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1.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574967

RESUMO

Bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure depend on estrogens and diet. We assessed the impact of natural mineral-rich water ingestion on distal femur of fructose-fed estrogen-deficient female Sprague Dawley rats. Ovariectomized rats drank tap or mineral-rich waters, with or without 10%-fructose, for 10 weeks. A sham-operated group drinking tap water was included (n = 6/group). Cancellous and cortical bone compartments were analyzed by microcomputed tomography. Circulating bone metabolism markers were measured by enzyme immunoassay/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or multiplex bead assay. Ovariectomy significantly worsened cancellous but not cortical bone, significantly increased circulating degradation products from C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL), and significantly decreased circulating osteoprotegerin and osteoprotegerin/RANKL ratio. In ovariectomized rats, in cancellous bone, significant water effect was observed for all microstructural properties, except for the degree of anisotropy, and BMD (neither a significant fructose effect nor a significant interaction between water and fructose ingestion effects were observed). In cortical bone, it was observed a significant (a) water effect for medullary volume and cortical endosteal perimeter; (b) fructose effect for cortical thickness, medullary volume, cross-sectional thickness and cortical endosteal and periosteal perimeters; and (c) interaction effect for mean eccentricity. In blood, significant fructose and interaction effects were found for osteoprotegerin (no significant water effect was seen). For the first time in ovariectomized rats, the positive modulation of cortical but not of cancellous bone by fructose ingestion and of both bone locations by natural mineral-rich water ingestion is described.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea , Osso Esponjoso/fisiopatologia , Osso Cortical/fisiopatologia , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Águas Minerais/administração & dosagem , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/prevenção & controle , Ovariectomia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Densidade Óssea , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esponjoso/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo I/sangue , Osso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Cortical/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Líquidos , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/metabolismo , Humanos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/fisiopatologia , Osteoprotegerina/sangue , Peptídeos/sangue , Ligante RANK/sangue , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Microtomografia por Raio-X
2.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(1): 25-32, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115531

RESUMO

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most abundant bacteria in the human gut microbiota. This bacterium is reported to serve an important role in inflammatory bowel diseases. In the present study, the preventive effects of F. prausnitzii on a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)­induced colitis model in mice were investigated. BALB/c mice were fed with 5% DSS in drinking water. Administration of live or inactivated F. prausnitzii was initiated 7 days prior to the start of DSS feeding. Mucosal cytokines were analyzed by reverse transcription­quantitative PCR. Histological analysis of colon mucosa was also performed. The symptoms of DSS­induced colitis (weight loss, diarrhea, bloody stools and colon shortening) were significantly improved in the group administered live F. prausnitzii, but not in the other groups. There were no significant differences in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines; however, the expression of mucosal cytokines appeared to be markedly reduced in the live F. prausnitzii­administered group compared with the DSS­fed control. The results suggested that preventive administration of 'live', but not inactivated, F. prausnitzii protected the colon against DSS­induced colitis. Live F. prausnitzii were also administered therapeutically following the induction of colitis, resulting in an improved histological score in mice.


Assuntos
Colite/microbiologia , Colite/terapia , Faecalibacterium prausnitzii/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/genética , Citocinas/genética , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Água Potável/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Camundongos
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(4): 337-341, 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982263

RESUMO

Water is an important component of human body and plays a variety of important physiological roles. The intake and discharge of human water is in a dynamic equilibrium. Insufficient water intake will affect the hydration status of human body, which in turn affects cognition and health. Therefore, maintaining proper hydration status is of great importance for maintaining and promoting the health of the body. There were many indicators to evaluate the hydration status of body, including urine and blood plasma biomarkers. It is of great significance to evaluate the hydration status of body, keep the body in a suitable hydration status by replenishing water in time. The lack of drinking water in different populations in China is common, but it has not yet received enough attention and needs to carry out corresponding health education.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Biomarcadores , Água Corporal , China , Humanos
4.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 131: 209-217, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529385

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) causes acute and chronic lung toxicities at occupational exposure levels, yet the impacts of Cd exposure at low levels through dietary intake remain largely uncharacterized. Health concerns arise because humans do not have an effective Cd elimination mechanism, resulting in a long (10- to 35-y) biological half-life. Previous studies showed increased mitochondrial oxidative stress and cell death by Cd yet the details of mitochondrial alterations by low levels of Cd remain unexplored. In the current study, we examined the impacts of Cd burden at a low environmental level on lung metabolome, redox proteome, and inflammation in mice given Cd at low levels by drinking water (0, 0.2, 0.6 and 2.0 mg Cd/L) for 16 weeks. The results showed that mice accumulated lung Cd comparable to non-smoking humans and showed inflammation in lung by histopathology at 2 mg Cd/L. The results of high resolution metabolomics combined with bioinformatics showed that mice treated with 2 mg Cd/L increased levels of lipids in the lung, accompanied by disruption in mitochondrial energy metabolism. In addition, targeted metabolomic analysis showed that these mice had increased accumulation of mitochondrial carnitine and citric acid cycle intermediates. The results of redox proteomics showed that Cd at 2 mg/L stimulated oxidation of isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and ATP synthase. Taken together, the results showed impaired mitochondrial function and accumulation of lipids in the lung with a Cd dose response relevant to non-smokers without occupational exposures. These findings suggest that dietary Cd intake could be an important variable contributing to human pulmonary disorders.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Carnitina/metabolismo , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Malato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaboloma , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/patologia , Proteoma/metabolismo
5.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 187(1): 9-21, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721859

RESUMO

Environmental arsenic exposure is associated with increased risk of non-cancerous chronic diseases and a variety of cancers in humans. The aims of this study were to carry out for the first time a health risk assessment for two common arsenic exposure routes (drinking water and soil ingestion) in children living in the most important agricultural areas in the Yaqui and Mayo valleys in Sonora, Mexico. Drinking water sampling was conducted in the wells of 57 towns. A cross-sectional study was done in 306 children from 13 villages in the valleys. First morning void urine samples were analyzed for inorganic arsenic (InAs) and monomethyl and dimethyl arsenic (MMA and DMA) by HPLC/ICP-MS. The results showed a wide range of arsenic levels in drinking water between 2.7 and 98.7 µg As/L. Arsenic levels in agricultural and backyard soils were in the range of < 10-27 mg As/kg. The hazard index (HI) = ∑hazard quotient (HQ) for drinking water, agricultural soil, and backyard soil showed values > 1 in 100% of the study towns, and the carcinogenic risk (CR) was greater than 1E-04 in 85%. The average of arsenic excreted in urine was 31.7 µg As/L, and DMA had the highest proportion in urine, with averages of 77.8%, followed by InAs and MMA with 11.4 and 10.9%, respectively, percentages similar to those reported in the literature. Additionally, positive correlations between urinary arsenic levels and HI values were found (r = 0.59, P = 0.000). These results indicated that this population is at high risk of developing chronic diseases including cancer.


Assuntos
Arsênico/urina , Água Potável/química , Exposição Ambiental , Solo/química , Arsênico/administração & dosagem , Criança , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Medição de Risco
6.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 29(4): 388­396, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507256

RESUMO

Low urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) values have been discussed as a marker to detect steroid abuse. However, suppressed LH concentrations related to highly diluted urine samples could be a misleading indication of anabolic steroid abuse. One aim of the present study was to examine the effect of hyperhydration on the interpretation of LH findings during doping control analysis and to investigate different possibilities to correct volume-related changes in urinary LH concentrations. Seven healthy, physically active, nonsmoking White males were examined for a 72-hr period, using water and a commercial sports drink as hyperhydration agents (20 ml/kg body weight). Urine samples were collected and analyzed according to the World Anti-Doping Agency's technical documents. Baseline urinary LH concentrations, expressed as the mean ± SD for each individual, were within the acceptable physiological range (7.11 ± 5.42 IU/L). A comparison of the measured LH values for both hyperhydration phases (Phase A: 4.24 ± 5.60 IU/L and Phase B: 4.74 ± 4.72 IU/L) with the baseline ("normal") values showed significant differences (Phase A: p < .001 and Phase B: p < .001), suggesting the clear effect of urine dilution due to hyperhydration. However, an adjustment of urinary LH concentrations by specific gravity based on a reference value of 1.020 seems to adequately correct the hyperhydration-induced decrease on the LH levels.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes , Hormônio Luteinizante/urina , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Adulto , Atletas , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidade Específica
7.
Transfusion ; 59(2): 555-565, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complications of donation reduce donor return. Younger and less experienced donors are more likely to experience vasovagal-type reactions (VVR). A water drink of approximately 500 mL shortly before donation may reduce VVR, but the effect of a smaller volume of water has not been investigated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A placebo-controlled comparative study was conducted among donors < 30 years who attended for a 1st-4th whole blood (WB) donation. Collection centers were assigned to offer one of three interventions: 500 mL water drink, 330 mL water drink, or a placebo intervention consisting of pre-donation arm exercise. Within 7 days after attending, participants received an electronic questionnaire about possible symptoms during and after donation. In additional centers, control donors were recruited, who only received standard care and were also sent the questionnaire. Self-reported VVR and other complications were evaluated in all groups. RESULTS: Out of 8,300 participating donors, 6,921 (83%) returned the questionnaire. Overall, 18.5% of responding donors reported moderate or worse VVR symptoms. In 2nd-4th time donors, both water volumes decreased the odds of a VVR compared to standard care controls (OR500ml 0.75, 95% CI 0.59-0.94; OR330ml 0.73, 0.58-0.91; adjusted combined OR 0.77, 0.64-0.94). There was no effect in new donors or the placebo group compared to controls. CONCLUSION: In young donors making their 2nd-4th WB donation, drinking water was associated with 23% fewer VVR with no difference between 330 and 500 mL. This decrease was not found in the placebo group. The findings support advocating drinking water for the prevention of VVR.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Síncope Vasovagal/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síncope Vasovagal/etiologia , Síncope Vasovagal/fisiopatologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30200320

RESUMO

Atrazine, a common water contaminant in the U.S., has been associated with adverse birth outcomes in previous studies. This study aimed to determine if atrazine concentrations in drinking water are associated with adverse birth outcomes including small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (term LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), preterm birth (PTB), and very preterm birth (VPTB). This study included 14,445 live singleton births from Ohio communities served by 22 water systems enrolled in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Atrazine Monitoring Program between 2006 and 2008. Mean gestational and trimester-specific atrazine concentrations were calculated. Significantly increased odds of term LBW birth was associated with atrazine exposure over the entire gestational period (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.10, 1.45), as well as the first (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.08, 1.34) and second trimesters (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07, 1.20) of pregnancy. We observed no evidence of an association between atrazine exposure via drinking water and SGA, VLBW, PTB, or VPTB. Our results suggest that atrazine exposure is associated with reduced birth weight among term infants and that exposure to atrazine in drinking water in early and mid-pregnancy may be most critical for its toxic effects on the fetus.


Assuntos
Atrazina/análise , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Herbicidas/análise , Exposição Materna , Resultado da Gravidez , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Ohio/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 358: 68-75, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217653

RESUMO

Fluoride (F) can induce changes in the expression of several liver proteins. It is suggested that these changes are dose- and time-dependent. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of different F concentrations and exposure times to this ion on the pattern of protein expression in the liver of rats. Thirt-six 21-day-old male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups (n = 18) according to the treatment duration (20 or 60 days). Each of these groups was then divided into 3 subgroups (n = 6) according to the concentration of F administered in drinking water, as follows: 0 mg/L (control), 15 mg/L or 50 mg/L. After the experiment periods, the animals were anesthetized and the liver and blood were collected. F was analyzed in plasma and liver. Part of the liver was fixed for histological analysis. Liver proteins were extracted and prepared for quantitative label-free mass spectrometry analysis. F concentrations in plasma and liver were significantly higher in the group treated with 50 mg /L in comparison with control, regardless the time of exposure. Histological alterations in the liver were more evident in the subgroups treated for 20 days. The proteomic analysis revealed changes in proteins related to endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial alteration, apoptosis and cellular respiration upon exposure to F. The results reinforce previous findings showing that the effects of F in the liver are dose- and time-dependent and provide the molecular basis for understanding the evolution of these effects.


Assuntos
Água Potável/efeitos adversos , Fluoretos/sangue , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 27: 20-23, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144888

RESUMO

An elevated postprandial glucose (PPG) level in plasma or blood is a risk factor for chronic disorders like obesity, diabetes mellitus type II and related cardiovascular conditions. Therefore, it is important to identify mechanisms that increase the value of postprandial glucose PPG levels. Hence in the present study we investigated the time dependent effect of drinking water during a meal on the level of PPG. Thirty-five volunteers were randomly assigned to five groups. Group A was given a jelly filled doughnut and group B, C, D and E had a similar doughnut in combination with a bottle of water along with the doughnut, thirty minutes before, thirty minutes after, and a second doughnut with water thirty minutes after the first one, respectively. Glucose was measured in capillary blood at intervals of 30 min up to 150 min (reg # FMeW 725B/17). PPG versus fasting glucose (Means ± SD, mmol/L) was for group A 5.4 ± 0.6 vs 4.6 ± 0.4, B 7.2 ± 0.7 vs 4.9 ± 0.4, C 5.5 ± 0.7 vs 4.4 ± 0.3, D 5.5 ± 0.6 vs 4.6 ± 0.3 and E 5.7 ± 0.5 vs 4.7 ± 0.2. The increase in group B was significantly higher than in all other groups (ANOVA, Dunnet's posttest). These results show that drinking water with consumption of a jelly-filled doughnut increases the postprandial blood glucose levels significantly compared to no drinking at all or thirty minutes before or after the consumption. It is therefore advisable that we should reconsider our eating and drinking habits to lower the PPG and consequently reduce the risks of abovementioned chronic disorders. Further assessment is necessary to evaluate this in more detail.


Assuntos
Glicemia/fisiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Insulina/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Adulto , Carboidratos da Dieta/sangue , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Cell Mol Med ; 22(9): 4274-4282, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971909

RESUMO

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is currently the only curative therapy for primary myelofibrosis (MF), while the JAK2 inhibitor, ruxolitinib. Has been approved only for palliation. Other therapies are desperately needed to reverse life-threatening MF. However, the cell(s) and cytokine(s) that promote MF remain unclear. Several reports have demonstrated that captopril, an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme that blocks the production of angiotensin II (Ang II), mitigates fibrosis in heart, lung, skin and kidney. Here, we show that captopril can mitigate the development of MF in the Gata1low mouse model of primary MF. Gata1low mice were treated with 79 mg/kg/d captopril in the drinking water from 10 to 12 months of age. At 13 months of age, bone marrows were examined for fibrosis, megakaryocytosis and collagen expression; spleens were examined for megakaryocytosis, splenomegaly and collagen expression. Treatment of Gata1low mice with captopril in the drinking water was associated with normalization of the bone marrow cellularity; reduced reticulin fibres, splenomegaly and megakaryocytosis; and decreased collagen expression. Our findings suggest that treating with the ACE inhibitors captopril has a significant benefit in overcoming pathological changes associated with MF.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Captopril/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição GATA1/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Esplenomegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/patologia , Colágeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Colágeno/genética , Colágeno/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição GATA1/deficiência , Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Megacariócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Megacariócitos/metabolismo , Megacariócitos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/metabolismo , Mielofibrose Primária/patologia , Reticulina/antagonistas & inibidores , Reticulina/genética , Reticulina/metabolismo , Esplenomegalia/genética , Esplenomegalia/metabolismo , Esplenomegalia/patologia
12.
Exp Physiol ; 103(10): 1318-1325, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055008

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Water drinking increases muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and it increases arterial blood pressure (ABP) in older populations but not in young healthy subjects. Does an increase in gain of arterial baroreflex control of MSNA contribute to maintenance of ABP after water drinking in healthy young subjects? What is the main finding and its importance? The gain of arterial baroreflex control of MSNA was increased and remained elevated 60 min after water drinking (500 ml) but remained unchanged after saline intake. An enhancement in gain of arterial baroreflex control of MSNA contributes to the maintenance of ABP after water drinking in young healthy subjects, probably via osmosensitive mechanisms. ABSTRACT: Water drinking increases muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), which is accompanied by a profound pressor response in patients with impaired arterial baroreflex function and in older populations, but not in healthy young subjects. We tested the hypothesis that an enhancement in the gain of arterial baroreflex control of MSNA contributes to the maintenance of arterial blood pressure after water drinking in healthy young subjects. The MSNA, arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured in 10 healthy men (24 ± 2 years old; mean ± SD) before and for 60 min after ingestion of 500 ml of bottled water or saline solution. Weighted linear regression analysis between MSNA and diastolic blood pressure was used to determine the gain (i.e. sensitivity) of arterial baroreflex control of MSNA. After water drinking, MSNA was significantly elevated within 15 min and remained above baseline for up to 60 min [e.g. 21 ± 10 bursts (100 heart beats)-1  mmHg-1 at baseline versus 35 ± 14 bursts (100 heart beats)-1  mmHg-1 at 30 min; P < 0.01], whereas mean arterial blood pressure (e.g. 87 ± 7 mmHg at baseline versus 89 ± 7 mmHg at 30 min; P = 0.34) and heart rate were unchanged. The arterial baroreflex-MSNA gain for bursts incidence was increased and remained elevated throughout the protocol [e.g. -2.25 ± 0.99 bursts (100 heart beats)-1  mmHg-1 at baseline versus -4.32 ± 1.53 bursts (100 heart beats)-1  mmHg-1 at 30 min; P < 0.01]. Importantly, saline intake had no effect on arterial baroreflex-MSNA gain or any neurocardiovascular variables. These findings demonstrate that water drinking enhances the gain of arterial baroreflex control of MSNA in healthy young men, which may contribute to buffering the pressor response after water drinking, probably via osmosensitive mechanisms.


Assuntos
Artérias/fisiologia , Barorreflexo/fisiologia , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Adulto , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Physiol Behav ; 194: 233-238, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29885324

RESUMO

There is general consensus that drinking water facilitates certain cognitive processes. However, it is not yet known what mechanism underlies the effect of drinking on performance and these may be different for different cognitive processes. We sought to elucidate the mechanisms involved by establishing at what stage of the drinking process cognitive performance is influenced. We examined the effect of mouth rinsing and mouth drying on subjective thirst and mood, visual attention and short term memory in children. Data are reported from 24 children aged 9- to 10-years. Children's performance was assessed in three conditions - mouth drying, mouth rinsing and a control (no intervention). In each condition they were assessed twice - at baseline, before intervention, and 20 min later at test. Mouth rinsing improved visual attention performance, but not short term memory, mood or subjective thirst. The effects of mouth drying were more equivocal. The selective nature of the results is consistent with suggestions that different domains of cognition are influenced by different mechanisms.


Assuntos
Atenção , Água Potável , Memória de Curto Prazo , Boca , Afeto/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Criança , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Boca/fisiologia , Sede/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
14.
Public Health Nutr ; 21(15): 2855-2865, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29877169

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Zn deficiency and diarrhoea are prevalent and may coexist in children living in low-resource settings. Recently, a novel approach for delivering Zn via microbiologically treated, Zn-fortified water was shown to be effective in improving Zn status in West African schoolchildren. We assessed the effectiveness of Zn-fortified, microbiologically purified water delivered as a household intervention on Zn intake, status and morbidity in children aged 2-6 years from rural western Kenya. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. Intervention included households assigned to water treatment device with (ZFW) or without (FW) Zn delivery capability SETTING: Rural households in Kisumu, western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Children aged 2-6 years. RESULTS: The ZFW group had higher dietary Zn intake compared with the FW group. ZFW contributed 36 and 31 % of daily requirements for absorbable Zn in children aged 2-3 and 4-6 years, respectively, in the ZFW group. Consumption of Zn-fortified water resulted in lower prevalence of reported illness (risk ratio; 95 % CI) in the ZFW group compared with the FW group: for cold with runny nose (0·91; 0·83, 0·99; P=0·034) and abdominal pain (0·70; 0·56, 0·89; P=0·003) in the intention-to-treat analysis and for diarrhoea (0·72; 0·53, 0·96; P=0·025) in the per-protocol analysis. We did not detect an effect of treatment on plasma Zn concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Daily consumption of Zn-fortified, microbiologically treated water results in increased intake of absorbable dietary Zn and may help in preventing childhood infections in pre-school children in rural Africa.


Assuntos
Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Estado Nutricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Resfriado Comum/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Água Potável/química , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Recomendações Nutricionais , População Rural , Sinusite/epidemiologia , Oligoelementos/sangue , Zinco/sangue
15.
Investig Clin Urol ; 59(3): 158-165, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744472

RESUMO

Purpose: The combined interaction of epidemiology, environmental exposure, dietary habits, and genetic factors causes kidney stone disease (KSD), a common public health problem worldwide. Because a high water intake (>3 L daily) is widely recommended by physicians to prevent KSD, the present study evaluated whether the quantity of water that people consume daily is associated with KSD and whether the quality of drinking water has any effect on disease prevalence. Materials and Methods: Information regarding residential address, daily volume of water consumption, and source of drinking water was collected from 1,266 patients with kidney stones in West Bengal, India. Drinking water was collected by use of proper methods from case (high stone prevalence) and control (zero stone prevalence) areas thrice yearly. Water samples were analyzed for pH, alkalinity, hardness, total dissolved solutes, electrical conductivity, and salinity. Average values of the studied parameters were compared to determine if there were any statistically significant differences between the case and control areas. Results: We observed that as many as 53.6% of the patients consumed <3 L of water daily. Analysis of drinking water samples from case and control areas, however, did not show any statistically significant alterations in the studied parameters. All water samples were found to be suitable for consumption. Conclusions: It is not the quality of water, rather the quantity of water consumed that matters most in the occurrence of KSD.


Assuntos
Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Água Potável/normas , Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Água/química , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(24): 6188-6195, 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847117

RESUMO

In this study, a turn-on nanosensor for detecting Hg2+ was developed based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between long-strand aptamers-functionalized upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and short-strand aptamers-functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs). In the absence of Hg2+, FRET between UCNPs and GNPs occurred because of the specific matching between two aptamers, resulting in the fluorescence quenching of UCNPs. In the presence of Hg2+, long-stranded aptamers fold back into a hairpin structure due to the stable binding interactions between Hg2+ and thymine, leading to the release of GNPs from UCNPs, resulting in the quenched fluorescence restoration. Under the optimized conditions, the nanosensor achieved a linear detection range of 0.2-20 µM and a low detection limit (LOD) of 60 nM. Meanwhile, it showed good selectivity and has been applied to detecting Hg2+ in tap water and milk samples with good precision.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ouro/química , Mercúrio/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Leite/química , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Bovinos , Fluorescência , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Limite de Detecção
17.
J Toxicol Sci ; 43(2): 113-127, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479033

RESUMO

The carcinogenicity of quinoline was examined by administrating quinoline in the drinking water to groups of 50 F344/DuCrj rats and 50 Crj: BDF1 mice of each sex. In rats, the doses of quinoline were 0, 200, 400, and 800 ppm for males and 0, 150, 300, and 600 ppm for females. In male rats, administration of quinoline was terminated at week 96 due to high mortality caused by tumors. There were significant increases of hepatocellular adenomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, hepatocellular adenomas and/or carcinomas (combined), and liver hemangiomas, hemangiosarcomas, hemangiomas and/or hemangiosarcomas (combined) in both male and female rats, and nasal esthesioneuroepitheliomas and sarcoma NOS (not otherwise specified) in males. In mice, doses of quinoline were 0, 150, 300 and 600 ppm for both males and females. Administration of quinoline was terminated at week 65 in males and at week 50 in females due to high mortality caused by tumors. There were marked increases of hemangiomas, hemangiosarcomas, and hemangiomas and/or hemangiosarcomas (combined) in the retroperitoneum, mesenterium, and liver in males, and in the retroperitoneum, mesenterium, peritoneum, and subcutis in females. Additionally, histiocytic sarcomas were statistically increased in the livers of female mice. Thus the present studies provided clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of quinoline administered in the drinking water in both rats and mice.


Assuntos
Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Hemangiossarcoma/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Hepáticas/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Mutagênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3527, 2018 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476144

RESUMO

Alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide) is a bioactive sulfoxide compound derived from garlic. To evaluate the preventive effect of alliin against metabolic risk factors in diet induced obese (DIO) mice, we treated the C57BL/6J DIO mice with drinking water with or without alliin (0.1 mg/ml) for 8 weeks. Results showed that alliin had no significant effect on the body weight, adiposity or energy balance. However, alliin treatment enhanced glucose homeostasis, increased insulin sensitivity and improved the lipid profile in the DIO mice. This was, at least partly, attributable to alliin induced modulation of the intestinal microbiota composition, typically decreased Lachnospiraceae and increased Ruminococcaceae. From above, we conclude that alliin has nutraceutical or even medicinal potential in prevention of diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Cisteína/análogos & derivados , Glucose/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Clostridiales/classificação , Clostridiales/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridiales/fisiologia , Cisteína/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Homeostase/fisiologia , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/fisiopatologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Gordura Subcutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Gordura Subcutânea/fisiopatologia
19.
J Cell Mol Med ; 22(3): 2018-2022, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278308

RESUMO

Penile fibrosis caused by ischemic priapism (IP) adversely affects patients' erectile function. We explored the role of lysyl oxidase (LOX) in rat and human penes after ischemic priapism (IP) to verify the effects of anti-LOX in relieving penile fibrosis and preventing erectile dysfunction caused by IP in rats. Seventy-two rats were randomly divided into six groups: control group, control + ß-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) group, 9 hrs group, 9 hrs + BAPN group, 24 hrs group, and 24 hrs + BAPN group. ß-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), a specific inhibitor of LOX, was administered in the drinking water. At 1 week and 4 weeks, half of the rats in each group were randomly selected for the experiment. Compared to the control group, the erectile function of IP rats was significantly decreased while the expression of LOX in the corpus cavernosum was significantly up-regulated in both 9 and 24 hrs group. Proliferated fibroblasts, decreased corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells/collagen ratios, destroyed endothelial continuity, deposited abnormal collagen and disorganized fibers were observed in IP rats. The relative content of collage I and III was not obviously different among the groups. ß-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) could effectively improve the structure and erectile function of the penis, and enhance recovery. The data in this study suggests that LOX may play an important role in the fibrosis of corpus cavernosum after IP and anti-LOX may be a novel target for patients suffering with IP.


Assuntos
Aminopropionitrilo/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia/tratamento farmacológico , Priapismo/prevenção & controle , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno Tipo I/antagonistas & inibidores , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo III/antagonistas & inibidores , Colágeno Tipo III/genética , Colágeno Tipo III/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Fibroblastos/enzimologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibrose/prevenção & controle , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Isquemia/enzimologia , Isquemia/genética , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Masculino , Ereção Peniana/fisiologia , Pênis/enzimologia , Pênis/fisiopatologia , Priapismo/enzimologia , Priapismo/genética , Priapismo/fisiopatologia , Proteína-Lisina 6-Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína-Lisina 6-Oxidase/genética , Proteína-Lisina 6-Oxidase/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 57(1): 54-57, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluid shifts from interstitial to intravascular space during blood donation helps in compensating the lost blood volume. We aimed to determine the volume of fluid shift following donation in donors with and without pre-donation fluid intake. METHODS: We studied the fluid shift in 325 blood donors prospectively. Donors were divided in groups- with no fluid intake (GI) and either water (GII) or oral rehydrating fluids (GIII) before donation. Fluid shift following donation was calculated based on the difference between the pre and post donation blood volume. The influence of oral fluid intake, age, gender and body mass index (BMI) on volume of fluid shift was analyzed. RESULTS: The fluid shift was significant between donors without fluids (GI: 127 ±â€¯81 ml) and donors with fluid intake (GII & III: 96 ±â€¯45 ml) (p < 0.05). The difference was not significant between donors with water intake (GII: 106 ±â€¯52 ml) and oral rehydrating fluid intake (GIII: 87 ±â€¯41 ml). The shifted fluid volume increased with increasing BMI and decreased with increasing age in females. The fluid shift increased in females than in males. CONCLUSION: The age, gender, BMI and VVR did not significantly contribute to the volume of fluid shift following donation. As per our observation, the oral fluids before donation might not contribute to increase in fluid shift in blood donors after donation.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Líquidos , Líquido Extracelular/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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