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1.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128374, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182088

RESUMO

Lipophilic marine algal toxins (LMATs) are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by marine microalgae that pose a great threat to marine aquaculture organisms and human health. In this study, a novel and automated method for the simultaneous determination of six groups of LMATs in seawater was developed by on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Condition optimization and method validation were performed, and the recoveries of all 14 target LMATs featuring different properties ranged from 83.5% to 96.0%. The limits of detection of most target compounds were within ≤3.000 ng/L with good precision (relative standard deviation ≤ 12.1%) and linearity (R2≥0.9916). Compared with off-line SPE methods, the proposed on-line SPE method has better recovery, sensitivity, repeatability, and throughput; in addition, the volume of seawater sample necessary to conduct determinations is greatly reduced in the present method. Finally, the method was applied to determine LMATs in actual seawater samples collected from the Bohai and South Yellow Seas of China in summer, and okadaic acid and pectenotoxin-2 were detected in all seawater samples. The highest concentration of ∑LMATs (22.23 ng/L) occurred in the coastal mariculture area of Shandong Province. Therefore, routine monitoring of LMATs in seawater of the coastal mariculture zone is necessary to prevent shellfish contamination especially in summer, and the proposed on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS method is a powerful way for direct and automatic detection of various LMATs in coastal mariculture area.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Água do Mar/química , Aquicultura , China , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Furanos , Humanos , Oceanos e Mares , Ácido Okadáico/análise , Piranos , Frutos do Mar/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
2.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(3): 333-342, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057757

RESUMO

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a legacy contaminant that has been detected globally within the environment and throughout numerous species, including humans. Despite an international ban on its use, this unique contaminant continues to persist in organisms and their surroundings due to PFOS's inability to breakdown into nontoxic forms resulting in bioaccumulation. In this study, we analyzed the effects of a technical mixture of PFOS (linear and branched isomers) in the adult Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, at 2 days and 7 days exposure. Biomarker analysis (lysosomal destabilization, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione assays) in oyster tissue along with chemical analysis (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) of PFOS in oyster tissue and water samples revealed the oysters' ability to overcome exposures without significant damage to lipid membranes or the glutathione phase II enzyme system; however, significant cellular lysosomal damage was observed. The oysters were able to eliminate up to 96% of PFOS at 0.3 mg/L and 3 mg/L exposures when allowed to depurate for 2 days in clean seawater. Chemical analysis showed the linear isomer to be the prevailing fraction of the residual PFOS contained in oyster tissue. Results provide insight into possible detrimental cellular effects of PFOS exposure in addition to offering insight into contaminant persistence in oyster tissue.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Crassostrea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Crassostrea/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Humanos , Isomerismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Teóricos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Água do Mar/química , South Carolina , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 228: 105645, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010639

RESUMO

The toxicity of heavy metals commonly impacts the survival of crustacean and bivalve larvae in hatchery culture, and this has led to the widespread use of EDTA to decrease this toxicity. Since EDTA has a very poor biodegradability leading to potential persistent environmental effects, alternative methods to prevent heavy metal toxicity to shellfish larvae are needed. EDDS is a biodegradable potential alternative to EDTA for this application and was tested as a treatment of the seawater used for rearing aquaculture Greenshell™ mussel (Perna canaliculus) larval embryos in this study. Mussel embryos reared with EDTA or EDDS had significantly better survival than without. The concentrations and spatial distributions of heavy metals in D-veliger larvae as determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy (XFM) suggested that chelating agents increased the levels of calcium in larvae while they reduced the concentration of zinc. In addition, where decreased accumulation of the other heavy metals was not observed, chelating agents affected their distribution within the larvae, especially for copper and arsenic. This is the first study to test the use of EDDS for aquaculture hatchery application and shows that EDDS is an effective biodegradable alternative to EDTA that can mitigate the effects of heavy metals for shellfish larval rearing.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Quelantes/farmacologia , Perna (Organismo)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais/análise , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Perna (Organismo)/efeitos dos fármacos , Água do Mar/química , Análise de Sobrevida , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238432, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881918

RESUMO

The carbonate system in two contrasting fjords, Rivers Inlet and Bute Inlet, on the coast of British Columbia, Canada, was evaluated to characterize the mechanisms driving carbonate chemistry dynamics and assess the impact of anthropogenic carbon. Differences in the character of deep water exchange between these fjords were inferred from their degree of exposure to continental shelf water and their salinity relationships with total alkalinity and total dissolved inorganic carbon, which determined seawater buffering capacity. Seawater buffering capacity differed between fjords and resulted in distinct carbonate system characteristics with implications on calcium carbonate saturation states and sensitivity to increasing anthropogenic carbon inputs. Saturation states of both aragonite and calcite mineral phases of calcium carbonate were seasonally at or below saturation throughout the entire water column in Bute Inlet, while only aragonite was seasonally under-saturated in portions of the water column in Rivers Inlet. The mean annual saturation states of aragonite in Rivers Inlet and calcite in Bute Inlet deep water layers have declined to below saturation within the last several decades due to anthropogenic carbon accumulation, and similar declines to undersaturation are projected in their surface layers as anthropogenic carbon continues to accumulate. This study demonstrates that the degree of fjord water exposure to open shelf water influences the uptake and sensitivity to anthropogenic carbon through processes affecting seawater buffering capacity, and that reduced uptake but greater sensitivity occurs where distance to ocean source waters and freshwater dilution are greater.


Assuntos
Carbonatos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água do Mar/química , Colúmbia Britânica , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Estuários , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Salinidade , Água do Mar/análise
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111289, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949839

RESUMO

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill released 3.19 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico, making it the largest oil spill in U.S. history. Weathering and the application of dispersants can alter the solubility of compounds within crude oil, thus modifying the acute toxicity of the crude oil to aquatic life. The primary aim of our study was to determine the lasting impact of early-life stage sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus variegatus) exposure to weathered, unweathered and dispersed crude oil on prey capture, male aggression, novel object interaction and global DNA methylation. Embryos were exposed from 1 to 10 dpf to water accommodations of crude oil and were raised to adulthood in artificial seawater. Our results suggest exposure to crude oil did not result in lasting impairment of complex behavioral responses of male sheepshead minnow. Exposure to dispersed weathered oil, however, decreased border dwelling in response to a novel object (i.e. decreased anxiety). Principal component analysis revealed that exposure to weathered oil had no overarching effect, but that unweathered crude oil increased variability in exploratory behaviors but decreased variability in anxiety-associated behaviors. Further work is needed to understand the effects of oil exposure on fish behavior and the potential ecological impact of subtle behavioral changes in fishes.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixes Listrados/fisiologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Petróleo/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecologia , Golfo do México , Peixes Listrados/genética , Larva/genética , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Água do Mar/química , Tempo (Meteorologia)
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4658, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938931

RESUMO

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is an important marine osmolyte. Aphotic environments are only recently being considered as potential contributors to global DMSP production. Here, our Mariana Trench study reveals a typical seawater DMSP/dimethylsulfide (DMS) profile, with highest concentrations in the euphotic zone and decreased but consistent levels below. The genetic potential for bacterial DMSP synthesis via the dsyB gene and its transcription is greater in the deep ocean, and is highest in the sediment.s DMSP catabolic potential is present throughout the trench waters, but is less prominent below 8000 m, perhaps indicating a preference to store DMSP in the deep for stress protection. Deep ocean bacterial isolates show enhanced DMSP production under increased hydrostatic pressure. Furthermore, bacterial dsyB mutants are less tolerant of deep ocean pressures than wild-type strains. Thus, we propose a physiological function for DMSP in hydrostatic pressure protection, and that bacteria are key DMSP producers in deep seawater and sediment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Compostos de Sulfônio/metabolismo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Clorofila A/análise , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Genes Bacterianos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Pressão Hidrostática , Marinobacter/genética , Marinobacter/isolamento & purificação , Marinobacter/metabolismo , Metagenoma , Mutação , Oceanos e Mares , Prochlorococcus/genética , Prochlorococcus/isolamento & purificação , Prochlorococcus/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Sulfetos/análise , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Compostos de Sulfônio/análise , Synechococcus/genética , Synechococcus/isolamento & purificação , Synechococcus/metabolismo
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110963, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800234

RESUMO

Harmful Phaeocystis blooms disrupt seawater recreation and pose serious challenges to aquatic animals. The growth performance, phenotypic traits, and antioxidant responses of Brachionus plicatilis Müller to different proportions of Phaeocystis globosa were evaluated. B. plicatilis rotifers were exposed to cultures with Chlorella sp. and P. globosa alone and in mixtures of these two algae with proportions of 25%, 50%, and 75%. The total proportions of the two algae were maintained at 100%. Results showed that P. globosa inhibited the rotifer net reproduction rate, intrinsic growth rate, and finite rate of increase (P < 0.01). It induced the formation of defense phenotypic traits in terms of the increased posterolateral spine length and the reduced body length, swimming speed, and grazing rate of B. plicatilis (P < 0.001). Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities decreased, but the reactive oxygen species levels increased as the proportions of P. globosa increased (P < 0.01). The mixture of 50% Chlorella and 50% Phaeocystis positively affected the glutathione content, glutathione peroxidase activity, and generation time of rotifers (P < 0.01). Although P. globosa released toxicants with harmful effects on the growth performance of B. plicatilis, rotifers changed their antioxidant defense system and formed defense phenotypic traits in response to eutrophic conditions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Haptófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Rotíferos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Chlorella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glutationa/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rotíferos/metabolismo , Rotíferos/fisiologia , Água do Mar/química , Natação
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236579, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735596

RESUMO

The pollution of the natural environment, especially the world's oceans, with conventional plastic is of major concern. Biodegradable plastics are an emerging market bringing along potential chances and risks. The fate of these materials in the environment and their possible effects on organisms and ecosystems has rarely been studied systematically and is not well understood. For the marine environment, reliable field test methods and standards for assessing and certifying biodegradation to bridge laboratory respirometric data are lacking. In this work we present newly developed field tests to assess the performance of (biodegradable) plastics under natural marine conditions. These methods were successfully applied and validated in three coastal habitats (eulittoral, benthic and pelagic) and two climate zones (Mediterranean Sea and tropical Southeast Asia). Additionally, a stand-alone mesocosm test system which integrated all three habitats in one technical system at 400-L scale independent from running seawater is presented as a methodological bridge. Films of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer (PHA) and low density polyethylene (LD-PE) were used to validate the tests. While LD-PE remained intact, PHA disintegrated to a varying degree depending on the habitat and the climate zone. Together with the existing laboratory standard test methods, the field and mesocosm test systems presented in this work provide a 3-tier testing scheme for the reliable assessment of the biodegradation of (biodegradable) plastic in the marine environment. This toolset of tests can be adapted to other aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ambiente Controlado , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cadeia Alimentar , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Plásticos/química , Plásticos/isolamento & purificação , Água do Mar/química , Temperatura
9.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105582, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823071

RESUMO

While it is likely that ENPs may occur together with other contaminants in nature, the combined effects of exposure to both ENPs and environmental contaminants are not studied sufficiently. In this study, we investigated the acute and sublethal toxicity of PVP coated silver nanoparticles (AgNP) and ionic silver (Ag+; administered as AgNO3) to the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus. We further studied effects of single exposures to AgNPs (nominal concentrations: low 15 µg L-1 NPL, high 150 µg L-1 NPH) or Ag+ (60 µg L-1), and effects of co-exposure to AgNPs, Ag+ and the water-soluble fraction (WSF; 100 µg L-1) of a crude oil (AgNP + WSF; Ag++WSF). The gene expression and the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes SOD, CAT and GST, as well as the gene expression of HSP90 and CYP330A1 were determined as sublethal endpoints. Results show that Ag+ was more acutely toxic compared to AgNPs, with 96 h LC50 concentrations of 403 µg L-1 for AgNPs, and 147 µg L-1 for Ag+. Organismal uptake of Ag following exposure was similar for AgNP and Ag+, and was not significantly different when co-exposed to WSF. Exposure to AgNPs alone caused increases in gene expressions of GST and SOD, whereas WSF exposure caused an induction in SOD. Responses in enzyme activities were generally low, with significant effects observed only on SOD activity in NPL and WSF exposures and on GST activity in NPL and NPH exposures. Combined AgNP and WSF exposures caused slightly altered responses in expression of SOD, GST and CYP330A1 genes compared to the single exposures of either AgNPs or WSF. However, there was no clear pattern of cumulative effects caused by co-exposures of AgNPs and WSF. The present study indicates that the exposure to AgNPs, Ag+, and to a lesser degree WSF cause an oxidative stress response in C. finmarchicus, which was slightly, but mostly not significantly altered in combined exposures. This indicated that the combined effects between Ag and WSF are relatively limited, at least with regard to oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Petróleo/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Copépodes/genética , Copépodes/metabolismo , Interações Medicamentosas , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Íons , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Água do Mar/química , Prata/química , Solubilidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
10.
Nature ; 584(7821): 393-397, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814886

RESUMO

The rate of global-mean sea-level rise since 1900 has varied over time, but the contributing factors are still poorly understood1. Previous assessments found that the summed contributions of ice-mass loss, terrestrial water storage and thermal expansion of the ocean could not be reconciled with observed changes in global-mean sea level, implying that changes in sea level or some contributions to those changes were poorly constrained2,3. Recent improvements to observational data, our understanding of the main contributing processes to sea-level change and methods for estimating the individual contributions, mean another attempt at reconciliation is warranted. Here we present a probabilistic framework to reconstruct sea level since 1900 using independent observations and their inherent uncertainties. The sum of the contributions to sea-level change from thermal expansion of the ocean, ice-mass loss and changes in terrestrial water storage is consistent with the trends and multidecadal variability in observed sea level on both global and basin scales, which we reconstruct from tide-gauge records. Ice-mass loss-predominantly from glaciers-has caused twice as much sea-level rise since 1900 as has thermal expansion. Mass loss from glaciers and the Greenland Ice Sheet explains the high rates of global sea-level rise during the 1940s, while a sharp increase in water impoundment by artificial reservoirs is the main cause of the lower-than-average rates during the 1970s. The acceleration in sea-level rise since the 1970s is caused by the combination of thermal expansion of the ocean and increased ice-mass loss from Greenland. Our results reconcile the magnitude of observed global-mean sea-level rise since 1900 with estimates based on the underlying processes, implying that no additional processes are required to explain the observed changes in sea level since 1900.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Camada de Gelo/química , Água do Mar/análise , Água do Mar/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Groenlândia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Probabilidade , Incerteza
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111103, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818878

RESUMO

Oil pollution is a serious international concern due to its harmful effect on human health and the environment. This study aims to investigate the effective factors on the biodegradation of Iranian heavy crude oil by Bacillus licheniformis. For this purpose, oil removal from the artificial seawater was studied by response surface methodology (RSM). After the screening experiments, pH (4-10), NaCl concentration (0-10 g/L), and oil concentration (500-4500 ppm) were selected as influential factors. Moreover, to evaluate the bacterial capability in bioremediation of an actual polluted site, crude oil spill with a salinity of 35 g/L was experimentally simulated. The proposed model in this study clearly shows that both selected individual factors and their interactions are significantly effective on the crude oil biodegradation capacity. The results showed that Bacillus licheniformis was able to degrade crude oil at different concentrations of oil, especially at low concentrations, which are challenging in actual polluted sites. 15%-66% removal was achieved for 500-4500 ppm of crude oil after 14 days. Furthermore, according to the obtained results, this bacterium can tolerate the salinity up to 3.5%. At this salinity level, crude oil removal was 23.43 and 25.64% in neutral and alkaline conditions, respectively. Process factors were optimized, and 54.8% of crude oil was removed at optimum conditions i.e., 3500 ppm crude oil concentration, 2.5 g/L of NaCl and pH equal to 8.5. Finally, it can be concluded that the selected bacterium of this study can be more effective in harsh environments such as hypersaline and alkaline conditions.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis/metabolismo , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Petróleo/análise , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Irã (Geográfico) , Modelos Teóricos , Petróleo/metabolismo , Salinidade , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235465, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790686

RESUMO

As carbon dioxide (CO2) levels increase, coral reefs and other marine systems will be affected by the joint stressors of ocean acidification (OA) and warming. The effects of these two stressors on coral physiology are relatively well studied, but their impact on biotic interactions between corals are poorly understood. While coral-coral interactions are less common on modern reefs, it is important to document the nature of these interactions to better inform restoration strategies in the face of climate change. Using a mesocosm study, we evaluated whether the combined effects of ocean acidification and warming alter the competitive interactions between the common coral Porites astreoides and two other mounding corals (Montastraea cavernosa or Orbicella faveolata) common in the Caribbean. After 7 days of direct contact, P. astreoides suppressed the photosynthetic potential of M. cavernosa by 100% in areas of contact under both present (~28.5°C and ~400 µatm pCO2) and predicted future (~30.0°C and ~1000 µatm pCO2) conditions. In contrast, under present conditions M. cavernosa reduced the photosynthetic potential of P. astreoides by only 38% in areas of contact, while under future conditions reduction was 100%. A similar pattern occurred between P. astreoides and O. faveolata at day 7 post contact, but by day 14, each coral had reduced the photosynthetic potential of the other by 100% at the point of contact, and O. faveolata was generating larger lesions on P. astreoides than the reverse. In the absence of competition, OA and warming did not affect the photosynthetic potential of any coral. These results suggest that OA and warming can alter the severity of initial coral-coral interactions, with potential cascading effects due to corals serving as foundation species on coral reefs.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Animais , Antozoários/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Fotossíntese , Água do Mar/química
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(34): 20453-20461, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817473

RESUMO

Subseafloor mixing of high-temperature hot-spring fluids with cold seawater creates intermediate-temperature diffuse fluids that are replete with potential chemical energy. This energy can be harnessed by a chemosynthetic biosphere that permeates hydrothermal regions on Earth. Shifts in the abundance of redox-reactive species in diffuse fluids are often interpreted to reflect the direct influence of subseafloor microbial activity on fluid geochemical budgets. Here, we examine hydrothermal fluids venting at 44 to 149 °C at the Piccard hydrothermal field that span the canonical 122 °C limit to life, and thus provide a rare opportunity to study the transition between habitable and uninhabitable environments. In contrast with previous studies, we show that hydrocarbons are contributed by biomass pyrolysis, while abiotic sulfate (SO4 2-) reduction produces large depletions in H2 The latter process consumes energy that could otherwise support key metabolic strategies employed by the subseafloor biosphere. Available Gibbs free energy is reduced by 71 to 86% across the habitable temperature range for both hydrogenotrophic SO4 2- reduction to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction to methane (CH4). The abiotic H2 sink we identify has implications for the productivity of subseafloor microbial ecosystems and is an important process to consider within models of H2 production and consumption in young oceanic crust.


Assuntos
Fontes Hidrotermais/química , Temperatura Alta , Hidrogênio/química , Fontes Hidrotermais/microbiologia , Oxirredução , Água do Mar/química
14.
Nature ; 584(7820): 227-233, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788734

RESUMO

Anthropogenic global surface warming is proportional to cumulative carbon emissions1-3; this relationship is partly determined by the uptake and storage of heat and carbon by the ocean4. The rates and patterns of ocean heat and carbon storage are influenced by ocean transport, such as mixing and large-scale circulation5-10. However, existing climate models do not accurately capture the observed patterns of ocean warming, with a large spread in their projections of ocean circulation and ocean heat uptake8,11. Additionally, assessing the influence of ocean circulation changes (specifically, the redistribution of heat by resolved advection) on patterns of observed and simulated ocean warming remains a challenge. Here we establish a linear relationship between the heat and carbon uptake of the ocean in response to anthropogenic emissions. This relationship is determined mainly by intrinsic parameters of the Earth system-namely, the ocean carbon buffer capacity, the radiative forcing of carbon dioxide and the carbon inventory of the ocean. We use this relationship to reveal the effect of changes in ocean circulation from carbon dioxide forcing on patterns of ocean warming in both observations and global Earth system models from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). We show that historical patterns of ocean warming are shaped by ocean heat redistribution, which CMIP5 models simulate poorly. However, we find that projected patterns of heat storage are primarily dictated by the pre-industrial ocean circulation (and small changes in unresolved ocean processes)-that is, by the patterns of added heat owing to ocean uptake of excess atmospheric heat rather than ocean warming by circulation changes. Climate models show more skill in simulating ocean heat storage by the pre-industrial circulation compared to heat redistribution, indicating that warming patterns of the ocean may become more predictable as the climate warms.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Aquecimento Global , Temperatura Alta , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar/análise , Água do Mar/química , Movimentos da Água , Atmosfera/química , Atividades Humanas
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111067, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745786

RESUMO

The impacts of microplastics (MPs) and phthalates (PAEs), a class of MP-associated contaminants, on the marine environment are not thoroughly understood despite concern over their adverse effects on humans and ecosystems. Field studies linking MPs and PAEs in seawater have not yet been reported. We investigate for the first time the correlation between MPs contamination and the presence of PAEs in the surface seawater of Jiaozhou Bay (JZB), a semi-enclosed metropolitan bay in northern China heavily impacted by human activity. The abundance of MPs, dominated by polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate mostly smaller than 2 mm, ranged between 24.44 items/m3 and 180.23 items/m3, with the majority being black and transparent fibers and fragments. Concentrations of PAEs varied from 129.96 ng/L to 921.22 ng/L. Relatively higher abundances of MPs and higher concentrations of PAEs were generally found in areas near riverine inputs and sewage treatment plants. There was a strong correlation between PAEs concentration and MPs abundance, suggesting that they are closely linked. In a risk assessment combining PAEs and MPs, the risk quotients (RQs) indicated that the ecological risk of di-n-butyl phthalate in JZB was relatively high (0.046

Assuntos
Baías/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Microplásticos/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Dibutilftalato/análise , Ecossistema , Humanos , Polietileno/análise
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 110952, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801032

RESUMO

Emerging contaminants such as synthetic musks and UV-filters as ingredients personal care products were widely used in human daily life in Thailand. The occurrence and fate of four synthetic musks and nine UV-filters were investigated in eight full-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs) and their receiving aquatic environments in Bangkok and Pattaya, Thailand. All target compounds were detected in every single sample from STPs and surface water with magnitude from ng/L to µg/L. HHCB-lactone and HMS were found as the predominant musk and UV filter in influent and effluent of STPs, respectively. HHCB-lactone was also found with the highest concentration up to 79501 ng/g (dw) in the sludge. Low removal efficiency range from -37% (HHCB-lactone) to 58% (AHTN) were found for four musks in the STPs. The total emission of Σ4musks and Σ9UV-filters were estimated to be up to 16.7 mg/person/day and 0.28 mg/person/day by the STPs. Three synthetic musks and seven UV-filters were detected in fish from the receiving river. Concentration and emission of musks and UV filters found in this study from Thailand were much higher than those reported in many other countries worldwide. The preliminary ecological risk assessment showed that Musk xylene, 4-MBC and OC may pose high risk to aquatic organisms in the riverine and estuarine environment in Thailand.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios/química , Água do Mar/química , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cidades , Tailândia
17.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127755, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721696

RESUMO

Deep cement mixing (DCM) method is a widely used geotechnical technique for increasing ground stabilization before construction works. However, the environmental influence of stabilized ground on the surrounding area remains a concern. A physical model experiment of DCM-treated sediment column was conducted to investigate both geotechnical and environmental effects on the surrounding sediment. The DCM column contained the cement-stabilized contaminated sediment and surrounded by uncontaminated sediment. The physical behaviour, including settlement, pore water pressure, and total pressure were measured under different loadings. Simultaneously, the migration of the major ions into seawater, and leaching of potentially toxic elements into the surrounding sediment were evaluated. The results revealed that the leaching of major ions from the DCM column followed the dissipation of excess pore water and migrated to the seawater above the sediment surface. Nevertheless, the leaching behaviour of potentially toxic elements into the surrounding sediment and variation of pH value after the DCM treatment were within an acceptable level. Therefore, the contaminated marine sediment could be effectively stabilized and solidified by in-situ remediation with minimal secondary pollution to the surrounding environment.


Assuntos
Materiais de Construção , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/prevenção & controle , Hong Kong , Água do Mar/química
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1931): 20200970, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673558

RESUMO

Ocean warming impacts the fitness of marine ectothermic species, leading to poleward range shifts, re-shuffling of communities, and changes in ecosystem services. While the detrimental effects of summer heat waves have been widely studied, little is known about the impacts of winter warming on marine species in temperate regions. Many species benefit from low winter temperature-induced reductions in metabolism, as these permit conservation of energy reserves that are needed to support reproduction in spring. Here, we used a unique outdoor mesocosm system to expose a coastal predator-prey system, the sea star Asterias and the blue mussel Mytilus, to different winter warming scenarios under near-natural conditions. We found that the body condition of mussels decreased in a linear fashion with increasing temperature. Sea star growth also decreased with increasing temperature, which was a function of unaltered predation rates and decreased mussel body condition. Asterias relative digestive gland mass strongly declined over the studied temperature interval (ca twofold). This could have severe implications for reproductive capacity in the following spring, as digestive glands provide reserve compounds to maturing gonads. Thus, both predator and prey suffered from a mismatch of energy acquisition versus consumption in warmer winter scenarios, with pronounced consequences for food web energy transfer in future oceans.


Assuntos
Bivalves/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Água do Mar/química , Estrelas-do-Mar/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Oceanos e Mares , Estações do Ano , Inanição , Temperatura
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235473, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634146

RESUMO

Diatoms play a key role in the marine carbon cycle with their high primary productivity and release of exudates such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP). These exudates contribute to aggregates (marine snow) that rapidly transport organic material to the seafloor, potentially capturing contaminants like petroleum components. Ocean acidification (OA) impacts marine organisms, especially those that utilize inorganic carbon for photosynthesis and EPS production. Here we investigated the response of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana grown to present day and future ocean conditions in the presence of a water accommodated fraction (WAF and OAWAF) of oil and a diluted chemically enhanced WAF (DCEWAF and OADCEWAF). T. pseudonana responded to WAF/DCEWAF but not OA and no multiplicative effect of the two factors (i.e., OA and oil/dispersant) was observed. T. pseudonana released more colloidal EPS (< 0.7 µm to > 3 kDa) in the presence of WAF/DCEWAF/OAWAF/OADCEWAF than in the corresponding Controls. Colloidal EPS and particulate EPS in the oil/dispersant treatments have higher protein-to-carbohydrate ratios than those in the control treatments, and thus are likely stickier and have a greater potential to form aggregates of marine oil snow. More TEP was produced in response to WAF than in Controls; OA did not influence its production. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations and distributions were significantly impacted by the presence of dispersants but not OA. PAHs especially Phenanthrenes, Anthracenes, Chrysenes, Fluorenes, Fluoranthenes, Pyrenes, Dibenzothiophenes and 1-Methylphenanthrene show major variations in the aggregate and surrounding seawater fraction of oil and oil plus dispersant treatments. Studies like this add to the current knowledge of the combined effects of aggregation, marine snow formation, and the potential impacts of oil spills under ocean acidification scenarios.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Petróleo/toxicidade , Tensoativos/efeitos adversos , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Água do Mar/química , Tensoativos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234075, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678823

RESUMO

Ocean acidification (OA) represents a serious challenge to marine ecosystems. Laboratory studies addressing OA indicate broadly negative effects for marine organisms, particularly those relying on calcification processes. Growing evidence also suggests OA combined with other environmental stressors may be even more deleterious. Scaling these laboratory studies to ecological performance in the field, where environmental heterogeneity may mediate responses, is a critical next step toward understanding OA impacts on natural communities. We leveraged an upwelling-driven pH mosaic along the California Current System to deconstruct the relative influences of pH, ocean temperature, and food availability on seasonal growth, condition and shell thickness of the ecologically dominant intertidal mussel Mytilus californianus. In 2011 and 2012, ecological performance of adult mussels from local and commonly sourced populations was measured at 8 rocky intertidal sites between central Oregon and southern California. Sites coincided with a large-scale network of intertidal pH sensors, allowing comparisons among pH and other environmental stressors. Adult California mussel growth and size varied latitudinally among sites and inter-annually, and mean shell thickness index and shell weight growth were reduced with low pH. Surprisingly, shell length growth and the ratio of tissue to shell weight were enhanced, not diminished as expected, by low pH. In contrast, and as expected, shell weight growth and shell thickness were both diminished by low pH, consistent with the idea that OA exposure can compromise shell-dependent defenses against predators or wave forces. We also found that adult mussel shell weight growth and relative tissue mass were negatively associated with increased pH variability. Including local pH conditions with previously documented influences of ocean temperature, food availability, aerial exposure, and origin site enhanced the explanatory power of models describing observed performance differences. Responses of local mussel populations differed from those of a common source population suggesting mussel performance partially depended on genetic or persistent phenotypic differences. In light of prior research showing deleterious effects of low pH on larval mussels, our results suggest a life history transition leading to greater resilience in at least some performance metrics to ocean acidification by adult California mussels. Our data also demonstrate "hot" (more extreme) and "cold" (less extreme) spots in both mussel responses and environmental conditions, a pattern that may enable mitigation approaches in response to future changes in climate.


Assuntos
Carbonatos/metabolismo , Mudança Climática , Mytilus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar/química , Adaptação Fisiológica , Exoesqueleto/química , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Ecossistema , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mytilus/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Tamanho do Órgão , Fitoplâncton , Temperatura , Ondas de Maré
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