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2.
Zootaxa ; 4816(3): zootaxa.4816.3.5, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055693

RESUMO

A new species of Characidium is described from headwater tributaries of the upper rio Guaporé, Rio Madeira basin, Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The new species can be diagnosed from all congeners, except Characidium summus, for lacking the preorbital and postorbital stripes. It can be diagnosed from the latter species by having 12 circumpeduncular scales (vs. 14), by an adipose fin present (vs. adipose fin absent), and 10-12 bars along the body (vs. absence of bars), among other characters. The new species is so far only known from direct tributaries of the Rio Guaporé at the Serra da Borda, an isolated plateau 300-800 meters above sea level, and possess a behavior very uncommon within the genus, being a mid-water pelagic fish, instead of the benthic behavior of most congeners. Comments on the putative phylogenetic relationships of the new species, as well as some remarks on its unusual behavior within the genus, are presented.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Filogenia , Água
3.
Zootaxa ; 4860(3): zootaxa.4860.3.9, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055893

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Utaxatax (s.s.), U. stolbovi n. sp., is described from theAksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve in the Republic of Kazakhstan. It is most similar to the Himalayan U. brahmeri Panesar, 2004. Similarities and morphological differences are discussed.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Cazaquistão , Água
4.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(7): 1296-1303, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079710

RESUMO

Melamine foam is an important material in production and life. A series of porous carbon foams were obtained through a simple carbonization process of melamine foam at different temperatures. The carbon foams obtained at the carbonization temperature of 400 and 600 °C reveal a hydrophobic and even super-hydrophobic property (water contact angle larger than 150°) with a hexane adsorption much larger than that of melamine foam. However, the carbon foam obtained at the carbonization temperature of 800 °C reveals a super-hydrophilic property (water contact angle smaller than 5°) due to its severest shrinkage during the carbonization process. Interestingly, this series of carbon foams have an excellent performance in oil adsorption. However, the carbon membranes derived from the 800 °C carbon foam reveals oleophobicity under water (the adsorbed water at the surface was extremely important), which allows the penetration of water and blocks the infiltration of hexane at the same time. These different carbon forms have reversed applications in hexane/water separation.


Assuntos
Hexanos , Água , Adsorção , Carbono , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
5.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(7): 1312-1326, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079712

RESUMO

The Municipality of Asker (Norway) is at risk of not meeting the water quality targets set by the European Union Water Framework Directive within the stipulated timeframe. While there are multiple factors negatively impacting water quality in the municipality, wastewater is likely to be a major contributor. Infiltration and inflow water (I/I-water) leads to a number of unwanted consequences, of which direct discharge of untreated wastewater through overflow points is particularly important. In Aker municipality the portion of I/I-water is about 63%, while the goal is to achieve a level of about 30%. This study utilises a socio-economic cost-effectiveness analysis of measures to prevent sewer overflows into waterbodies. The most effective alternative identified in the analysis is a complete renovation of old pipes in combination with troubleshooting for faulty stormwater connections, when compared to alternatives considering upsizing/retention. I/I-water cost the municipality of Asker NOK34 million in 2017, when using a price of NOK16,434 for each kg of total phosphorus (Tot-P) let into the recipient water bodies. If the phosphorus cost is equal to or less than NOK17,806/kg Tot-P, then it will not be socio-economically justified to reduce I/I-water.


Assuntos
Movimentos da Água , Água , Cidades , Análise Custo-Benefício , Noruega
6.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(7): 1370-1379, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079716

RESUMO

While extensive work has been done on the generation of adsorbents by carbonization of large polymeric structures, few works are currently available for the use of monomeric carbon molecules as precursors during carbonization. In this work we report the formation of a carbon adsorbent material from the carbonization of glucose in the presence of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle templates. Carbonization at 1,000 °C under inert atmosphere yields a product with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 1,228.19 m2/g and 14.77 nm average pore diameter. Adsorption capacities against methylene blue, 2-naphthol and bisphenol-A at pH 7 were found to be 539 mg/g, 737 mg/g and 563 mg/g, respectively. Our material demonstrates a strong fit with the Langmuir isotherm, and adsorption kinetics show regression values near unity for the pseudo-second order kinetic model. A flow adsorption column was implemented for the remediation of tap water containing 20 mg/L methylene blue and found to quantitatively purify 11.5 L of contaminated water.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Nanopartículas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Glucose , Água
7.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(7): 1445-1453, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079722

RESUMO

Steroidal hormones such as estriol (E3), are resistant to biodegradation; hence their removal by conventional treatment systems (aerobic and anaerobic) facilities is limited. These substances are detected in surface water, and present risks to the aquatic ecosystem and humans via potential biological activity. Photochemical treatments can be used to remove E3; however, just a few studies have analyzed the kinetics, intermediates, and E3 degradation pathways in natural surface water. In this study, the behavior of E3 under ultraviolet irradiation associated with H2O2, O3 or TiO2 was investigated to determine the degradation potential and the transformation pathways in reactions performed with a natural surface water sample. E3 degradation kinetics (200 ppb) fitted well to the pseudo-first-order kinetics model, with kinetic constant k in the following order: kUV/O3 > kUV/TiO2 > kUV/H2O2 > kUV. The mechanism of degradation using different advanced oxidative processes seemed to be similar and 12 transformation byproducts were identified, with 11 of them being reported here for the first time. The byproducts could be formed by the opening of the aromatic ring and addition of a hydroxyl radical. A possible route of E3 degradation was proposed based on the byproducts identified, and some of the byproducts presented chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms, demonstrating the risks of exposure.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Água , Ecossistema , Estriol , Processos Fotoquímicos
8.
Water Res ; 185: 116279, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086461

RESUMO

Hospital wastewater contains several micro and macro pollutants that cannot be removed efficiently by conventional treatment processes. Thus, generally hybrid and multistage treatment methods are suggested for the treatment of hospital wastewater. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a promising method for the removal of emerging organic pollutants from hospital wastewater in one step and a very short reaction time. In this study, supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process was used for the removal of pharmaceuticals in addition to conventional pollutants from real hospital wastewater. As a result of a series of preliminary studies, the optimum conditions were selected as 450 °C, 60 s, and 1:1 for temperature, reaction time, and oxidant ratio (H2O2/COD), respectively, for the treatment of hospital wastewater at 25 ± 1 MPa. The removal rates were determined above 90% for COD, BOD, TOC, TN, and SS from hospital wastewater. Phosphorus removal was greater than 90%, while the removal rates were around 80% for phenol, AOX, and surfactants in hospital wastewater. A total of 9 pharmaceuticals were observed in the real hospital wastewater samples. The highest removal rate was obtained for Paracetamol as 99.9%, while the lowest removal rate was obtained for Warfarin as 72% after SCWO treatment of hospital wastewater. As a result, it can be concluded that SCWO process is sufficient for the treatment of hospital wastewater without the need of additional treatment steps, with high removal rates in a short reaction time.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Água
9.
Zootaxa ; 4834(3): zootaxa.4834.3.4, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056115

RESUMO

A new genus and species in the caridean shrimp family Palaemonidae is described based on three type specimens collected at a depth range of 208-385 m off Guadeloupe, French Antilles. Zoukaris festivus gen. et sp. nov. shares many characters with several western Atlantic deep-water species currently assigned to Periclimenes Costa, 1844, as well as with the monotypic western Atlantic genus Diapontonia Bruce, 1986 and the Indo-West Pacific genus Echinopericlimenes Marin Chan, 2014. Zoukaris gen. nov. can be separated from all of them by a unique combination of morphological features, especially the configuration of the dactylus of the ambulatory pereiopods. In addition, Periclimenes milleri Bruce, 1986 is recorded from the French Antilles based on a single specimen, also from Guadeloupe; its colour pattern is illustrated for the first time.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Palaemonidae , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Água
10.
Zootaxa ; 4858(1): zootaxa.4858.1.2, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056240

RESUMO

Three new species of the very rarely collected water beetle genus Adelphydraena Perkins, 1989 are described from Brazil, Guyana, and Suriname. Illustrations of the male genitalia of the two previously known species in the genus, A. orchymonti Perkins and A. spangleri Perkins from Venezuela, are presented for the first time. High resolution digital images of the habitus of all species are given, and geographical distributions mapped. New species described are Adelphydraena amazonica n. sp. (Brazil), A. spinosa n. sp. (Guyana), and A. surinamensis n. sp. (Suriname). Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data is given for three of the five species currently known (A. orchymonti, A. spangleri, and A. amazonica). The monophyly of the genus Adelphydraena was strongly supported, but relationships between the sequenced species remain uncertain.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Masculino , Água
11.
Zootaxa ; 4786(1): zootaxa.4786.1.9, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056501

RESUMO

Suphisellus grossoi sp. n. is described from the Reserva Natural del Bosque de Mbaracayú, Canindeyú department, Paraguay. Diagnostic characters are described and illustrated in detail. New records are provided for S. flavolineatus (Régimbart, 1889) and S. grammicus (Sharp, 1882), which are also briefly diagnosed. Suphisellus melzeri Zimmermann, 1925 is proposed as a junior subjective synonym of S. flavolineatus (syn. n.), and lectotypes are designated for both taxa.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , América do Sul , Água
12.
Zootaxa ; 4759(1): zootaxa.4759.1.10, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056938

RESUMO

The water scavenger beetle genus Protistolophus Short contains a single species, P. spangleri Short, 2010, known from southern Venezuela. The genus was hitherto known only from a single partly-incomplete male specimen, making it one of the rarest and most poorly known aquatic hydrophilid genera in the world. Only one other New World aquatic hydrophilid genus, the Ecuadorian cave endemic Troglochares Spangler, is known from a single specimen or locality. In a phylogenetic analysis of the Hydrophilini based on adult morphology, the genus Protistolophus was resolved as the sister taxon to the remaining genera of the tribe, implying it is an ancient and possibly relict lineage-it possesses a very unusual combination of characters, including a very weakly developed mesoventral keel. It was the only genus not included in a recent molecular phylogeny of the Hydrophilini as no suitable material was available for DNA (Toussaint et al. 2017).


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Ecossistema , Masculino , Filogenia , Água
13.
Zootaxa ; 4845(3): zootaxa.4845.3.5, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056765

RESUMO

Two new deep-water species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus Fabricius, 1798 are described based on the material collected by the expeditions BIOPAPUA, BOA1 and MIRIKY, organised by the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris. Alpheus alaincrosnieri n. sp. from the A. brevirostris (Olivier, 1811) group is described based on material dredged at depths of 198-408 m near the coasts of Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and Madagascar. This species also occurs in the Philippines, based on morphological characters of a mutilated specimen from Masbate reported by Chace (1988). Alpheus alaincrosnieri n. sp. is unique within the A. brevirostris group, in having small orbital teeth. In most other features, A. alaincrosnieri n. sp. is morphologically closest to A. kagoshimanus Hayashi Nagata, 2000, A. longipalma Komai Ohtomi, 2018, A. macroskeles Alcock Anderson, 1894, A. nonalter Kensley, 1969 and A. acutocarinatus De Man, 1909. Alpheus vanuatu n. sp. is described based on several specimens dredged at depths of 231-331 m off Espirito Santo, Vanuatu. This species most likely represents a deep-water member of the newly defined A. paracrinitus species group, sharing most morphological characters with A. tenuipes De Man, 1910 and A. labis Banner Banner, 1982.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Água
14.
Zootaxa ; 4845(1): zootaxa.4845.1.5, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056786

RESUMO

A new species of the deep-water king-crab genus Neolithodes A. Milne-Edwards Bouvier, 1894 (Anomura: Lithodidae) is described herein from the southeastern Arabian Sea (1064-1338 m depth). Neolithodes indicus sp. nov. shows morphological proximity with three congeneric species, N. brodiei Dawson Yaldwyn, 1970, N. flindersi Ahyong, 2010a and N. nipponensis Sakai, 1971 in bearing less numerous secondary spines on the carapace, the dactylus of the chelipeds with a convex dorsal margin and dorsoventrally compressed meri of the pereopods 2-4. The new species can be easily distinguished from these congeners in possessing the less densely spinulose carapace and appendages, short rostrum, simple antennal scaphocerite, the absence of large spines on the flexor margins of the pereopods 2-3 meri, and a stouter pereopod 4 propodus.


Assuntos
Anomuros , Braquiúros , Animais , Água
15.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3969-3972, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018869

RESUMO

The assessment of lower limb oedema almost always involves measuring leg volume, and the gold-standard for this is the water displacement technique. As it is not very practical to use in a clinical routine, physicians prefer indirect methods such as anthropometric or bioimpedance measurements. In the case of "non-pitting" leg oedema, i.e. where the presence of oedema is not obvious, it may be challenging to estimate changes in leg volume using these methods separately. The combination of these two methods, however, gives interesting results, such as a new composite parameter that is much more robust and efficient than commonly used parameters.Clinical Relevance- This study demonstrates the benefit of using a composite anthropometric-impedimetric parameter to predict water displacement variations in the leg over the course of a day, rather than using parameters based solely on anthropometry or impedance. Our new parameter (C²-A²)/R0 showed a robust r² value of 61%, which is more than twice the r² values obtained using other simple or composite parameters.


Assuntos
Perna (Membro) , Água , Antropometria , Edema/diagnóstico , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Análise Espectral
16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4105-4108, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018901

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to experimentally assess the capacity of radio-frequency flexible sensors to localize a dielectric object inside a fluid, which could be used as a non contact sensor detected to the detection or the monitoring a local modification of a tissue, such as a tumor or a lesion. The used sensor is an MRI-like antenna, which consists in a flat, flexible and low cost multi-turn split resonator (MTLR), which features a geometrically pre-determined resonance frequency. The MTLR is used here as a transmit and receive sensor monitored by a distant loop coil. The complex impedance changes observed at the ends of the monitoring coil is known to be linked to the dielectric properties of the resonator environment. If a dielectric object is placed close to the resonator, the complex impedance is altered. In this work, an experimental set up is used to assess the relevance of such a measurement scheme to detect the presence of a dielectric inclusion embedded in another dielectric medium. The setup includes a spherical object of 1.5 cm diameter filled with various NaCl solutions moved vertically inside a tank filled with deionized water by means of a three axis robotic arm, to create an electrical conductivity contrast between the inclusion and the media, and three 2 cm diameter MTLR sensors featuring 30, 47 and 70 MHz resonance frequencies, respectively. The sensors are operated through the use of monitoring coils connected to a network analyzer, and measurements are carried out at each position of the spherical object. The resulting sensor responses are plotted and used for the assessment of sensor performances. In addition, a method to combine the multi-frequency data provided by the three different sensors is proposed. Two different metrics regarding the spatial resolution (SR) and the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) are computed to characterize the single sensor performances, as well as the enhancement provided by the proposed multi-frequency approach.


Assuntos
Ondas de Rádio , Água , Condutividade Elétrica , Impedância Elétrica , Razão Sinal-Ruído
17.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(5): 918-926, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031070

RESUMO

The appearance of extreme weather causes frequent airport flooding, which has a serious impact on the normal operation of an airport. In this study, three simulation scenarios are set in order to study the effect of low impact development (LID) facilities (green roof and vegetative swale) on the water depth of overflow junctions and total inflow to the study area outlet in an airport at different rainfall return periods (2 a, 5 a, 20 a and 50 a). Vegetative swale has better reduction effect on water depth of overflow junctions than has green roof. The reduction rate of vegetative swale is about 25-52% at different rainfall return periods, but the effect of green roof is not obvious. For the double peak rainstorm, the reduction effect on the water depth of overflow junctions after setting vegetative swale for the first rain peak is better than that for the second rain peak. Under the condition of 2 a, 5 a, and 20 a, the total inflow reduction rates of study area outlet after applied green roof and vegetative swale are 16.85%, 20% and 22.17% respectively, and the effect is poor (only 2.26%) at low-frequency return period (50 a). This study can provide theoretical guidance for the design of LID facilities of a sponge airport.


Assuntos
Aeroportos , Chuva , Inundações , Água , Movimentos da Água
18.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4353-4356, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018959

RESUMO

Skin hydration is crucial for overall skin health. Maintaining skin hydration levels preserves skin integrity and prevents tissue damage which can lead to several debilitating conditions. Moreover, continuous monitoring of skin hydration can contribute to the diagnosis or management of serious diseases. For instance, sugar imbalance in diabetes mellitus and kidney disease can lead to the loss of bodily fluids and cause dry skin. Therefore, continuous, accurate and non-intrusive monitoring of skin hydration would present a remarkable opportunity for maintaining overall health and wellbeing. There are various techniques to assess skin hydration. Electrical based Corneometers are currently the gold standard in clinical and non-clinical practice. However, these techniques have a number of limitations. In particular, they are costly, sizeable, intrusive, and operator dependent. Recent research has demonstrated that near infrared spectroscopy could be used as a non-intrusive alternative for the measurement of skin water content. The present paper reports the development and in-vitro validation of a noninvasive, portable, skin hydration sensor. The results indicate that the developed sensor can deliver reliable measurements of skin water content.


Assuntos
Pele , Água , Água Corporal , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
19.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4381-4384, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018966

RESUMO

Increased concentrations of lactate levels in blood are often seen in patients with life-threatening cellular hypoperfusion or infections. State-of-the-art techniques used in clinical practice for measuring serum lactate concentrations rely on intermittent blood sampling and do not permit continuous monitoring of this all important parameter in critical care environments.In recent years, Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy has been established as a possible alternative to existing methods that can mitigate these constraints and be used for non-invasive continuous monitoring of lactate. Nevertheless, the dominant absorption of -OH overtone bands of water in the NIR presents a challenge and complicates the accurate detection of other absorbers such as lactate. For this reason, comprehensive analysis of the -OH overtone bands with systematic lactate concentration changes is essential. This paper reports on the analysis of NIR spectra of two aqueous systems of varying concentrations of lactate in saline and whole blood using the principles of Aquaphotomics.The results show distinctive conformational and structural differences in lactate-water binding, which arise due to the molecular interactions of bonds present in respective solvents.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação , Ácido Láctico , Humanos , Solução Salina , Solventes , Água
20.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5276-5279, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019174

RESUMO

This paper proposes a novel identity validation method using ECG signal measured during bathing at 5 different bathtub water temperature ranges, that are 37 ±0.5 °C, 38±0.5 °C, 39±0.5 °C, 40±0.5 °C and 41±0.5 °C, respectively. The experiment includes 5 male and 5 female subjects, each subject collects 2 ECG recordings at each bathtub water temperature range, one day one recording, 10 ECG recordings are collected from each subject, each ECG recording is 18 minutes long, the sampling rate is 200 Hz. During the data processing stage, we perform spectrum analysis, baseline wandering removal, 50 Hz electromagnetic interference removal, signal smoothing, R peaks detection, and QRS complex segmentation. During the classification stage, we perform identity validation using long short-term memory (LSTM) classification network. 5 classification models are trained based on different bathtub water temperature ranges and the cross-validation method is used. Preliminary validation results show that different bathtub water temperature has an important impact on the identity validation. In order to precisely and quickly perform identity validation at different bathtub water temperature ranges, the final classification model is trained based on the samples from 5 different bathtub water temperature ranges. The highest and average identity validation accuracies are 98.43% and 97.68%, respectively.


Assuntos
Utensílios Domésticos , Água , Banhos , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Masculino , Temperatura
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