 20 of which are protected as federally endangered. Despite the global biological significance of the Clinch River, mussel populations are declining in some reaches, both in species richness and abundance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of adult resident mussels to a suite of inorganic and organic contaminant stressors in distinct sections of the Clinch River that encompassed a range of mussel abundance and health. To provide insight into the potential role of pollutants in the decline of mussels, including within a previously documented "zone of mussel decline", the mainstem Clinch River (8 sites) and its tributaries (4 sites) were examined over two consecutive years. We quantified and related metals and organic contaminant concentrations in mussels to their associated habitat compartments (bed sediment, suspended particulate sediment, pore water, and surface water). We found that concentrations of organic contaminants in resident mussels, particularly the suite of 42 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) analyzed, were related to PAH concentrations in all four habitat (media) compartments. Further, PAH concentrations in mussel tissue (range 37.8-978.1 ng/g dry weight in 2012 and 194.3-1073.7 ng/g dry weight in 2013) were negatively related to the spatial pattern in mussel densities (rs = -0.64, p ≤ 0.05 in 2012 and rs = -0.83, p ≤ 0.05 in 2013) within the river, and were highest in the "zone of mussel decline". In contrast, the suite of 22 metals analyzed in resident mussels were largely unrelated to the spatial pattern of variation of metals in the four habitat compartments except for Manganese (Mn; range 3630.5-23,749.2 µg/g dry weight in 2012 and 1540.4-12,605.8 µg/g dry weight in 2013) in surface water (rs = 0.58, p < 0.1) and pore water (rs = 0.76, p ≤ 0.05). This study revealed that PAHs and Mn are important pollutant stressors to mussels in the Clinch River and that they are largely being delivered through the Guest River tributary watershed. Accordingly, future conservation and management efforts would benefit by identifying, and ideally mitigating, the sources of PAHs, Mn, and other current or legacy mining-associated pollutants to the mainstem river and its tributaries.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Tennessee , Virginia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 787: 147590, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991923

RESUMO

The concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems has manifold direct and indirect consequences for primary and secondary production. Theoretical approaches suggest a negative effect of DOM on phytoplankton and a positive effect on bacteria, both of which alter the development of metazooplankton, the main consumer of bacteria and phytoplankton. However, experimental observations give heterogeneous results on the effect sizes of plankton in relation to DOM addition. Here, the synthesis of 411 effect sizes of plankton in response to DOM is presented from 59 studies. The referenced studies display effect sizes in relation to various DOM sources and different experimental designs. Thus, the hypothesis that neither DOM quality nor the type of experiment bias the effect size response of plankton was tested; the hypothesis was tested separately for bacterioplankton, phytoplankton and metazooplankton with the use of a meta-analytical approach. DOM quality was represented by the five different sources of DOM that are used most often in these experiments, i.e., natural water, bog leachate, glucose/sucrose, terrestrial plant leachate, and soil leachate. The experiment types comprised in situ experiments, i.e., experiments taking place under manipulated conditions in a natural ecosystem, and ex situ experiments, i.e., those taking place outside of a natural ecosystem. The meta-analyses showed that, although total DOM had a positive influence on the effect size of bacterioplankton and an insignificant influence on metazooplankton, the effect sizes differed significantly in relation to DOM source and the type of experiment. The effect size of phytoplankton, although not significantly related with total DOM, differed in response to DOM source but not experiment type. The results suggest that experimental conditions may produce artifacts in the strength of responses of aquatic biota to DOM concentrations.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Plâncton , Organismos Aquáticos , Água Doce , Fitoplâncton
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1649: 462188, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034108

RESUMO

A new green method for trace level quantification of four herbicides, glyphosate (GLYP), glufosinate (GLUF), and their main metabolites, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and 3-(methyl-phosphinico)-propionic acid (MPPA), was developed. The purification step without any derivatization was conducted by solid-phase extraction using Chelex-100 resin in the Fe (III) form, followed by elution with 5% NH4OH. The four analytes were quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The developed extraction method was validated on five fresh and sea water matrices with mean recoveries ranging from 80.1% to 109.4% (relative standard deviation < 20%). The extraction conditions were evaluated and certified for the high applicability of the extraction method too. The limits of detection (ng/L) in the five water matrices were in ranges 0.70 - 4.0, 2.4 - 3.9, 1.8 - 4.7, and 1.6 - 4.0 for GLYP, AMPA, GLUF, and MPPA, respectively. The method was successfully applied to detect the four compounds in surface waters sampled along the Red River Delta region in July 2019. The highest concentrations were detected at 565, 1,330, 234, and 871 ng/L for GLYP, AMPA, GLUF, and MPPA, respectively. These results showed the potential capacity of this new method for convenient monitoring of herbicides and their metabolites in the diverse natural water system.


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos/isolamento & purificação , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Organofosfonatos/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Aminobutiratos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Água Doce/química , Glicina/análise , Glicina/isolamento & purificação , Herbicidas/análise , Herbicidas/isolamento & purificação , Organofosfonatos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
J Environ Manage ; 292: 112814, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030016

RESUMO

Excessive nitrogen input into the water caused eutrophication thereby reducing biodiversity and degrades freshwater function. Nitrogen pollution in sediments is one key reason that makes eutrophication difficult to control. The physicochemical technologies such as dredging and coverage for sediment pollution easily destroyed and homogenized aquatic habitats. To alleviate freshwater eutrophication in ecological way, this work combined the functions of bioturbation and biofilm to test their effect on the removal of nitrogen from sediment and water. The total nitrogen removal by employing the coupled function (bioturbation + biofilm, SCB) was greater than that of the single function (bioturbation or biofilm). The mean efficiency of total nitrogen removal in SCB treatment was 3.19 times that of the control without chironomids nor biofilm medium. Chironomid bioturbation promoted nitrogen release from sediments to the overlying water. Biofilm enhanced the conversion and removal of nitrogen stirred up by chironomids, resulting the lowest concentration of total nitrogen in overlying water of SCB treatment. The enhancement of nitrogen removal may be due to the coupled function increased the abundance of denitrifying and anammox functional bacteria in sediment and biofilm. Therefore, the method of combining benthic animals with biofilm medium is not only a viable solution for reducing sedimentary nitrogen loading in freshwater ecosystems, but also a solution to mitigate eutrophication in the overlying water. The restoration and management for aquatic ecosystems should consider protecting habitat for benthic organisms while maintaining heterogeneity for biofilm.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biofilmes , Desnitrificação , Ecossistema , Eutrofização , Água Doce , Sedimentos Geológicos , Nitrogênio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 144: 143-150, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955852

RESUMO

In this study, we describe in detail the life cycle of Tachaea chinensis (Isopoda: Corallanidae), a branchial ectoparasitic isopod that infests the freshwater shrimp Palaemonetes sinensis in China. We obtained 14 ovigerous T. chinensis females (8.22-11.92 mm in length) and observed the development of embryos through 5 sequential ontogenetic stages within the brood pouches (marsupium) of these females. The number of eggs or mancae (post-larval juveniles) held in the female marsupium ranged from 31 to 86, with a mean ± SD of 61.25 ± 16.16 eggs. Female T. chinensis were semelparous, i.e. individuals died following the release of mancae from the marsupium. Released mancae were non-planktonic and immediately infective to host shrimps. However, only a few mancae successfully established contact with a host, and it is thus assumed that the remainder were predated by shrimp. Attached T. chinensis fed on the host hemolymph, and subsequent to host death, these isopods typically searched for a new host. We also found that T. chinensis exhibits a host preference: most mancae attached to P. sinensis rather than to Neocaridina sp. or Macrobrachium nipponense. This study provides valuable empirical data that will support future research on the prevention and control of parasitic isopod infections.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Palaemonidae , Animais , China , Feminino , Água Doce , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
18.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e247073, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978088

RESUMO

In Northern Tunisia, seasonal streams, called wadi, are characterized by extreme hydrological and thermal conditions. These freshwater systems have very particular features as a result of their strong irregularity of flow due to limited precipitation runoff regime, leading to strong seasonal hydrologic fluctuations. The current study focused on the spatio-temporal distribution of chironomids in 28 sampling sites spread across the Northern Tunisia. By emplying PERMANOVA, the results indicated a significant spatio-temporal variation along various environmental gradients. The main abiotic factors responsible for noted differences in the spatial distribution of chironomids in wadi were the conductivity and temperature, closely followed by altitude, pH, salinity, talweg slope and dissolved oxygen, identified as such by employing distance-based linear models' procedure. The Distance-based redundancy analysis ordination showed two main groups: the first clustered the Bizerte sites, which were characterized by high water conductivity, sodium concentration and salinity. The second main group comprised sites from the Tell zone and was characterized by low temperatures, neutral pH, low conductivity and nutrients content. The subfamily TANYPODIINAE (e.g., Prochladius sp., Prochladius choerus (Meigen, 1804) and Macropelopia sp.) was the dominant group at Tell zone, whereas species such as Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970) and Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838) were found only in Tell Wadis. In contrast, chironomid species such as Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970), Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838), Procladius choreus (Meigen, 1804) were specific for Tell Mountain. Cap Bon wadis region was dominated by genus Cladotanytarsus sp. The results of this survey liked the taxonomic composition of chironomid assemblages to the variation of hydromorphological and physic-chemical gradients across the northern Tunisia wadis.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Animais , Água Doce , Rios , Temperatura , Tunísia
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 780: 146425, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030286

RESUMO

The copper biotic ligand model (BLM) can quantitatively describe the bioavailability depending on various environmental factors and has been used to derive the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs). The commonly employed acute BLM tool, HydroQual, which applies the biotic ligand constants of fathead minnow in the same model structure for all taxonomic groups, estimates lower acute copper toxicity values compared to the chronic copper PNECs of the European Union Risk Assessment Reports (EU-RAR), which are based on taxon-specific model structures and biotic ligand constants for vertebrates, invertebrates, and algae. In this study, the full-BLM approach was applied using an appropriate acute BLM for each taxonomic group to derive acute HC5s (fifth percentile value in the species sensitivity distribution [SSD]) and an acute-chronic ratio for copper. Two acute BLMs for vertebrates and invertebrates were used and validated against site waters using the new method to estimate the intrinsic sensitivity for each species across different environmental conditions. To derive acute copper full BLM-based HC5s in Korean freshwater, acute toxicity tests were performed with 10 indigenous species, which were used to build the acute BLM-based SSD at each site. The final estimated acute full-BLM HC5s were higher than the EU-RAR chronic PNECs within the BLM calibration range. Furthermore, a linear relationship was observed between the acute full-BLM HC5s and the EU-RAR chronic PNECs. This linear regression function was suggested as an acute to chronic transformation function that can be applied to calculate chronic PNEC values. In conclusion, if the chronic ecotoxicity database of indigenous aquatic organisms for copper is lacking, it may be more efficient to derive chronic PNECs using an acute-chronic ratio after deriving BLM-based acute copper SSDs for indigenous species within representative taxonomic groups. This study provides a scientific foundation for the derivation of water quality criteria for copper in freshwater.


Assuntos
Cobre , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Água Doce , Ligantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Qualidade da Água
20.
J Environ Manage ; 291: 112719, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946026

RESUMO

Species distribution models (SDMs), in which species occurrences are related to a suite of environmental variables, have been used as a decision-making tool in ecosystem management. Complex machine learning (ML) algorithms that lack interpretability may hinder the use of SDMs for ecological explanations, possibly limiting the role of SDMs as a decision-support tool. To meet the growing demand of explainable MLs, several interpretable ML methods have recently been proposed. Among these methods, SHaply Additive exPlanation (SHAP) has drawn attention for its robust theoretical justification and analytical gains. In this study, the utility of SHAP was demonstrated by the application of SDMs of four benthic macroinvertebrate species. In addition to species responses, the dataset contained 22 environmental variables monitored at 436 sites across five major rivers of South Korea. A range of ML algorithms was employed for model development. Each ML model was trained and optimized using 10-fold cross-validation. Model evaluation based on the test dataset indicated strong model performance, with an accuracy of ≥0.7 in all evaluation metrics for all MLs and species. However, only the random forest algorithm showed a behavior consistent with the known ecology of the investigated species. SHAP presents an integrated framework in which local interpretations that incorporate local interaction effects are combined to represent the global model structure. Consequently, this framework offered a novel opportunity to assess the importance of variables in predicting species occurrence, not only across sites, but also for individual sites. Furthermore, removing interaction effects from variable importance values (SHAP values) clearly revealed non-linear species responses to variations in environmental variables, indicating the existence of ecological thresholds. This study provides guidelines for the use of a new interpretable method supporting ecosystem management.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Aprendizado de Máquina , Água Doce , República da Coreia , Rios
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