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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111728, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396059

RESUMO

In this study, human health risk derived from radioactive pollution in drinking water of China was assessed based on gross alpha and beta. Considering the presence of numerous data under the detection limits, the left-censored handling methods were employed to deal with the non-detected values in gross alpha and beta radioactive concentrations. Results show that concentrations of gross alpha and beta range from 4.98 × 10-4 Bq/L to 0.49 Bq/L with a mean value of 0.029 Bq/L and 5.00 × 10-3 Bq/L to 1.26 Bq/L with a mean value of 0.091 Bq/L, respectively. With the average effective dose being 1.41 × 10-2 mSv/y, the annual cancer risk due to radioactive pollution in Chinese drinking water is 7.75 × 10-7 /y. This study aimed to provide an easier method to quantify the radioactive pollution in drinking water and give a scientific basis for making policy decisions on radioactive pollution management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise , China/epidemiologia , Água Potável/análise , Humanos , Radioatividade
2.
Water Res ; 188: 116406, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010601

RESUMO

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a critical role in determining the quality of wastewater and the safety of drinking water. This is the first review to compare two types of popular DOM monitoring techniques, including absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) vs. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), for the applications in wastewater and drinking water treatments. The optical techniques provide a series of indices for tracking the quantity and quality of chromophoric and fluorescent DOM, while FT-ICR-MS is capable of identifying thousands of DOM compounds in wastewater and drinking water at the molecule level. Both types of monitoring techniques are increasingly used in studying DOM in wastewater and drinking water treatments. They provide valuable insights into the variability of DOM composition in wastewater and drinking water. The complexity and diversity of DOM highlight the challenges for effective water treatments. Different effects of various treatment processes on DOM are also assessed, which indicates that the information on DOM composition and its removal is key to optimize the treatment processes. Considering notable progress in advanced treatment processes and novel materials for removing DOM, it is important to continuously utilize these powerful monitoring tools for assessing the responses of different DOM constituents to a series of treatment processes, which can achieve an effective removal of DOM and the quality of treated water.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Águas Residuárias , Água Potável/análise , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Águas Residuárias/análise
3.
Water Res ; 188: 116519, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091805

RESUMO

While it seems indisputable that potable water contains microplastics (MP), the actual concentrations are much debated and reported numbers vary many orders of magnitude. It is difficult to pinpoint the cause of these differences, but it might be variation between waters, variation between quantification methods, and that some studies did not live up to rigorous analytical standards. Despite the urgent need to understand human exposure by drinking water, there is a lack of trustable methods generating reliable data. Essentially, proper MP assessment requires that quality assurance is in place and demonstrated, that an adequate volume of drinking water is assessed, and that differences in analytical methods are understood. This study presents a systematic and robust approach where MP down to 6.6 µm were assessed in potable water distribution systems in terms of quantity, size, shape, and material. For the first time, sub-samples were analysed by two of the most validated and complementary analytical techniques: µFTIR imaging and Py-GCMS. Both methods successfully determined low contents in drinking water. However, µFTIR and Py-GCMS identified different polymer types in samples with overall low MP content. With increasing concentration of a given polymer type, the values determined by the techniques became more comparable. Most detected MPs were smaller than 150 µm, and 32% were smaller than 20 µm. Our results indicate a potential annual uptake of less than one MP per person, suggesting that drinking potable water produced at a high-performance drinking water treatment plant represents a low risk for human health.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127930, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182151

RESUMO

The beneficial recycling of drinking water treatment residue (DWTR) for environmental remediation has received increasingly interests; whereas, the reported potential effect of microbial communities in different DWTR was ambiguous, which was unfavorable for the beneficial recycling. This study hypothesized that the varied treatment to DWTR in different waterworks induced the ambiguous effect; accordingly, responses of microbial communities in DWTR to the sequential dewatering and drying treatment were determined based on samples from three waterworks, in combination with 180-d incubation tests. The results showed that the microbial communities varied remarkably in different DWTR before being dewatered (DWTS). However, after dewatering, the increased microbial diversities were observed, and the microbial communities exhibited higher similarities among the dewatered DWTR from different waterworks; furthermore, the dewatered DWTR with subsequent drying treatment enriched more bacteria genus with potential environmental functions after incubation tests. The variations of microbial communities were closely related to DWTR properties, such as pH, organic matter, metals, P, and water extractable nutrients. Further analysis indicated that with maintaining high adsorption capability of DWTR, the dewatering treatment tended to retain specific microbial communities that may be induced by the applied similar techniques in different waterworks; the accumulated nutriments due to drying treatment and the stable DWTR pH enhanced the potential functional bacteria enrichment. Overall, the dewatering and drying treatment led to microbial communities with generality in different DWTR and increased the potential favorable microbial effect, promoting DWTR recycling in environmental remediation.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Dessecação , Água Potável/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Metais , Microbiota , Reciclagem
5.
Food Chem ; 339: 127766, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866697

RESUMO

An on-line enrichment-liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (LC-FD) method was developed for simultaneous determination of nine bisphenols (BPs). In this process, we predicted the separation based on an in-house developed software allowing for calculating both retention time (tR) and half-peak width (W1/2) of the solute by mobile phase fraction (φ) under gradient conditions. The proposed strategy was applied to separation prediction of BPs with high accuracy. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained with the correlation coefficients (R2) ranging from 0.998 to 1.000. The recoveries in spiked samples were 91.3-110.7% with the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation ranging 0.4-9.6% and 0.5-10.2%, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.13-66.7 ng L-1 and 0.40-200 ng L-1. The developed approach was used to monitor the nine BPs in 28 children's water bottles. The developed method provides an effective way for monitoring bisphenols in other similar matrix.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Água Potável/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Fenóis/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Criança , China , Fluorescência , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Fenóis/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software
6.
Food Chem ; 337: 127659, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781355

RESUMO

In this study, 3,3-bis(4-hydroxy-3-((E)-((4-hydroxyphenyl)imino)methyl) phenyl)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one (HMBP) was designed as a ''turn-on″ fluorogenic chemosensor to detect Al3+. Studies were performed in C2H5OH-HEPES (v/v, 9/1, pH 7.0) media at λem = 475 nm. The LOD value was found to be 0.113 µM. The stoichiometric ratio of HMBP-Al3+ was determined as 1:2 by Job's plot and ESI-MS as well as 1H NMR titration. The binding constant of chemosensor HMBP with Al3+ from the Benesi-Hildebrand equation was determined to be 1.21 × 108 M-1. The quantum (Φ) yields were obtained as 0.040 and 0.775 for the chemosensor HMBP and HMBP-Al3+, respectively. The response of the chemosensor HMBP towards Al3+ was attributed to the strategies of blocking the photo-induced electron transfer (PET) and CN isomerisation mechanisms. Finally, the sensing of the chemosensor HMBP for the determination of Al3+ in real food samples, drinking waters and herbal teas, were employed.


Assuntos
Alumínio/análise , Água Potável/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Fenolftaleína/química , Chás de Ervas/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Isomerismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141507, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841807

RESUMO

Studies on the occurrence of emerging pesticides in surface and drinking water in Vietnam are limited. In this study, lake water (n = 7), river water (n = 1), tap water (n = 46), and bottled water (n = 3) collected from Hanoi and other four provinces in northern Vietnam were analyzed for selected pesticides (including insecticides such as neonicotinoids, fipronil, and chlorpyrifos; fungicide carbendazim; herbicides such as atrazine, terbuthylazine, simazine, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, and bentazon) and some of their degradates by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Carbendazim (median: 86.7 ng/L) and triazines (49.3 ng/L) were the major pesticides found in lake water samples, followed by neonicotinoids and their degradation products (15.1 ng/L), chlorpyrifos and its degradate (13.4 ng/L), fipronil and its degradates (3.76 ng/L), chlorophenoxy acid herbicides (2.10 ng/L), and bentazon (0.62 ng/L). Triazines (164 ng/L) were the major pesticides in river water. Higher concentrations (median: 39.3 ng/L; range: 1.20-127) of selected pesticides were found in tap water from Hanoi than those from four other provinces studied (5.49 ng/L; 4.73-66.8 ng/L). Bottled water samples collected from Hanoi contained lower concentrations of pesticide residues (median: 3.54 ng/L, range: 2.18-8.09) than those of tap water samples. The calculated risks from pesticide exposure through ingestion of tap water by the general populations were low. However, fipronil concentrations in lake water exceeded the benchmark value recommended for freshwater in the United States or the Netherlands. Degradation of acetamiprid into desmethyl-acetamiprid was found in lake water.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Água Potável , Herbicidas , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Benzimidazóis , Benzotiadiazinas , Carbamatos , Água Potável/análise , Herbicidas/análise , Neonicotinoides , Países Baixos , Praguicidas/análise , Pirazóis , Vietnã , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141748, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889468

RESUMO

The goal of this work was to investigate the occurrence of contaminants of emerging interest (CEI) in source surface water (SW; river water) and drinking water (DW; tap water) from five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the Province of Québec, Canada. A total of 28 sampling campaigns were conducted to collect SW and DW samples from each DWTP from June 2016 to July 2017. The seven targeted CEI, including acetaminophen, salicylic acid, caffeine, carbamazepine, ibuprofen, sulfamethoxazole and drospirenone, were analyzed using solid-phase extraction-ultra pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-MS/MS) for all collected water samples. The selected CEI were detected in all SW and DW samples, with the exception of drospirenone, which occurred in amounts that were below the limit of detection in one DWTP in June and July 2016. In all the SW samples, caffeine was detected and had the highest median concentration range (12.3-91.0 ng/L), followed by acetaminophen (7.9-85.0 ng/L) and salicylic acid (21.6-39.0 ng/L). In the DW samples, salicylic acid was detected and had the highest median concentration range (20.5-50 ng/L), followed by caffeine (5.2-21.8 ng/L), and acetaminophen (5.0-7.7 ng/L). Carbamazepine, ibuprofen, and sulfamethoxazole primarily occurred in amounts between the limit of detection and limit of quantification in SW and occurred below the limit of detection in DW. All the DWTPs exhibited a similar trend in the removal of CEI, which include acetaminophen (≤97.6%), followed by caffeine (71.0-86.5%) and salicylic acid (<50.0%). Varying levels of efficiencies were observed among the removal strategies for CEI under study, which were mainly associated with the contaminant concentration in SW in the case of acetaminophen, and with the treatment processes in the case of caffeine and salicylic acid.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Canadá , Cromatografia Líquida , Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Quebeque , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141846, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892045

RESUMO

This paper examines seasonal variations in faecal contamination of drinking water sources in the Jirapa and Kassena-Nankana Municipalities of Ghana. Data collection involved a survey of 568 households, testing of faecal coliform concentrations in drinking water source samples (141 in the rainy season, 128 in the dry season), in-depth interviews with key water stakeholders, and field observation to identify sources of faecal contamination. From the water quality testing, faecal coliforms were detected in all source types, including 'treated' pipe-borne water. Contamination was significantly higher in the rainy season than in the dry season (P < 0.05) with 51.8% of water samples in the rainy season and 27.3% in the dry season failing to meet the World Health Organisation and Ghana Standard Authority guideline on faecal coliform concentrations in drinking water sources. The proportion of population at risk of faecal contamination in the rainy season was 41.5% compared to 33.1% in the dry season. We argue that in Ghana and Sub-Saharan Africa at large, water surveillance agencies risk underestimating population exposed to faecal contamination through drinking water sources if monitoring is only done in the dry season. To avoid this, we recommend seasonal monitoring of faecal concentration in drinking water sources. However, in periods of limited resources, monitoring is most appropriate in the rainy season when the risk of contamination is high.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Cidades , Água Potável/análise , Gana , Estações do Ano , Microbiologia da Água , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142121, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911156

RESUMO

N-nitrosamines are potent carcinogens, particularly N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), which are commonly found in a variety of foods and drinking water. We calculated the food and drinking water intakes of NDMA, NDEA, and total volatile nitrosamines (TVNA) by Chinese residents in different provinces by multiplying the reported total diet study results by the nitrosamine contents in food and drinking water. The weighted content of nitrosamines in each category of foods and the concentration of nitrosamines in drinking water was obtained through literature review. The exogenous NDMA, NDEA and TVNA intakes of adult residents in 20 provinces ranged from 171 to 425 ng/d, 41 to 140 ng/d and 373 to 1028 ng/d, respectively. The main contributors to NDMA and TVNA intakes were vegetables, cereals, aquatic products, and meats while the main sources of NDEA intake were vegetables and cereals. The average total NDMA intake per capita in China (251 ng/d) was similar to that in Germany in 1991 (231 ng/d) but higher than that in the United States (136 ng/d), Canada (87.6 ng/d) and France (188 ng/d). Large differences in nitrosamine intakes were observed between the coastal provinces and inland provinces. Drinking water was estimated to contribute 13.1%, 1.3% and 10.8% of the exogenous intakes of NDMA, NDEA and TVNA, respectively. Based on our results, we recommend setting the NDMA drinking water criterion of 40 ng/L. Overall, this study presents basic information regarding nitrosamines intake via food and drinking water in China that will facilitate risk assessment, generation of health advisories and policy making.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Nitrosaminas , Canadá , China , Dimetilnitrosamina/análise , Água Potável/análise , França , Alemanha , Nitrosaminas/análise
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141776, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911162

RESUMO

Globally, consumers judge their drinking water through its aesthetic qualities because tastes, odors, and appearances are readily detectable by untrained consumers. Consumer feedback is critical to the water industry for efficient resolution of aesthetic water quality issues, although consumer descriptions of taste and odor issues can sometimes be unfocused or confusing. A user-friendly approach can facilitate consumer communications to utilities in the challenging task of describing drinking water taste and odor issues. The purpose of this study was to develop a list of taste and odor descriptors and test a novel "check-if-apply" approach to describe drinking water quality. The final list contained 28 individual and/or groups of descriptors. 75 participants tested water samples impacted by various tastants or odorants: duplicate samples of chloraminated tap water, tap water with heptanal, tap water with 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), tap water with NaCl, bottled water, and bottled water with CuSO4. Participants used a 9-point hedonic scale (1 = 'dislike extremely'; 9 = 'like extremely') to rate overall liking of each sample, and they used the check-if-apply list to describe the taste or odor. Participants also answered a brief questionnaire and used a 5-point scale (1 = 'very difficult'; 5 = 'very easy') to evaluate their experience using the check-if-apply list. Significant differences were observed in acceptability and sensory profile of samples (p-value <0.05). Tap water with MIB had the lowest acceptability mean score (3.43 ± 1.74), while flavorless bottled water had the highest acceptability mean score (6.23 ± 1.47). 'Salty', 'metallic', 'chemical' and 'musty/earthy' were the dominant descriptors for NaCl, CuSO4, heptanal, and MIB, respectively. Most participants (81%) found the check-if-apply list as 'somewhat easy' to 'very easy' to use (mean = 3.44 ± 1.07) and suggested it as a user-friendly lexicon for consumers and utilities to communicate about water quality.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Água Potável/análise , Estética , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Paladar , Qualidade da Água
12.
Environ Pollut ; 270: 116179, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348142

RESUMO

The developing nervous system is highly vulnerable to environmental toxicants especially pesticides. Glyphosate pesticide induces neurotoxicity both in humans and rodents, but so far only when exposed to higher concentrations. A few studies, however, have also reported the risk of general toxicity of glyphosate at concentrations comparable to allowable limits set up by environmental protection authorities. In vitro data regarding glyphosate neurotoxicity at concentrations comparable to maximum permissible concentrations in drinking water is lacking. In the present study, we established an in vitro assay based upon neural stem cells (NSCs) from the subventricular zone of the postnatal mouse to decipher the effects of two maximum permissible concentrations of glyphosate in drinking water on the basic neurogenesis processes. Our results demonstrated that maximum permissible concentrations of glyphosate recognized by environmental protection authorities significantly reduced the cell migration and differentiation of NSCs as demonstrated by the downregulation of the expression levels of the neuronal ß-tubulin III and the astrocytic S100B genes. The expression of the cytoprotective gene CYP1A1 was downregulated whilst the expression of oxidative stresses indicator gene SOD1 was upregulated. The concentration comparable to non-toxic human plasma concentration significantly induced cytotoxicity and activated Ca2+ signalling in the differentiated culture. Our findings demonstrated that the permissible concentrations of glyphosate in drinking water recognized by environmental protection authorities are capable of inducing neurotoxicity in the developing nervous system.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Herbicidas , Células-Tronco Neurais , Animais , Água Potável/análise , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/análise , Ventrículos Laterais/química , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neurais/química
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 762: 144159, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360458

RESUMO

Field studies were conducted in a Croatian city supplied by two distinct groundwater sources (referred to as A and B) to investigate both the effects of changing water source on the water quality in the drinking water supply system, as well as to further understand discoloration events that occurred in city locations that switched water from source A to B. The water treatment processes at site A were found to alter organic matter (OM) characteristics, removing humic substances while enhancing protein-derived (tryptophan) content. Although the humic-like component predominated in raw waters, microbially/protein-derived components were found to increase throughout the distribution networks of both systems. Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) such as total trihalomethane (TTHM) and total haloacetic acid (THAA) were prevalent in water distribution system (WDS)-A, which correlated with elevated OM content as well as re-chlorination with hypochlorite (NaOCl). Our field study revealed that THMs were more readily formed than HAAs during ClO2 treatment. Unsurprisingly, chlorite concentrations were generally higher than chlorate concentrations during ClO2 treatment, whereas (secondary) NaOCl disinfection contributed to higher chlorate production. Principal component analysis indicated that variable pH values and humic-like OM could affect Mn, As and Al concentrations at the consumer's tap. Our results suggested that although Mn concentrations complied with regulations at WDS-B and were below 50 µg/L after disinfection, Mn was oxidized and formed particulate Mn oxides capable of causing discoloration events depending on prevailing network physico-chemical and hydraulic conditions. Aluminium also appears to be released during hydraulic disturbances from extensive deposits within the network. Thermodynamic calculations showed that Mn-oxidation was strongly dependent upon the ORP, and to lesser extent the pH value. Collectively, our results confirm that ensuring the provision of safe drinking waters to consumers requires an understanding of water quality across entire distribution networks in addition to any routine post-treatment monitoring.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção , Água Potável/análise , Halogenação , Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 761: 144107, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360549

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a synthetic, perfluorinated organic acid previously used in fluoropolymer production in the United States. PFOA has been a recent focal point for regulation because of its ubiquitous presence in drinking water throughout the United States. In 2016, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) issued a lifetime drinking water Health Advisory (HA) for PFOA of 0.07 µg/L; several states have also implemented their own drinking water guidelines for PFOA. The current study aimed to evaluate the basis and derivation of state and federal guidelines for PFOA in drinking water, with particular emphasis on the exposure parameters utilized. Twelve distinct PFOA drinking water standards were identified ranging from 0.0051 to 2 µg/L. The US EPA HA assumptions were evaluated using a Monte Carlo analysis that included distributions for drinking water intake (DWI) rate and the relative source contribution (RSC). We determined that US EPA's HA of 0.07 µg/L is protective of 99% of the population of lactating women. We also demonstrated that the health-based guidelines were highly variable across states and that the actual RSC of PFOA from drinking water is likely greater than 20%, based on studies of actual PFOA exposures from dust, water, and food. A sensitivity analysis was performed using the same equations as the US EPA, while substituting the RSC and DWI variables; resulting in HAs ranging from 0.074 to 0.346 µg/L. We also evaluated the contribution of PFOA in drinking water to the systemic PFOA body burden of the general population using an available biokinetic model. We conclude that more rigorous efforts are warranted to establish consistent health-based drinking water guidelines for PFOA, given that drinking water is a primary source of human exposure to PFOA in the United States.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Caprilatos/análise , Água Potável/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Lactação , Estados Unidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água
15.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128145, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297132

RESUMO

This publication presents a comparison of the content of pollutants in groundwater samples taken at 117 measurement points in four regions of Poland during a drought period and in the reference period without drought. Based on the chemical analyses of water, an assessment of the health risk resulting from the use of underground water for consumption was carried out. The study aimed to determine whether drought affects the increase in health risk exposure of the population. It was found that despite the occurrence of drought, the expected increase in the concentration of pollutants in water does not take place in all locations. This study found that in some cases the occurrence of drought did not cause an increase in the non-cancerogenic threat expressed by the hazard index. There were also no clear changes in excess lifetime cancer risk values except for selected measurement points. On the other hand, the statistical analysis of all data collected in the regions where the research was conducted showed a general trend of increasing environmental health risk caused by changes in groundwater pollution during drought.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água Potável/análise , Secas , Saúde Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Polônia , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Water Res ; 188: 116538, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125993

RESUMO

The elevated cases of arsenic contamination reported across the globe have made its early detection and remediation an active area of research. Although, the World Health Organisation has set the maximum provisional value for arsenic in drinking water at 10 parts per billion, yet concentrations as high as 5000 parts per billion are still reported. In human beings, chronic arsenic exposure can culminate into lethal diseases such as cancer. Thus, there is a need for urgent emergence of efficient and reliable detection system. This paper offers an overview of the state-of-art knowledge on current arsenic detection mechanisms. The central agenda of this paper is to develop an understanding into the nano-enabled methods for arsenic detection with an emphasis on strategic fabrication of nanostructures and the modulation of nanomaterial chemistry in order to strengthen the knowledge into novel nano-enabled solutions for arsenic contamination. Towards the end prospects for arsenic detection in water are also prompted.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Água Potável , Nanoestruturas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênico/análise , Água Potável/análise , Humanos , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 758: 144001, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338789

RESUMO

Drinking water quality and treatment efficacy was investigated in seven drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), using water from the river Göta Älv, which also is a recipient of treated sewage water. A panel of cell-based bioassays was used, including measurements of receptor activity of aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), estrogen (ER), androgen (AR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) as well as induction of oxidative stress (Nrf2) and micronuclei formation. Grab water samples were concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and water samples were analyzed at a relative enrichment factor of 50. High activities of AhR, ER and AR antagonism were present in WWTP outlets along the river. Inlet water from the river exhibited AhR and AR antagonistic activities. AhR activity was removed by DWTPs using granulated activated carbon (GAC) and artificial infiltration. AR antagonistic activity was removed by the treatment plants, except the artificial infiltration plant, which actually increased the activity. Furthermore, treated drinking water from the DWTP using artificial infiltration exhibited high Nrf2 activity, which was not found in any of the other water samples. Nrf2 activity was found in water from eight of the 13 abstraction wells, collecting water from the artificial infiltration. No genotoxic activity was detected at non-cytotoxic concentrations. No Nrf2 or AR antagonistic activities were detected in the inlet or outlet water after the DWTP had been replaced by a new plant, using membrane ultrafiltration and GAC. Neither target chemical analysis, nor chemical analysis according to the drinking water regulation, detected any presence of chemicals, which could be responsible of the prominent effects on oxidative stress and AR antagonistic activity in the drinking water samples. Thus, bioanalysis is a useful tool for detection of unknown hazards in drinking water and for assessment of drinking water treatments.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Bioensaio , Água Potável/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Qualidade da Água
18.
J Water Health ; 18(6): 1110-1123, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328380

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of soil and water salinity on dietary behavior and health risk in the coastal people of Bangladesh. This study was conducted among 240 respondents in rural coastal sub-districts in Khulna and Patuakhali of Bangladesh using a simple random sampling technique. To evaluate the association between health risk and salinity exposure categories, a multinomial logit regression analysis was conducted and statistical significance was declared at p ≤ 0.05. A significantly higher amount of salinity (NaCl) level was found in radish, potato, bean, bitter gourd, rice, shallow tube-well, and pond water from Patuakhali than Khulna. Males and those aged 36-50 years (RRR:1.89, SE:0.58) and 51-65 years (RRR:4.51, SE:1.81) were associated with hypertension compared with the females (RRR:0.57, SE:0.18) and age group 20-35 years. Consumption of shallow tube-well water (RRR:3.12, SE:1.46), salt content rice (RRR:1.36, SE:0.50), salt content vegetables (RRR:1.09, SE:0.09), salt content fish (RRR:2.77, SE:0.47), and intake of table salt (RRR:1.05, SE:0.03) were significantly associated with risk factors of hypertension (p < 0.01). A sustainable policy for salt reduction through dietary interventions along with the promotion of low saline foods and drinking water must be a priority with special emphasis on coastal areas.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Salinidade , Adulto , Bangladesh , Dieta , Água Potável/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Solo
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 712, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070268

RESUMO

A major public health concern in Mexico is the natural contamination of groundwater with fluoride and arsenic. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the magnitude of human health risk after determining fluoride and arsenic concentrations in groundwater samples (n = 50) from the Metropolitan area of the city of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Fluoride levels in water were determined via a potentiometric method using an ion-selective electrode. Arsenic concentrations in water samples were determined with an Atomic Absorption technique. Subsequently, a probabilistic health risk assessment was developed (Monte Carlo Analysis). Fluoride levels in water ranged from 0.20 to 3.50 mg/L. For arsenic, the mean level found in the assessed water samples was 15.5 ± 5.50 µg/L (range: 2.50-30.0 µg/L). In addition, when the probabilistic health risk assessment was completed, a mean HI (cumulative hazardous index) of higher than 1 was detected, indicating a high NCR (non-carcinogenic risk) for children and adults. According to the results found in this study, exposure protection campaigns are imperative in the Metropolitan area of the city of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, to successfully diminish exposure to arsenic and fluoride and, as a consequence, decrease the NCR in the population living in that region of Mexico.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Água Potável , Adulto , Arsênico/análise , Criança , Cidades , Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluoretos/análise , Humanos , México , Medição de Risco
20.
J Chromatogr A ; 1632: 461602, 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075686

RESUMO

Excess 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2, 4-DNPH) is often applied for the derivatization of aldehyde prior to the chromatographic analysis. However, the residual 2, 4-DNPH may cause background interference and limit the enrichment efficiency of trace aldehydes. To overcome the above bottle-neck problems, improve the extraction efficiency and omit the manipulation for changing the polarity of solvent for the hydrophobic analytes separation, a new method combining magnetism-reinforced in-tube solid phase microextraction (IT-SPME) technique with non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) was developed. The monolithic extraction cartridge was prepared in situ inside a capillary and doped with magnetic molecular imprinting polymers (mMIPs). The selective and efficient extraction of the derived analytes with simultaneous removal of the superfluous derivatization agent was achieved owing to the combined effect of molecular imprinting and magnetism reinforcement. By coupling with NACE, the highly hydrophobic effluent can be analyzed directly. The LODs of the method are between 0.0032~0.0049 mg L-1 and the recoveries are between 87.3~99.8% for the tested aldehydes. The developed approach is sensitive enough for detection of surface (drinking) water. The aldehydes in real water samples have been detected by this method, showing results that are in good agreement with the standard SPE-HPLC method.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/análise , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Água Potável/análise , Limite de Detecção , Polímeros/química , Solventes/química
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