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1.
Urology ; 136: 263-265, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To find a method of safely inserting a suprapubic catheter (SPC) under local anesthetic and under ultrasound guidance in patients who may not be fit for a general anesthetic but also are seen to have bowel overlying the anterior bladder wall which obscures a safe route to the bladder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used ultrasonography to visualize the bladder which was initially filled via the indwelling urethral catheter. A 22-gauge needle attached to a syringe filled with 30 mL of fluid (made up of 10 mL of 1% lidocaine plus 20 mL sterile water) was inserted transabdominally under ultrasound guidance into a space between the pubic symphysis and bowel. The fluid was then injected into the space to hydrodissect the bowel away from the bladder. Once the space had been created, an 18-guage needle was passed into the bladder and a SPC was inserted via the Seldinger technique. RESULTS: Successful SPC insertion was confirmed on ultrasound guidance with no associated bowel or other injury. Telephone follow-up with the patient 6 months later revealed that the patient had no complications and no infections. CONCLUSION: Hydrodissection can be considered when inserting SPC under local anesthetic under ultrasound guidance when there is bowel obscuring any safe route to the bladder. This may be particularly useful in patients who may not be fit for a general an aesthetic.


Assuntos
Cateteres de Demora , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Cateterismo Urinário/métodos , Idoso , Dissecação/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Água/administração & dosagem
2.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(12): 3497-3512, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273401

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Analysis of lick pattern for sucrose and NaCl and of the forced swimming response after dopamine antagonist administration led us to suggest that dopamine on D1-like receptors is involved in behavioural activation, and the level of activation is "reboosted" on the basis of an evaluation process involving D2-like receptors. Although some studies investigated licking microstructure for water after dopamine antagonists, the within-session time course of their effect was never investigated. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to further investigate the role of dopamine receptors in the mechanisms governing water ingestion, focussing on the within-session time course of the microstructure parameters, and to test the proposed hypothesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (0.01-0.04 mg/kg) and of the dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist raclopride (0.025-0.25 mg/kg) on licking microstructure for water were examined in 20-h water-deprived rats in 30-min sessions. RESULTS: As previously observed with sucrose and NaCl, SCH 23390 reduced licking by reducing burst number, suggesting reduced behavioural activation. Moreover, it resulted in an increased burst size. Raclopride reduced the size of licking bursts, while their number was either increased or decreased depending on the dose. CONCLUSION: The results support the suggestion that D1 receptors are involved in behavioural activation and D2 receptors are involved in a related evaluation process. Within the framework of the proposed hypothesis, the increased burst size after D1-like receptor blockade might be interpreted as a pro-hedonic effect consequent to the increased cost of the activation of the licking response.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/fisiologia , Receptores de Dopamina D1/fisiologia , Receptores de Dopamina D2/fisiologia , Privação de Água/fisiologia , Água/administração & dosagem , Animais , Benzazepinas/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Dopamina D2/farmacologia , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Masculino , Racloprida/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Dopamina D1/antagonistas & inibidores
3.
Int J Pharm ; 568: 118498, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301465

RESUMO

Water solubility has been identified as a critical parameter and the main responsible by affecting poor performance of oral drug delivery. Poorly soluble drugs can originate unsatisfactory ADME properties leading to low oral bioavailability, insufficient chemical stability, low half-life, fast pre-systemic metabolism and difficulties in formulation. In this context, the prodrug design is an alternative in order to improve physicochemical, biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic properties such as permeability, solubility, bioavailability, chemical stability and metabolism of molecules presenting poor drug-like properties. In this article we highlight the importance of the prodrug design in the early stages of drug discovery and development process, in an attempt to diminish the attrition rate and end up falling into the valley of death. Selected examples of this strategy are provided in this review and they are classified by some basic functional groups that are amenable to the prodrug approach with the aim of increasing aqueous solubility of poorly water-soluble compounds. Over the past decade, the number of approved prodrugs is considerable among all drugs launched in the market, emphasizing the importance of this tool on drug design. It is reported that 10% of all marketed drug worldwide can be classified as prodrugs. Furthermore, prodrugs designed to be more water soluble launched in the past decade are summarized in a table to have a closer look and finally state that the prodrug design is an amenable approach to increase water solubility.


Assuntos
Pró-Fármacos/química , Água/química , Animais , Desenho de Drogas , Humanos , Pró-Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Solubilidade , Água/administração & dosagem
4.
Int J Speech Lang Pathol ; 21(3): 286-294, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213158

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify perceived enablers and barriers that may influence the implementation of water protocols (WPs) as an intervention for dysphagia in acute stroke settings. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine nurses, eight speech-language pathologists (SLPs), five doctors and four dietitians working in acute stroke units in a major city in Australia. Data were thematically analysed and themes were mapped to the Theoretical Domains Framework. Result: Ten barriers and nine enablers were identified. Key barriers were: nurses lack oral care skills and agency nurses lack stroke-specific skills; only SLPs are perceived to be involved with WPs; WP rules will not get followed and may lead to adverse patient outcomes; WPs increase nursing workload; transient workforce impacts efficiency of implementation; and established culture of using thickened fluids. Key enablers were: patients would benefit from WPs; communication and education systems are already in place; acute hospital brings unique benefits; and peer support and modelling support implementation. Conclusion: The perceptions of barriers and enablers to implementation of WPs can be used to inform future studies designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of WPs and subsequently facilitate their uptake in acute stroke as an alternate dysphagia management strategy.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Água/administração & dosagem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146326

RESUMO

Water accounts for 75% of brain mass. Associations may exist between hydration and cognitive performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dehydration and rehydration on cognitive performance and mood. In this self-control trial, 12 men were recruited from a medical college in Cangzhou, China. After 12 h of overnight fasting, the participants took baseline tests at 8:00 AM on day 2. First morning urine and blood osmolality were analyzed to determine hydration state. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured following standardized procedures. A visual analog scale for the subjective sensation of thirst was applied, and a profile of mood states questionnaire was applied. Tests were conducted for cognitive performance, including a test of digit span forward and backward, digit-symbol substitutions, dose-work, and stroop effects. Participants were required not to drink water for 36 h but were given three meals on day 3. On day 4, the same indexes were tested as a baseline test. At 8:30 AM, participants drank 1500 mL of purified water over 15 min. After a 1 h interval, the same measurements were performed. Compared with baseline test results, during the dehydration test, participants had lower scores of vigor (11.9 vs. 8.8, %, p = 0.007) and esteem-related affect (8.2 vs. 5.7, %, p = 0.006), lower total scores of digit span (14.3 vs. 13.3, %, p = 0.004), and higher error rates for dose-work (0.01 vs. 0.16, %, p = 0.005). Compared with the dehydration test scores, rehydration test scores showed that fatigue (4.3 vs. 2.1, %, p = 0.005) and total mood disturbance (TMD) (99.0 vs. 90.2, %, p = 0.008) improved, and scores of forward, backward, and total digit span increased (7.7 vs. 8.6, p = 0.014; 5.7 vs. 1.2, p = 0.019; 13.3 vs. 15.4, p = 0.001). Increases were also noted in correct number of digit symbol substitutions, reading speed, and mental work ability (70.8 vs. 75.4, p < 0.001; 339.3 vs. 486.4, n/min, p < 0.001; 356.1 vs. 450.2, p < 0.001), and reaction time decreased (30.2 vs. 28.7, s, p = 0.002). As a conclusion, dehydration had negative effects on vigor, esteem-related affect, short-term memory, and attention. Rehydration after water supplementation alleviated fatigue and improved TMD, short-term memory, attention, and reaction.


Assuntos
Afeto , Cognição , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Hidratação , Adulto , Atenção , China , Desidratação/psicologia , Jejum , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Hidratação/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Tempo de Reação , Estudantes/psicologia , Sede , Universidades , Água/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
6.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(6): 540-545, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155559

RESUMO

Fixed-dose combination (FDC) medicines containing two or more active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in a single dosage form have been reported to improve patient adherence to a greater extent than single dosages of individual components (ICs). Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are easier to swallow than conventional tablets. The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinical pharmaceutical characteristics of taking a FDC-ODT and two IC-ODTs. We prepared three ODTs containing mitiglinide, voglibose, and mitiglinide/voglibose and three corresponding placebo ODTs and performed 2 independent clinical trials with 13 healthy subjects (mean age, 23.4 ± 1.6 years). One trial evaluated the ease of taking tablets and the amount of water required for taking the tablets; placebo ODTs were used in order to avoid administering APIs. The other trial evaluated the bitterness, sweetness and overall palatability of ODTs containing APIs during disintegration and after spitting out. Ease and taste were evaluated using both a visual analog scale (VAS) and a verbal rating scale (VRS). The results of the VAS and VRS evaluation indicated that FDC-ODT could ease tablet intake unlike IC-ODTs. In addition, FDC-ODT reduced the amount of water required for tablet intake in contrast to IC-ODTs. Taste evaluation results did not reveal any difference between FDC-ODT and IC-ODTs, except for the sweetness score after spitting out. In conclusion, FDC-ODT is easy to take and can help improve patient adherence.


Assuntos
Inositol/análogos & derivados , Isoindóis/química , Comprimidos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Inositol/química , Masculino , Efeito Placebo , Solubilidade , Paladar/fisiologia , Água/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 172, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant and lactating women are at high risk of insufficient water intake. The cross-sectional study was mainly designed to evaluate the water intake, including total water intake (TWI), plain water intake, and water intake from beverages and foods of 200 pregnant women and 150 breastfeeding women in Beijing. METHODS: A semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was employed to assess their dietary intake, TWI, plain water, and water intake from beverages and foods. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted for evaluating the association between water intake and dietary variables. RESULTS: On average, the TWI of pregnant and breastfeeding women was 2638 mL/day and 3218 mL/day, respectively. Only 28% of pregnant women and 27% of breastfeeding women were complied with the adequate intake (AI). Water from foods was the greatest contributor to TWI both in pregnant and breastfeeding women. TWI was positively related to some dietary variables (P < 0.001). For pregnant women, with each 100 kcal/day increase in energy intake, the TWI increased by 67 mL. With each 5 g increase in daily intake of dietary protein, fat, carbohydrate and fiber, TWI increased by 72 mL, 66 mL, 22 mL, 353 mL, respectively. When the energy contribution of protein increased by 5%, TWI increased by 210 mL. The each 100 mg increase in daily sodium intake was accompanied with 52 mL increase in TWI. For breastfeeding women, with each 100 kcal/day increase in energy intake, the TWI increased by 54 mL. With each 5 g increase in daily intake of dietary protein, fat, carbohydrate and fiber, TWI increased by 53 mL, 58 mL, 16 mL, 212 mL, respectively. The each 100 mg increase in daily sodium intake was accompanied with 54 mL increase in TWI. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnant and breastfeeding women in Beijing were not adherent to AI for TWI set by Chinese Nutrition Society. Water intake from foods was the greatest contributor to TWI both in pregnant and breastfeeding women, and maternal dietary intake posed impacts on water intake during pregnancy and lactation. More researches are required to assess the water intake and hydration status of the populations.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Alimentos , Água/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Pequim , Bebidas , Estudos Transversais , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Líquidos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente , Gravidez , Recomendações Nutricionais , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 181: 46-52, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028757

RESUMO

Pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptors (PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2) are localized in brain regions implicated in stress response, reward seeking and aversive responses, raising the possibility that PACAP may be involved in motivational effects of nicotine. To test this hypothesis, we used two-bottle choice (TBC) and place conditioning paradigms and assessed if nicotine preference or conditioned place preference (CPP) or aversion (CPA) induced by nicotine would be altered in mice lacking PACAP compared to their wild-type controls. In the TBC paradigm, mice had access to two water bottles during the first week and then one of the water bottles was switched to nicotine solution (20, 40 and then 80 µg/mL). The volume of water and nicotine consumed was measured every day. In the place conditioning paradigm, mice were tested for baseline place preference on day 1, received conditioning with saline versus a low (0.25) or high (1 mg/kg) dose nicotine and, respectively, tested for CPP or CPA 24 h following the last conditioning. We discovered that mice lacking PACAP compared to their wild-type controls exhibited more preference for nicotine over water in the TBC paradigm, particularly at the two higher concentrations of nicotine. While the rewarding action of the low dose nicotine was not altered in mice lacking PACAP, the aversive effect of the high dose nicotine was blunted in these mice compared to their wild-type controls. The present results suggest that endogenous PACAP may play a functional role in nicotine preference and its aversive effect.


Assuntos
Agentes Aversivos/administração & dosagem , Agentes Aversivos/farmacologia , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Nicotina/farmacologia , Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/genética , Recompensa , Análise de Variância , Animais , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Genótipo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Autoadministração , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Fumar/psicologia , Água/administração & dosagem , Água/farmacologia
9.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959872

RESUMO

Mild dehydration may occur during specific periods of the day because of poor hydration habits and/or limited access to a variety of beverages or foods, for example, in work environments. Measurement of hydration indices in spot or in 24 h urine samples may mask mild dehydration in specific periods of the day. Healthy subjects (n = 164; 74 females; age 38 ± 12 years) living in Athens, Greece were enrolled in the study. Subjects recorded their solid food and drink intakes and recorded and collected all urinations for three consecutive days. Water intake was analyzed in 24 h and 6 h periods from wake-up time and scored for variety. Urine hydration indices (osmolality, volume, color, specific gravity) were analyzed in 24 h samples, in morning urine samples and in samples collected in 6 h periods from wake-up time. Fluctuations during the day were significant for the intake of drinking water, hot beverages, milk, fruit and vegetable juices, and alcoholic drinks and for urine osmolality, volume, color, and specific gravity. The urine volume of the first 6 h period after wake-up time (557 ± 231 mL/day) reflects by 76% the 24 h urine collection (1331 ± 144 mL/day). Water intake from all beverages, with the exception of alcoholic beverages, was greater in the first 6h period (morning period) and decreased throughout the day. Hydration indices changed accordingly. The 6 h timed urine sample collected reflects indices in samples collected over 24 h better than any spot urine sample.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Desidratação/etiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Água/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Bebidas/análise , Desidratação/epidemiologia , Registros de Dieta , Grécia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Urinálise , Água/química , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215766, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013316

RESUMO

Various factors are considered to be mechanisms of the increase in the sizes of cysts in patients with polycystic kidney disease. Vasopressin is one of the causes, and drinking large volumes of water shows an effect of suppressing an increase in cysts. On the other hand, it is known that hydrogen-rich water reduces oxidative stress and has a good effect on kidney injury. We examined whether drinking large volumes of hydrogen-rich water affected the increase in the sizes of cysts. Forty 5-week-old PCK rats were randomly assigned to four groups: C(Control), purified water; W(Water), water with sugar; H(Hydrogen), hydrogen-rich water; WH(Water+Hydrogen), hydrogen-rich water with sugar. They consumed water from 5 to 15 weeks of age. The intake of water in the groups in which sugar was added to the water (W, WH) significantly increased in comparison to C, but there was no significant change in the serum Creatinine concentration. The kidney weight per body weight in W was significantly decreased in comparison to C. The kidney weights in H and WH were significantly increased in comparison to W. There were no significant differences in the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the cysts to the whole area among the groups. This experiment showed that the effect of drinking large volumes of hydrogen-rich water was not significantly different from that of normal water, in terms of preventing an increase in the size of cysts in PCK rats. However, some papers acknowledge the influence of hydrogen water. Significant differences might become obvious if we change aspects such as the administration method or administration period.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/tratamento farmacológico , Água/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Líquidos , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Mutação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/genética , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Transgênicos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 18(3): 815-820, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The skin exposome refers to the constellation of external exposures that contribute to cutaneous aging, including solar radiation, air pollution, tobacco smoke, unbalanced nutrition, and cosmetic products. This review explores the skin exposome and the role of a combination hyaluronic acid and mineralized thermal water product used to restore and maintain optimal skin barrier function. METHOD: An expert panel of 7 dermatologists who treat clinical signs of facial aging convened for a one-day meeting to discuss the results of a literature review on the skin exposome and the role of M89, a mineralized thermal water and hyaluronic acid-based gel, to improve the quality of facial skin. Evidence coupled with expert opinion and experience of the panel was used to address clinical challenges in the treatment of photo-aging, and the use of M89. RESULTS: Solar radiation (ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation), air pollution, tobacco smoke, nutrition, and miscellaneous factors, including stress, sleep deprivation, and temperature, may potentiate skin aging by triggering molecular processes that damage skin structure. M89 was developed to maintain and restore skin and contains ingredients to aid physical, hydric, antioxidant, and antimicrobial skin barrier function. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing knowledge of the exposome and microenvironment contributing to skin aging may support a better understanding of measures to support the skin. The initial results of in vitro and clinical studies of M89 show its potential to improve skin barrier function.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/administração & dosagem , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/administração & dosagem , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Cosméticos/química , Face , Humanos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos da radiação , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Água/química
12.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0207461, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870430

RESUMO

The anti-diuretic hormone arginine vasopressin is thought to be a detrimental factor in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). We previously reported that high water intake (HWI) reduced urine osmolality and urinary arginine vasopressin, improved renal function, and reduced the kidney/body weight ratio in PCK rats, an orthologous model of human PKD. In PKD patients, however, it is reported that HWI increases total kidney volume, urine volume, and urine sodium excretion, which could be a consequence of high salt intake. In the current study, we loaded PCK rats with high salt concurrently with HWI to determine whether this human-imitated condition exacerbates disease progression. PCK rats were assigned into 4 groups: control group (CONT: distilled water), HWI group (HWI: 5% glucose in water), HWI with 0.2% NaCl group (HWI+0.2%NaCl), and HWI with 0.45% NaCl group (HWI+0.45%NaCl). Total water intake during the experimental period was increased by 1.86-, 2.02-, and 2.42-fold in HWI, HWI+0.2%NaCl, and HWI+0.45%NaCl, and sodium intake was increased by 2.55- and 5.83-fold in HWI+0.2%NaCl and HWI+0.45%NaCl, respectively, compared with CONT. Systolic blood pressure was higher in HWI+0.2%NaCl and HWI+0.45%NaCl than in both CONT and HWI. Serum urea nitrogen, kidney/body weight ratio, cAMP, cystic area, and fibrosis index were significantly lower in HWI compared with CONT, and these ameliorative effects were not abrogated in either HWI+0.2%NaCl or HWI+0.45%NaCl. The amount of sodium excreted into the urine was increased by 2.50- and 8.38-fold in HWI+0.2%NaCl and HWI+0.45%NaCl, respectively, compared with HWI. Serum sodium levels were not different between the groups. These findings indicate that the beneficial effect of HWI against the progression of cystic kidney disease was not affected even by high salt-overload in this rodent model of PKD.


Assuntos
Doenças Renais Policísticas/dietoterapia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Água/administração & dosagem , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Renais Policísticas/sangue , Doenças Renais Policísticas/urina , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sódio/urina , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos
13.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889919

RESUMO

In 2005, US water intake recommendations were based on analyses of Nutrition Healthand Examination Surveys (NHANES) III data that examined if hydration classification varied bywater intake and estimated the median water intake associated with hydration in persons aged 19⁻30. Given the upcoming 2020⁻2025 Dietary Guidelines review, this analysis addresses the same twoaims with the 2009⁻2012 NHANES data. Methods were updated by defining hydration criteria interms of multiple measures (serum sodium 135⁻144 mmol/L and urine osmolality < 500 mmol/kg),expressing water intake as ml/kg, distinguishing plain water intake (PWI) from total water intake(TWI), using weighted age- and sex-specific multivariable models to control for determinants ofwater intake requirements, and selecting two study samples (non-acutely ill US population and asub-group without selected chronic disease risk factors). In the US population and sub-group, therelative risk (RR) of meeting the hydration criteria was significantly greater for individuals withTWI ≥ 45 mL/kg or PWI ≥ 20 mL/kg (for the US population 19⁻50 years of age: adjusted RR (RRrepresents Relative Risk, which is a very standard term that probably does not need to be spelledout) = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.10⁻1.68 for males; adjusted RR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.49⁻1.95 for females. For thesub-group 51⁻70 years of age: adjusted RR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.15⁻4.18 for males; adjusted RR = 2.00,95% CI: 1.18⁻3.40 for females). The median (SE, which stands for Standard Error, which is also verywell known. Up to you if your journal prefers to spell it out in the abstract) TWI and PWI associatedwith meeting the hydration criteria for males and females 19⁻50 years of age were 42 (2) mL/kg and14 (1) mL/kg and 43 (2) mL/kg and 16 (1) mL/kg, respectively. The significant association betweenwater intake and hydration classification differs from the null association, underlying the 2005 waterintake recommendations, and may lead to different reasoning and inferences for the 2020⁻2025Dietary Guidelines.


Assuntos
Desidratação/classificação , Ingestão de Líquidos , Política Nutricional , Água/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Concentração Osmolar , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Drug Deliv ; 26(1): 168-178, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822166

RESUMO

The present study aims at designing a thermosensitive gel prepared from w1/o/w2 multiple microemulsions (MMEs) for the vaginal delivery of siRNA. The w1/o/w2 MMEs were prepared by two-step emulsifications: the first step was to prepare primary emulsions (w1/o) by low energy emulsification (LEE); the second step was to obtain stable w1/o/w2 MMEs by self-emulsifying. An extensive formulation optimization process was undertaken. The final w1/o/w2 MMEs could be formed in ddH2O, phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.4) and 1640 culture media with diameter size about 166.5 ± 13.1, 271.0 ± 11.1 and 278.7 ± 12.1 nm respectively. The release rates of siRNA from solutions, MMEs and MMEs-gels were completed within 2 h, 6 h and13 h respectively. The transfection efficiency of MMEs was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. The relative target gene expressions of MMEs were 0.07 ± 0.05% vs. 0.37 ± 0.06% in Hela cells against Lipofectamine2000® and 1.88% ± 0.00% vs. 9.65% ± 0.02% in mouse vaginal mucosa against PEI. Good biocompatibility of MMEs was verified by cytotoxicity and pathological studies. Overall, our results indicated the potential of the MMEs-gel system for the vaginal delivery of siRNA.


Assuntos
Administração Intravaginal , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Microesferas , Ácidos Nucleicos/administração & dosagem , Tensoativos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Emulsões/síntese química , Emulsões/metabolismo , Feminino , Géis , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos , Ácidos Nucleicos/síntese química , Ácidos Nucleicos/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Tensoativos/síntese química , Tensoativos/metabolismo , Água/administração & dosagem , Água/química , Água/metabolismo
15.
Drug Deliv ; 26(1): 147-157, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822171

RESUMO

Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a well-characterized vascular response to low oxygen pressures and is involved in life-threatening conditions such as high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). While the efficacy of oral therapies can be affected by drug metabolism, or dose-limiting systemic toxicity, inhaled treatment via pressured metered dose inhalers (pMDI) may be an effective, nontoxic, practical alternative. We hypothesized that a stable water-in-perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) emulsion that provides solubility in common pMDI propellants, engineered for intrapulmonary delivery of pulmonary vasodilators, reverses HPV during acute hypoxia (HX). Male Sprague Dawley rats received two 10-min bouts of HX (13% O2) with 20 min of room air and drug application between exposures. Treatment groups: intrapulmonary delivery (PUL) of (1) saline; (2) ambrisentan in saline (0.1 mg/kg); (3) empty emulsion; (4) emulsion encapsulating ambrisentan or sodium nitrite (NaNO2) (0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg each); and intravenous (5) ambrisentan (0.1 mg/kg) or (6) NaNO2 (0.5 mg/kg). Neither PUL of saline or empty emulsion, nor infusions of drugs prevented pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) elevation (32.6 ± 3.2, 31.5 ± 1.2, 29.3 ± 1.8, and 30.2 ± 2.5 mmHg, respectively). In contrast, PUL of aqueous ambrisentan and both drug emulsions reduced PAP by 20-30% during HX, compared to controls. IL6 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and whole lung 24 h post-PUL did not differ among cohorts. We demonstrate proof-of-concept for delivering pulmonary vasodilators via aerosolized water-in-PFOB emulsion. This concept opens a potentially feasible and effective route of treating pulmonary vascular pathologies via pMDI.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Fluorcarbonetos/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Edema Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Água/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsões/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenilpropionatos/administração & dosagem , Fenilpropionatos/metabolismo , Circulação Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Circulação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Pulmonar/metabolismo , Piridazinas/administração & dosagem , Piridazinas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Resultado do Tratamento , Água/metabolismo
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1374, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914651

RESUMO

Changes in nutrient dose have dramatic effects on gene expression and development. One outstanding question is whether organisms respond to changes in absolute nutrient amount (moles) vs. its concentration in water (molarity). This question is particularly relevant to plants, as soil drying can alter nutrient concentration, without changing its absolute amount. To compare the effects of amount vs. concentration, we expose rice to a factorial matrix varying the dose of nitrogen (N) and water (W) over a range of combinations, and quantify transcriptome and phenotype responses. Using linear models, we identify distinct dose responses to either N-moles, W-volume, N-molarity (N/W), or their synergistic interaction (N×W). Importantly, genes whose expression patterns are best explained by N-dose and W interactions (N/W or N×W) in seedlings are associated with crop outcomes in replicated field trials. Such N-by-W responsive genes may assist future efforts to develop crops resilient to increasingly arid, low nutrient soils.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Nitrogênio/administração & dosagem , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Oryza/genética , Água/administração & dosagem , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Modelos Lineares , Fenótipo , Plântula/genética , Solo
17.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 54(2): 172-181, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare, in women with infertility, the effectiveness and safety of tubal flushing using oil-based contrast medium, water-based contrast medium or their combination, and no tubal flushing, and to evaluate the effectiveness of tubal flushing on fertility outcome over time. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis, searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and trial registries, up to 25 September 2018. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the following interventions with each other or with no intervention in women with infertility: tubal flushing using water-based contrast medium, tubal flushing using oil-based contrast medium or additional tubal flushing with oil-based medium following diagnostic tubal flushing with water-based medium. The outcomes included clinical pregnancy, live birth, ongoing pregnancy, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy and adverse events. RESULTS: Of the 283 studies identified through the search, 14 RCTs reporting on 3852 women with infertility were included. Network meta-analysis showed that tubal flushing using oil-based contrast medium was associated with higher odds of clinical pregnancy within 6 months after randomization and more subsequent live births compared with tubal flushing using water-based medium (odds ratio (OR), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.38-2.03), moderate certainty of evidence; and OR, 2.18 (95% CI, 1.30-3.65), low certainty of evidence, respectively) and compared with no intervention (OR, 2.28 (95% CI, 1.50-3.47), moderate certainty of evidence; and OR, 2.85 (95% CI, 1.41-5.74), low certainty of evidence, respectively). These results agreed with those of the pairwise meta-analysis. For clinical pregnancy within 6 months, there was insufficient evidence of a difference between tubal flushing with water-based contrast medium and no intervention (OR, 1.36 (95% CI, 0.91-2.04), low certainty of evidence). For fertility outcomes after 6 months, there was insufficient evidence of a difference in any comparison (low to very low certainty of evidence). Compared with tubal flushing using water-based contrast medium, the use of oil-based contrast medium was associated with higher odds of asymptomatic intravasation (OR, 5.06 (95% CI, 2.29-11.18), moderate certainty of evidence). CONCLUSIONS: In women with infertility undergoing fertility workup, tubal flushing using oil-based contrast medium probably increases clinical pregnancy rates within 6 months after randomization and may increase subsequent live-birth rates, compared with tubal flushing using water-based contrast medium and compared with no intervention. Evidence on fertility outcomes beyond 6 months is inadequate to draw firm conclusions. Copyright © 2019 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Irrigação Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Testes de Obstrução das Tubas Uterinas/métodos , Tubas Uterinas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Óleos/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez/tendências , Gravidez Ectópica/etiologia , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos , Água/administração & dosagem
18.
J Hosp Infect ; 102(4): 419-424, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene plays a vital role in the prevention of transmission of micro-organisms. Ozone (O3) is a highly reactive gas with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial effects on bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. It can easily be produced locally in small generators, and dissolved in tap water, and quickly transmits into ordinary O2 in the surrounding air. AIM: To compare ozonized tap water and alcohol rub in decontamination of bacterially contaminated hands. METHODS: A cross-over study among 30 nursing students. Hands were artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), then sanitized with ozonized tap water (0.8 or 4 ppm) or 3 mL standard alcohol-based rub (Antibac 85%). The transient microbes from fingers were cultivated and colony-forming units (cfu)/mL were counted. The test procedure was modified from European Standard EN 1500:2013. FINDINGS: All contaminated hands before disinfection showed cfu >30,000/mL. The mean (SD) bacterial counts in (cfu/mL) on both hands combined were 1017 (1391) after using ozonized water, and 2337 (4664) after alcohol hand disinfection. The median (range) values were 500 (0-6700) and 250 (0-16,000) respectively (non-significant difference). Twenty per cent of participants reported adverse skin effects (burning/dryness) from alcohol disinfection compared with no adverse sensations with ozone. CONCLUSION: Ozonized tap water is an effective decontaminant of E. coli, and it could be an alternative to traditional alcohol-fluid hand disinfectants both in healthcare institutions and public places. Ozonized water may be especially valuable for individuals with skin problems.


Assuntos
Álcoois/administração & dosagem , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Mãos/microbiologia , Ozônio/administração & dosagem , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Estudos Cross-Over , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Água/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Infect Chemother ; 25(6): 452-457, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782428

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Biofilm formation is an important issue in the healthcare industry, but conventional disinfectants are not effective for biofilms formed in the hospital environment and on medical instruments. In this study, aim at determine the effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) on biofilm removal and the disinfection of biofilm-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa. METHODS: Mucoid and non-mucoid strains were used for biofilm formation. Biofilms were incubated with SAEW and the reduction in biofilm volume was determined based on the optical density. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanism underlying the effects of SAEW, a biofilm was produced with alginate and structural changes in response to incubation with SAEW were observed by fluorescence microscopy. The minimum bactericidal chlorine concentration of SAEW for P. aeruginosa cells was evaluated. RESULTS: The amounts of alginate and biofilm decreased by 99.9% and 56.8% immersed by 30 ppm of SAEW at 25 °C for 10 min. The effectiveness of SAEW increased as the temperature increased, and the biofilm volume was reduced by 85.4% at 45 °C. Furthermore, 30 ppm SAEW completely disinfected P. aeruginosa in the biofilm, even for immersion at 15 °C for 5 min. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that SAEW, a low-cost and safe chlorine disinfectant, is a useful disinfectant for biofilm-forming bacteria.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloro/administração & dosagem , Eletrólise , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/administração & dosagem , Cloro/química , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfecção/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Água/química
20.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 41, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of using a lid hygiene brush prototype to wipe the lid margins with lid hygiene shampoo in subjects with normal meibomian glands. METHODS: Twelve eyes of 6 subjects were all evaluated just before and after wiping lid margins using 1) tap water alone, 2) Eye Shampoo, 3) Eye Brush, or 4) both products, each during a different week. The results after using both products twice daily for 1 month were also evaluated. Wiping efficacy was determined by post-wiping scores for the remaining fluorescein-stained 0.3% Tarivid ointment fully applied to eyelids and lid margins under microscopic view illuminated by blue light just after performing each of the four lid hygiene methods described above. RESULTS: No significant deterioration in ocular conditions occurred. Eyestrain, eye discharge, and dryness decreased with tap water (P = 0.020), Eye Shampoo (P = 0.036), and Eye Brush (P = 0.014), respectively. Sensations of eye discharge increased after 1 month of using both products (P = 0.042). The wiping efficacy of Eye Brush, Eye Shampoo or both was significantly greater than that of tap water alone (two-sided test, P = 0.003, 0.003, 0.002), and using both significantly increased efficacy above Eye Shampoo use alone (one-sided test, P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Wiping lid margins using Eye Brush enhanced the cleansing power of Eye Shampoo. A daily healthcare routine using both products could be a safe and effective option for daily lid hygiene. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN000016905 . Registration date: March 24, 2015; the study was prospectively registered.


Assuntos
Detergentes/uso terapêutico , Desinfecção/instrumentação , Oftalmopatias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Palpebrais/prevenção & controle , Higiene , Água/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Túnica Conjuntiva/patologia , Córnea/patologia , Dor Ocular/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Lágrimas/metabolismo
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