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1.
J Water Health ; 18(1): 77-90, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129189

RESUMO

The precariousness of the rural population in Africa is often symbolized by the lack of potable and safe drinking water. This study investigates the physico-chemical and bacteriological characteristics of 32 water samples with respect to WHO standards. The water samples were collected from wells, boreholes and small drinking water supply systems (DWS) in and around the township of Bonkoukou (Niger). The Water Quality Index (WQI) tool was used to assess the overall water quality with different physico-chemical parameters. Where the pH of the samples was acceptable, the samples showed higher levels of mineralization and deoxygenation. Overall, the samples were slightly hard, chlorinated and sulfated but much alkaline and contained nitrate and nitrite ions 2-16 times higher than the WHO standards. The use of WQI shows that samples in the DWS are safe for drinking. Samples coming from wells are the most polluted (58.50%) compared to those taken from boreholes (53.00%), while the percentage of samples from boreholes, unfit for drinking, is higher (41.00%) than that of the samples taken from wells (25.00%). Moreover, water in this area was characterized by the presence of total germs indicating bacteriological pollution. Hence, for the supply of safe drinking water to the larger number of people in such a rural area, the capacity of actual DWS must be improved and widespread.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água Potável , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Humanos , Níger , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Poços de Água
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 145, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989309

RESUMO

This paper presents an object-oriented approach for analysing and characterising the urban landscape structure and its influence on the quality of surface waters and shallow groundwater. We investigated springs, streams and ponds from an urban area. The land cover classification was adopted with the conceptual framework of urban land cover (HERCULES model). This study has demonstrated that water quality in the urban area is strongly related to land cover, and the degree of its transformation is not the same in all types of waters. The land with forests and shrubs does not have many extreme values in water chemical characteristics. Statistical analyses indicated that the main environmental factors influencing water chemistry are impermeable surfaces such as buildings. They are an essential element which deteriorates water quality. The patches with buildings and pavements were characterised by a wide gradient of nutrient concentration in rivers and ponds. Shallow groundwater had a limited effect on surface water quality.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Nutrientes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea/química , Nutrientes/análise , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 74, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897853

RESUMO

Most abundant form of sulphur in the geosphere has been sulphate. Sulphate, with sulphur in the plus six oxidation state is very stable. Sources of sulphate in groundwater include mineral dissolution, atmospheric deposition and other anthropogenic sources (mining, fertilizer, etc.). Gypsum is an important contributor to the high levels of sulphate in many aquifer of the world. Sulphate is not as much as toxic, but it can cause catharsis, dehydration and diarrhoea, and when ingested in higher amount through dietary absorption, the levels of methaemoglobin and sulphaemoglobin are changed in human and animal body. The role of sulphate in aqueous phase and sedimentary phase has been discussed. There is only limited work on sulphate pollution remediation in groundwater at national and international level; therefore, in the light of rising attention in sulphate as a contaminant, different sources of sulphate, its distribution and available different remediation techniques for groundwater system reported so far have been discussed in the present paper. Abiologic processes' thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR) also plays significant role in reduction of sulphate.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Água Subterrânea/química , Sulfatos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Humanos , Mineração
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 76, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897800

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have attracted attention due to the potential risk they pose to ecosystems and human health. A total of 169 groundwater samples were collected from four representative regions in order to analyze PFASs concentrations in China. The total concentration of PFASs (∑PFASs) in groundwater ranged from 0.05 to 198.80 ng L-1, with an average of 3.97 ng L-1. All targeted PFASs were detected in the studied areas. The detection frequency and average concentration of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the highest (79.29% and 1.61 ng L-1, respectively). The contamination profiles of PFASs in each study area varied due to natural geographical conditions and human activities. According to the results of the potential source identification, the point sources of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were mainly concentrated in Lanzhou, and the distribution of PFASs was slightly affected by atmospheric deposition in all the studied areas. The obtained concentrations of PFOA and PFOS may pose no threat to the residents due to water consumption.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Caprilatos , China , Ecossistema , Fluorcarbonetos , Água Subterrânea/química , Humanos , Medição de Risco
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 102, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915929

RESUMO

Groundwater quality investigations were carried out in one of the urban parts of south India for fluoride and nitrate contaminations, with special focus on human health risk assessment for the rapidly growing and increasingly industrialized Coimbatore City. Twenty-five groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters (EC, pH, TDS, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, PO43-, NO3-, and F-) and the piper diagram characterized 60% of them as Ca-Mg-Cl type. Analysis of fluoride (0.1 to 2.4 mg/l) shows that 32% of the groundwater samples contain F- over the permissible limit, affecting a region of 122.10 km2. Nitrate (0.1 to 148 mg/l) is over the permissible limit in 44% of the groundwater samples spread over an area of 429.43 km2. The total hazard indices (THI) of non-carcinogenic risk for children (0.21 to 4.83), women (0.14 to 3.35), and men (0.12 to 2.90) shows some of the THI values are above the permissible limit of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The THI-based non-carcinogenic risks are 60%, 52%, and 48% for children, women, and men. This investigation suggests higher health risk for children and also recommends that proper management plan should be adopted to improve the drinking water quality in this region in order to avoid major health issues in the near future.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Nitratos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água Potável/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluoretos/normas , Humanos , Índia , Nitratos/normas , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Sódio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(8): 2297-2305, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995372

RESUMO

We previously discovered a method to estimate the groundwater mean residence time using the changes in the enantiomeric ratio of metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (MESA), (2-[(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)amino]-2-oxoethanesulfonic acid), a metabolite of the herbicide metolachlor. However, many grab samples would be needed for each watershed over an extended period, and this is not practical. Thus, we examined the use of a polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) deployed for 28 days combined with a modified liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry LC-MS/MS method to provide a time-weighted average of the MESA enantiomeric ratio. POCISs equipped with hydrophilic-lipophilic-balanced (HLB) discs were deployed at five sites across the United States where metolachlor was used before and after 1999 and compared the effectiveness of the POCIS to capture MESA versus grab samples. In addition, an in situ POCIS sampling rate (Rs) for MESA was calculated (0.15 L/day), the precision of MESA extraction from stored POCIS discs was determined, and the effectiveness of HLB to extract MESA was examined. Finally, using molecular modeling, the influence of the asymmetric carbon of metolachlor degradation on the MESA enantiomeric ratio was predicted to be negligible. Results of this work will be used in projects to discern the groundwater mean residence times, to evaluate the delivery of nitrate-N from groundwater to surface waters under various soil, agronomic, and land use conditions, and to examine the effectiveness of conservation practices.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/química , Alcanossulfonatos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Herbicidas/química , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Estereoisomerismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
7.
J Environ Radioact ; 213: 106153, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983454

RESUMO

Information about groundwater residence times is essential for evaluating appropriate groundwater abstraction rates and aquifer vulnerabilities and hence for sustainable groundwater management in general. Naturally occurring radionuclides are suitable tools for related investigations. While the applicability of several long-lived radionuclides for the investigation of long-term processes has been demonstrated frequently, residence times of less than one year are only scarcely discussed in the literature. That is due to the rather small number of applicable radionuclides that show adequately short half-lives. A promising approach for investigating sub-yearly residence times applies radioactive sulphur. 35S is continuously produced in the upper atmosphere from where it is transferred with the rain to the groundwater. As soon as the water enters the subsurface its 35S activity concentration decreases with an 87.4 day half-life. This makes 35S suitable for investigating sub-yearly groundwater residence times. However, the low 35S activities in natural waters require sulphate pre-concentration for 35S detection by means of liquid scintillation counting (LSC). That is usually done by sulphate extraction from large water samples with an anion-exchange resin (Amberlite IRA400, Cl-form), elution from the resin with NaCl, and precipitation as BaSO4. Our study aimed at optimizing the standard sample preparation procedure by avoiding the laborious precipitation step. We suggest (i) sulphate extraction using the exchange resin Amberlite IRA67 (OH-form), (ii) elution with ammonium hydroxide, (iii) evaporation of the eluate and (iv) dissolving the resulting dry precipitate in 2 ml H2O. In contrast to the standard approach our method results in a final sample solution of low ionic strength, which allows applying the water miscible scintillation cocktail Hionic-Fluor®. Since Hionic-Fluor accepts only aqueous solutions of low ionic strength the approach is applicable for waters with high 35S/32SO42- ratios, i.e., low total sulphate sample loads (e.g. rainwater).


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea/química , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioisótopos , Sulfatos , Poluentes Radioativos da Água
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110122, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901540

RESUMO

Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and soil seepage waters were analyzed along with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to investigate the ecological risks and factors controlling the subsurface transport of PAHs in karst terrain in southwest China. The concentrations of dissolved PAHs in soil seepage water increased with depth and the mean concentrations at a depth of 80 cm were relatively high (exceeding 1147 ng/L). PAH composition in soil seepage water was dominated by low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, whereas those associated with soil matrix were dominated by high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. The results revealed that HMW PAHs in soil seepage water were closer to the equilibrium of dissolution than LMW and medium molecular weight (MMW) PAHs. However, due to the carrier functions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) for HMW PAHs, all PAHs can be continuously dissolved in the soil seepage water from soil matrix as the water moved vertical downward through the profiles. During this process, dynamic sorption and desorption processes were occurring between constituents in the soil seepage water and the soil matrix. This study demonstrates soil seepage water has posed a high risk to the groundwater, and effective protection is urgently needed.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Ecologia , Água Subterrânea/química , Medição de Risco , Solo
9.
Microbes Environ ; 35(1)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932538

RESUMO

Accretionary prisms are thick masses of sedimentary material scraped from the oceanic crust and piled up at convergent plate boundaries found across large regions of the world. Large amounts of anoxic groundwater and natural gas, mainly methane (CH4), are contained in deep aquifers associated with these accretionary prisms. To identify the subsurface environments and potential for CH4 production by the microbial communities in deep aquifers, we performed chemical and microbiological assays on groundwater and natural gas derived from deep aquifers associated with an accretionary prism and its overlying sedimentary layers. Physicochemical analyses of groundwater and natural gas suggested wide variations in the features of the six deep aquifers tested. On the other hand, a stable carbon isotope analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon in the groundwater and CH4 in the natural gas showed that the deep aquifers contained CH4 of biogenic or mixed biogenic and thermogenic origins. Live/dead staining of microbial cells contained in the groundwater revealed that the cell density of live microbial cells was in the order of 104 to 106| |cells| |mL-1, and cell viability ranged between 7.5 and 38.9%. A DNA analysis and anoxic culture of microorganisms in the groundwater suggested a high potential for CH4 production by a syntrophic consortium of hydrogen (H2)-producing fermentative bacteria and H2-utilizing methanogenic archaea. These results suggest that the biodegradation of organic matter in ancient sediments contributes to CH4 production in the deep aquifers associated with this accretionary prism as well as its overlying sedimentary layers.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Metano/biossíntese , Consórcios Microbianos , Anaerobiose , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbono/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Água Subterrânea/química , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Japão , Metano/análise , Gás Natural/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
10.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125116, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683429

RESUMO

Oscillating cycles of dewatering (termed drying) and rewetting during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) are used to maintain infiltration rates and could also exert an influence on subsurface microbial structure and respiratory processes. Despite this practice, little knowledge is available about changes to microbial community structure and trace organic chemical biodegradation potential in MAR systems under these conditions. A biologically active two-dimensional (2D) synthetic MAR system equipped with automated sensors (temperature, water pressure, conductivity, soil moisture, oxidation-reduction potential) and embedded water and soil sampling ports was used to test and model these important subsurface processes at the meso-scale. The fate and transport of the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine, the antibiotics sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, and the flame retardant tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate were simulated using the finite element analysis model, FEFLOW. All of these compounds exhibit moderate to poor biodegradability in MAR systems. Within the operational MAR scenario tested, three episodic drying cycles spanning between 18 and 24 days were conducted over a period of 184 days. Notably, cessation of flow and partial dewatering of the 2D synthetic aquifer during dry cycles caused no measurable decrease in soil moisture content beyond the near-surface layer. The episodic flow introduction and dewatering cycles in turn had little impact on overall trace organic chemical biotransformation behavior and soil microbial community structure. However, spatial differences in oxidation-reduction potential and soil moisture were both identified as significant environmental predictors for microbial community structure in the 2D synthetic aquifer.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Dessecação/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Molhabilidade , Biotransformação , Fenômenos Geológicos , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Microbiota , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Oxirredução , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125130, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669996

RESUMO

Identifying co-metabolic TCE oxidation in polluted groundwater is challenging due to lack of indicative by-products. This challenge may theoretically be resolved if the oxidation process can be characterized by a distinct dual isotope enrichment. In this work, we aimed to explore the carbon and chlorine isotope effects associated with TCE oxidation by a variety of oxygenases. These included pure strains and enrichment cultures of methane, toluene and ammonia oxidizers, as well as experiments with crude extracts. Isotope effects determined for TCE oxidation by toluene and ammonia oxidizers were mostly in line with expected values for epoxidation mechanism (ϵ13C -11.0 ±â€¯0.7 to -24.8 ±â€¯0.2‰ and ϵ37Cl +0.9 ± 0.5 to +1.0 ± 0.4‰), whereas, the methanotrophs resulted in distinctively different isotope effects (ϵ13C -2.4 ±â€¯0.4 to -3.4 ±â€¯0.8‰ and ϵ37Cl -1.8 ±â€¯0.2 to -2.9 ±â€¯0.9‰). It is suggested that in TCE oxidation by methanotrophs, substrate binding rather than bond cleavage is rate limiting, leading to this unexpected isotope effect. On the environmental level, our results imply that the oxidative process can be differentiated if catalyzed by toluene and ammonia oxidizers or by methanotrophs. Additionally, the oxidative process can be distinguished from the reductive one. However, using dual isotope analysis in the field may result in an under-estimation of the overall co-metabolic process if methanotrophs are to be excluded due to low isotope effects.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Cloro/metabolismo , Tricloroetileno/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Carbono , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Respiração Celular , Fracionamento Químico , Cloro/química , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Metano , Tricloroetileno/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
12.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113384, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677876

RESUMO

Although livestock manure, such as from swine (Sus scrofa domestica), have high capacity to introduce endocrine-disrupting free estrogens into the environment, the frequency of estrogen detections from reconnaissance studies suggest that these compounds are ubiquitous in the environment, perhaps resulting from historic manure inputs (e.g. cattle grazing residues, undocumented historic manure applications) or uncontrolled natural sources. Compared to free estrogens, conjugates of estrogens are innocuous but have greater mobility in the environment. Estrogen conjugates can also hydrolyze to re-form the potent free estrogens. The objective of this study was to identify the transport of free and conjugated estrogens to subsurface tile drains and groundwater beneath fields treated with swine manure slurry. Three field treatments were established, two receiving swine lagoon manure slurry and one with none. Manure slurry was injected into soils at a shallow depth (∼8 cm) and water samples from tile drains and shallow wells were sampled periodically for three years. Glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of 17ß-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) were the only estrogen compounds detected in the tile drains (total detects = 31; 5% detection frequency; conc. range = 3.9-23.1 ng L-1), indicating the important role conjugates played in the mobility of estrogens. Free estrogens and estrogen conjugates were more frequently detected in the wells compared to the tile drains (total detects = 70; 11% detection frequency; conc. range = 4.0-1.6 × 103 ng L-1). No correlations were found between estrogen compound detections and dissolved or colloidal organic carbon (OC) fractions or other water quality parameters. Estrogenic compounds were detected beneath both manure treated and non-treated plots; furthermore, the total potential estrogenic equivalents (i.e. estrogenicity of hydrolyzed conjugates + free estrogens) were similar between treated and non-treated plots.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Estrogênios Conjugados (USP)/análise , Estrogênios/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Esterco/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Animais , Bioensaio , Bovinos , Estradiol/análise , Estrona/análise , Gado , Solo/química , Suínos
13.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113324, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672362

RESUMO

Contaminated groundwater is considered as one of the most important pathways of human exposure to the geogenic contaminants. Present study has been conducted in a part of Indus basin to investigate the presence and spatial distribution of arsenic (As) and other trace metals in groundwater. The As concentration varies from bdl-255.6 µg/L and 24.6% of the 73 collected groundwater samples have As above world health organization (WHO) guideline of 10 µg/L. High concentration of As is found along the newer alluvium of Ravi River. As is found with high bicarbonate (HCO3-) and Iron (Fe) and low nitrate (NO3-) indicating reductive dissolution of Fe bearing minerals. However, silicate weathering along with high sulphate (SO42) and positive oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) indicates mixed redox conditions. Weathering of minerals along with other major hydrogeochemical process are responsible for composition of groundwater. With 31.5% of the samples, sodium bicarbonate (Na-HCO3) is the major water facies followed by magnesium bicarbonate (Mg-HCO3) in 30% of samples. As, Fe and other trace metals including copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn) were used to calculate the health risk for children and adults in the region. Out of 73 samples, 58% has high Fe, 32.8% has high Zn, and 4.1% has high Cd which are above the prescribed limits of WHO guidelines. Health risk of the population has been assessed using chronic dose index (CDI), hazardous quotients (HQ) and hazardous index (HI) for children and adults. The mean CDI values follows the order as Fe > Zn > Cu > As > Cr > Cd, while the HQ values indicates high As hazards for both children and adults. 43.8% of the groundwater samples have high HI for adults, however, 49.3% has high HI for children indicating higher risk for children compared to adults. A large-scale testing should be prioritized to test the wells for As and other trace metals in the study region to reduce health risks.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adulto , Bicarbonatos/análise , Criança , Humanos , Índia , Ferro/análise , Nitratos/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Poços de Água
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134186, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671306

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to show that a number of pesticides is found in groundwater and drinking water resources and to define measures that should reduce the pesticide load in groundwater resources for drinking water in the future. Although the pesticide load that enters groundwater bodies in the Netherlands has gradually decreased over the past ten years, good drinking water quality in the future is not guaranteed. Currently, a number of pesticides ise found in groundwater abstracted for the production of drinking water, worldwide. The most frequently found compounds in the Netherlands are the herbicides BAM (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile), bentazon and mecoprop. In shallow groundwater, the same compounds are generally found as in deeper groundwater that is abstracted for the production of drinking water, mainly bentazon and mecoprop. Additionally, DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide) is frequently found in shallower groundwater. In order to reduce the pesticide load in groundwater resources for drinking water in the future, 43 measures have been inventoried and ranked based on their scores for 'effectiveness' and for 'practicability'. This paper describes both the most effective measures, with high scores on practicability, and those with limitations regarding practicability. These measures are the most relevant with respect to the frequently found compounds that are still authorised, i.e., bentazon, mecoprop and DEET and, to a lesser extent, glyphosate (due to the presence of its metabolite AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid) and glyphosate itself) and isoproturon. The implementation of abstraction-specific 'Drinking Water Protection Files', including the systematic collection of data about the relevant water abstraction and the sources and activities that can negatively affect water quality, is recommended.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Política Ambiental , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/legislação & jurisprudência , Abastecimento de Água/legislação & jurisprudência , Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea/química , Governo Local , Poluição Química da Água/prevenção & controle , Recursos Hídricos
15.
ISME J ; 14(1): 151-163, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595050

RESUMO

Global-scale N-oxide contamination of groundwater within aquifers occurs due to the widespread use of N-bearing fertilizers and chemicals, threatening both human and environmental health. However, the conversion of these pollutants in active nitrogen (N) cycling processes in the subsurface biosphere still remains unclear. This study investigates the global occurrence of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in aquifers, where anammox was found to be turned on and off between saturated and unsaturated soil horizons, and contributed 36.8-79.5% to N loss in saturated soil horizons, the remainder being due to denitrification which has traditionally been considered the main pathway for removal of N-pollutants from aquifers. Although anammox activity was undetectable in the unsaturated soil horizons, it could potentially be activated by contact with ascending groundwater. High-throughput pyrosequencing analysis identified Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans as being the most abundant anammox bacterium in the saturated soils investigated. However, the anammox bacterial abundance was determined by the relative richness of Candidatus Jettenia asiatica. Isotopic pairing experiments revealed that coupling anammox with ammonium oxidation and respiratory ammonification enabled the formation of a revised N cycle in aquifer systems, in which respiratory ammonification acted as an important coordinator. Anammox can therefore contribute substantially to aquifer N cycling and its role in remediation of aquifers contaminated with N-oxides may be of global importance.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Água Subterrânea/química , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Desnitrificação , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
16.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124896, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563716

RESUMO

Groundwater contaminated by hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) has posed severe threat to the environment and public health. Although heterotrophic bioremediation has been known as an efficient approach, little is explored on mineral nutrient source addition such as phosphorus minerals. In this study, the stabilization and sustainability of phosphorus minerals for providing phosphorus has been investigated, and the enhancement of Cr(VI) removal by mixed bacterial consortium coupled with phosphorus minerals was also observed and further verified, with 1.4-3.9 times K values (first-order) increase under different conditions. We demonstrated that the applied of phosphorus minerals facilitated the reduction of Cr(VI) and the removal of Cr(III), promoted the resistance of Cr(VI) and the generation of antioxidase, and engendered the evolution of microbial community structures and functional genes. These findings provide a new insight for enhancement of Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater in-situ remediation.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Cromo/metabolismo , Fósforo/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Bactérias , Cromo/química , Água Subterrânea/química , Microbiota , Minerais , Oxirredução
17.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124674, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524614

RESUMO

Groundwater discharge from a water spring located along the southwest bank of Yangzonghai Lake, the largest deep plateau-lake with arsenic contamination in a typical karst landform, maybe a potential and on-going source of pollution, but seepage flux has not been investigated. This study applied temperature models to locate sites of groundwater discharge and quantify the magnitude and direction of seepage flux. The contaminant levels and spatial distributions, seasonal seepage flux distributions and the conductivity were investigated. The arsenic concentration of the water spring was 1481.9 µg L-1, and as the distance from the water spring increased, the arsenic concentration in the overlying water, pore-water and surface sediments decreased. Herein, the temperature models of McCallum and Bredehoeft were applied to estimate the lakebed vertical seepage flux in groundwater-surface water exchange systems during a period of 30-day in summer and winter. An upward flow of groundwater discharge was observed near the water spring, with the value of some sites over 10 cm day-1, and a downward flow was observed with increasing distance from the water spring in summer. Additionally, a slight upward flow was observed in winter. The arsenic levels, spatial distributions and the conductivity in monitoring sites were closely related to the seepage flux. The application provided a scientific basis for the prediction of groundwater-surface water exchange in deep plateau-lake and was a further development in temperature models.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Movimentos da Água , Arsênico/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos/química , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124741, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518921

RESUMO

In many parts of the world, wastewater irrigation has become a common practice because of freshwater scarcity and to increase resource reuse efficiency. Wastewater irrigation has positive impacts on livelihoods and at the same time, it has adverse impacts related to environmental pollution. Hydrochemical processes and groundwater behaviour need to be analyzed for a thorough understanding of the geochemical evolution in the wastewater irrigated systems. The current study focuses on a micro-watershed in the peri-urban Hyderabad of India, where farmers practice intensive wastewater irrigation. To evaluate the major factors that control groundwater geochemical processes, we analyzed the chemical composition of the wastewater used for irrigation and groundwater samples on a monthly basis for one hydrological year. The groundwater samples were collected in three settings of the watershed: wastewater irrigated area, groundwater irrigated area and upstream peri-urban area. The collected groundwater and wastewater samples were analyzed for major anions, cations and nutrients. We systematically investigated the anthropogenic influences and hydrogeochemical processes such as cation exchange, precipitation and dissolution of minerals using saturated indices, and freshwater-wastewater mixtures at the aquifer interface. Saturation indices of halite, gypsum and fluorite are exhibiting mineral dissolution and calcite and dolomite display mineral precipitation. Overall, the results suggest that the groundwater geochemistry of the watershed is largely controlled by long-term wastewater irrigation, local rainfall patterns and water-rock interactions. The study results can provide the basis for local decision-makers to develop sustainable groundwater management strategies and to control the aquifer pollution influenced by wastewater irrigation.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Águas Residuárias , Ânions/análise , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Sulfato de Cálcio/química , Cátions/análise , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Doce/química , Água Subterrânea/análise , Hidrologia/métodos , Índia , Magnésio/química , Salinidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Qualidade da Água
19.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124823, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726520

RESUMO

Several studies have demonstrated that gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and calcite (CaCO3) can be important hosts of arsenic in contaminated hydrogeological systems. However, the extent to which microbial reducing processes contribute to the dissolution and transformation of carbonate and sulfate minerals and, thereby, to arsenic mobilization is poorly understood. These processes are likely to have a strong impact on arsenic mobility in iron-poor environments and in reducing aquifers where iron oxyhydroxides become unstable. Anoxic batch bioassays with arsenate (As(V)) coprecipitated with calcite, gypsum, or ferrihydrite (Fe(OH)3) were conducted in the presence of sulfate or molybdate to examine the impact of bioprocesses (i.e. As(V), sulfate, and Fe(III)-reduction) on arsenic dissolution, speciation, and eventual remineralization. Microbial reduction of As(V)-bearing calcite caused an important dissolution of arsenite, As(III), which remained in solution up to the end of the experiment (30 days). The reduction of As(V) from gypsum-As(V) also led to the release of As(III), which was subsequently remineralized, possibly as arsenic sulfides. The presence of sulfate triggered arsenic dissolution in the bioassays with ferrihydrite-As(V). This study showed that although gypsum and calcite have a lower capacity to bind arsenic, compared to iron oxides, they can play a critical role in the biogeochemical cycle of arsenic in natural calcareous and gypsiferous systems depleted of iron since they can be a source of electron acceptors for reducing bioprocesses.


Assuntos
Arsênico/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Sulfato de Cálcio/química , Compostos Férricos/química , Arseniatos/química , Arsenicais/química , Arsenitos/química , Carbonatos/química , Água Subterrânea/química , Ferro/química , Molibdênio/química , Oxirredução , Solubilidade , Sulfatos/química , Sulfetos/química
20.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124574, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445332

RESUMO

Waste landfills represent a global problem, which is more pronounced in developing countries because of the lack of resources to implement procedures that include separation and waste processing. The aim of this research was to analyze leachate and ground waters samples at the site, upstream and downstream from the landfill during different year seasons on a registered non-hazardous waste dump and to conduct physico-chemical and biological assays to determine potential risk for the ecosystem. Potential cytotoxic, prooxidative and mutagenic effects of leachates and water samples were evaluated on human laryngeal cell line (HEp2). Leachates collected at landfill site caused genotoxic effect and had a higher pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and elevated concentrations of phosphorus, chloride, nitrogen compounds and sulphate. Genotoxicity of the leachate was increased in samples collected in dry and warm period of the year. These results are in accordance to the physico-chemical analysis which revealed that during summer period, because of intense degradation process at high temperatures increased concentrations of different chemicals can be found in leachate. Groundwater collected downstream and upstream from landfill did not show statistically significant (geno)toxic effect, irrespective of the sampling season. Chemical analysis revealed that all compounds in groundwater were below permitted values. Purification process at landfill is effective and compounds that reach groundwater do not represent a toxicological threat.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea/química , Mutagênicos/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Ecossistema
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