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1.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 379(5): 35, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382110

RESUMO

This review arises from the need to rationalize the huge amount of information on the structural and spectroscopic properties of a peculiar class of porphyrin derivatives-the non-ionic PEGylated porphyrins-collected during almost two decades of research. The lack of charged groups in the molecular architecture of these porphyrin derivatives is the leitmotif of the work and plays an outstanding role in highlighting those interactions between porphyrins, or between porphyrins and target molecules (e.g., hydrophobic-, hydrogen bond related-, and coordination-interactions, to name just a few) that are often masked by stronger electrostatic contributions. In addition, it is exactly these weaker interactions between porphyrins that make the aggregated forms more prone to couple efficiently with external perturbative fields like weak hydrodynamic vortexes or temperature gradients. In the absence of charge, solubility in water is very often achieved by covalent functionalization of the porphyrin ring with polyethylene glycol chains. Various modifications, including of chain length or the number of chains, the presence of a metal atom in the porphyrin core, or having two or more porphyrin rings in the molecular architecture, result in a wide range of properties. These encompass self-assembly with different aggregate morphology, molecular recognition of biomolecules, and different photophysical responses, which can be translated into numerous promising applications in the sensing and biomedical field, based on turn-on/turn-off fluorescence and on photogeneration of radical species.


Assuntos
Corantes/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Porfirinas/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Estrutura Molecular , Solubilidade , Água/química
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4993, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404798

RESUMO

Dissipative self-assembly, which requires a continuous supply of fuel to maintain the assembled states far from equilibrium, is the foundation of biological systems. Among a variety of fuels, light, the original fuel of natural dissipative self-assembly, is fundamentally important but remains a challenge to introduce into artificial dissipative self-assemblies. Here, we report an artificial dissipative self-assembly system that is constructed from light-induced amphiphiles. Such dissipative supramolecular assembly is easily performed using protonated sulfonato-merocyanine and chitosan based molecular and macromolecular components in water. Light irradiation induces the assembly of supramolecular nanoparticles, which spontaneously disassemble in the dark due to thermal back relaxation of the molecular switch. Owing to the presence of light-induced amphiphiles and the thermal dissociation mechanism, the lifetimes of these transient supramolecular nanoparticles are highly sensitive to temperature and light power and range from several minutes to hours. By incorporating various fluorophores into transient supramolecular nanoparticles, the processes of aggregation-induced emission and aggregation-caused quenching, along with periodic variations in fluorescent color over time, have been demonstrated. Transient supramolecular assemblies, which act as fluorescence modulators, can also function in human hepatocellular cancer cells.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Nanopartículas/química , Água/química , Fluorescência , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Cinética , Substâncias Macromoleculares , Temperatura
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361016

RESUMO

Although small water clusters (SWCs) are important in many research fields, efficient methods of preparing SWCs are still rarely reported, which is mainly due to the lack of related materials and understanding of the molecular interaction mechanisms. In this study, a series of functional molecules were added in water to obtain small water cluster systems. The decreasing rate of the half-peak width in a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-water system reaches ≈20% at 0.05 mM from 17O nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results. Based on density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation calculation, it can be concluded that functional molecules with stronger negative electrostatic potential (ESP) and higher hydrophilicity have a stronger ability to destroy big water clusters. Notably, the concentrations of our selected molecule systems are one to two magnitudes lower than that of previous reports. This study provides a promising way to optimize aqueous systems in various fields such as oilfield development, protein stability, and metal anti-corrosion.


Assuntos
Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Eletricidade Estática , Água/química
4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(33): 12930-12934, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398611

RESUMO

The main protease from SARS-CoV-2 is a homodimer. Yet, a recent 0.1-ms-long molecular dynamics simulation performed by D. E. Shaw's research group shows that it readily undergoes a symmetry-breaking event on passing from the solid state to aqueous solution. As a result, the subunits present distinct conformations of the binding pocket. By analyzing this long simulation, we uncover a previously unrecognized role of water molecules in triggering the transition. Interestingly, each subunit presents a different collection of long-lived water molecules. Enhanced sampling simulations performed here, along with machine learning approaches, further establish that the transition to the asymmetric state is essentially irreversible.


Assuntos
SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/química , Água/química , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo
5.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443346

RESUMO

A temperature dependence of saturated vapor pressure of isavuconazole (IVZ), an antimycotic drug, was found by using the method of inert gas-carrier transfer and the thermodynamic functions of sublimation were calculated at a temperature of 298.15 K. The value of the compound standard molar enthalpy of sublimation was found to be 138.1 ± 0.5 kJ·mol-1. The IVZ thermophysical properties-melting point and enthalpy-equaled 302.7 K and 29.9 kJ mol-1, respectively. The isothermal saturation method was used to determine the drug solubility in seven pharmaceutically relevant solvents within the temperature range from 293.15 to 313.15 K. The IVZ solubility in the studied solvents increased in the following order: buffer pH 7.4, buffer pH 2.0, buffer pH 1.2, hexane, 1-octanol, 1-propanol, ethanol. Depending on the solvent chemical nature, the compound solubility varied from 6.7 × 10-6 to 0.3 mol·L-1. The Hansen s approach was used for evaluating and analyzing the solubility data of drug. The results show that this model well-described intermolecular interactions in the solutions studied. It was established that in comparison with the van't Hoff model, the modified Apelblat one ensured the best correlation with the experimental solubility data of the studied drug. The activity coefficients at infinite dilution and dissolution excess thermodynamic functions of IVZ were calculated in each of the solvents. Temperature dependences of the compound partition coefficients were obtained in a binary 1-octanol/buffer pH 7.4 system and the transfer thermodynamic functions were calculated. The drug distribution from the aqueous solution to the organic medium was found to be spontaneous and entropy-driven.


Assuntos
Nitrilas/química , Piridinas/química , Temperatura , Triazóis/química , 1-Octanol/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cristalização , Solubilidade , Solventes/química , Volatilização , Água/química
6.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443362

RESUMO

The polyphenol content of tea depends on the growing region, harvest date, the production process used, and the brewing parameters. In this study, research was undertaken that included an analysis of the influence of the brewing process parameters on the content of total polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteu), epigallocatechin gallate (HPLC), and antioxidant activity (against DPPH radicals) of fresh tea shrub leaves grown from Taiwan and of teas obtained from them (oolong, green in bags, and green loose from the spring and autumn harvest). The antioxidant potential was determined in the methanol and aqueous extracts, as well as in infusions that were obtained by using water at 65 or 100 °C and infusing the tea for 5 or 10 min. The highest content of total polyphenols and epigallocatechin gallate was found in green tea extracts from the spring harvest. However, in the case of infusions, the highest content of these compounds was found in green tea in bags. Steaming at 100 °C for 10 min, turned out to be the most favourable condition for the extraction. Oolong tea, brewed at 100 °C for 5 min was characterised by the highest antioxidant activity against stable DPPH radicals.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Camellia sinensis/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química
7.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443557

RESUMO

The first production of defibrillated celluloses from microalgal biomass using acid-free, TEMPO-free and bleach-free hydrothermal microwave processing is reported. Two routes were explored: i. direct microwave process of native microalgae ("standard"), and ii. scCO2 pre-treatment followed by microwave processing. ScCO2 was investigated as it is commonly used to extract lipids and generates considerable quantities of spent algal biomass. Defibrillation was evidenced in both cases to afford cellulosic strands, which progressively decreased in their width and length as the microwave processing temperature increased from 160 °C to 220 °C. Lower temperatures revealed aspect ratios similar to microfibrillated cellulose whilst at the highest temperature (220 °C), a mixture of microfibrillated cellulose and nanocrystals were evidenced. XRD studies showed similar patterns to cellulose I but also some unresolved peaks. The crystallinity index (CrI), determined by XRD, increased with increasing microwave processing temperature. The water holding capacity (WHC) of all materials was approximately 4.5 g H2O/g sample. The materials were able to form partially stable hydrogels, but only with those processed above 200 °C and at a concentration of 3 wt% in water. This unique work provides a new set of materials with potential applications in the packaging, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.


Assuntos
Microalgas/metabolismo , Microalgas/efeitos da radiação , Micro-Ondas , Celulose/biossíntese , Celulose/química , Temperatura , Água/química
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360804

RESUMO

Intermediate water (IW) in hydrated bioactive glasses remains uninvestigated. We obtained titanium (Ti)-containing bioactive glasses (BGTs) (Ti at 5%, 7.5% and 10% of the glass system) using the sol-gel technique. Their thermal, physicochemical, and morphological properties, before and after Ti-doping, were analysed using DTA, XRD, FTIR, TEM, and SEM accessorised with EDAX, and size distribution and zeta potential surface charges were determined using a NanoZetasizer. The IW in hydrated BGTs was investigated by cooling and heating runs of DSC measurements. Moreover, the mode of death in an osteosarcoma cell line (MG63) was evaluated at different times of exposure to BGT discs. Ti doping had no remarkable effect on the thermal, physicochemical, and morphological properties of BGTs. However, the morphology, size, and charges of BGT nano-powders were slightly changed after inclusion of Ti compared with those of BGT0; for example, the particle size increased with increasing Ti content (from 4-5 to 7-28 nm). The IW content was enhanced in the presence of Ti. The mode of cell death revealed the effect of IW content on the proliferation of cells exposed to BGTs. These findings should help improve the biocompatibility of inorganic biomaterials.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Vidro/química , Teste de Materiais , Titânio , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Humanos , Titânio/química , Titânio/farmacologia , Água/química
9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(32): 7708-7716, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355897

RESUMO

NOx emission heavily affects our environment and human health. Photocatalytic denitrification (deNOx) attracted much attention because it is low-cost and nonpolluting, but undesired nitrite and nitrate were produced in reality, instead of harmless N2. Unveiling the active sites and the photocatalytic mechanism is very important to improve the process. Herein, we have employed a combinational scenario to investigate the reaction mechanism of NO2 and H2O on anatase TiO2(101). On the one hand, a polaron-corrected GGA functional (GGA + Lany-Zunger) was applied to improve the description of electronic states in photoassisted processes. On the other hand, a reaction phase diagram (RPD) was established to understand the (quasi) activity trend over both perfect and defective surfaces. It was found that a perfect surface is more active via the Eley-Rideal mechanism without NO2 adsorption, while the activity on defective surfaces is limited by the sluggish recombinative desorption. A photogenerated hole can weaken the OH* adsorption energies and circumvents the scaling relation of the dark reaction, eventually enhancing the deNOx activity significantly. The insights gained from our work indicate that tuning the reactivity by illumination-induced localized charge and diverse reaction pathways are two methods for improving adsorption, dissociation, and desorption processes to go beyond the conventional activity volcano plot limit of dark conditions.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Nitrogênio/química , Titânio/química , Adsorção , Catálise/efeitos da radiação , Cinética , Modelos Químicos , Termodinâmica , Titânio/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Água/química
10.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(32): 7777-7782, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374547

RESUMO

Enzyme catalysis achieves tremendous rate accelerations. Enzyme reaction centers provide a constraint geometry that preferentially binds an activated form of the substrate and thus lowers the energy barrier. However, this transition state picture neglects the flexibility of proteins and its role in enzymatic catalysis. Especially for proton transfer reactions, it has been suggested that motions of the protein modulate the donor-acceptor distance and prepare a tunneling-ready state. We report the detection of frequency fluctuations of an azide anion (N3-) bound in the active site of the protein carbonic anhydrase II, where a low-frequency mode of the protein has been proposed to facilitate proton transfer over two water molecules during the catalyzed reaction. 2D-IR spectroscopy resolves an underdamped low-frequency mode at about 1 THz (30 cm-1). We find its frequency to be viscosity- and temperature-dependent and to decrease by 6 cm-1 between 230 and 320 K, reporting the softening of the mode's potential.


Assuntos
Anidrase Carbônica II/química , Animais , Azidas/química , Domínio Catalítico , Bovinos , Prótons , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos , Temperatura , Vibração , Viscosidade , Água/química
11.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443385

RESUMO

DNA origami nanostructures (DONs) are promising substrates for the single-molecule investigation of biomolecular reactions and dynamics by in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). For this, they are typically immobilized on mica substrates by adding millimolar concentrations of Mg2+ ions to the sample solution, which enable the adsorption of the negatively charged DONs at the like-charged mica surface. These non-physiological Mg2+ concentrations, however, present a serious limitation in such experiments as they may interfere with the reactions and processes under investigation. Therefore, we here evaluate three approaches to efficiently immobilize DONs at mica surfaces under essentially Mg2+-free conditions. These approaches rely on the pre-adsorption of different multivalent cations, i.e., Ni2+, poly-l-lysine (PLL), and spermidine (Spdn). DON adsorption is studied in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and pure water. In general, Ni2+ shows the worst performance with heavily deformed DONs. For 2D DON triangles, adsorption at PLL- and in particular Spdn-modified mica may outperform even Mg2+-mediated adsorption in terms of surface coverage, depending on the employed solution. For 3D six-helix bundles, less pronounced differences between the individual strategies are observed. Our results provide some general guidance for the immobilization of DONs at mica surfaces under Mg2+-free conditions and may aid future in situ AFM studies.


Assuntos
Silicatos de Alumínio/química , DNA/química , Magnésio/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Nanoestruturas/química , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Adsorção , Níquel/química , Polieletrólitos/química , Polilisina/química , Espermidina/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Água/química
12.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361776

RESUMO

In this study, we examined aqueous extracts of the edible mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) and Lentinula edodes (shiitake mushroom). Proteome analysis was conducted using LC-Triple TOF-MS and showed the expression of 753 proteins by Pleurotus ostreatus, and 432 proteins by Lentinula edodes. Bioactive peptides: Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor, superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin reductase, serine proteinase and lectin, were identified in both mushrooms. The extracts also included promising bioactive compounds including phenolics, flavonoids, vitamins and amino acids. The extracts showed promising antiviral activities, with a selectivity index (SI) of 4.5 for Pleurotus ostreatus against adenovirus (Ad7), and a slight activity for Lentinula edodes against herpes simplex-II (HSV-2). The extracts were not cytotoxic to normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). On the contrary, they showed moderate cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. Additionally, antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical cation scavenging and ORAC assays. The two extracts showed potential antioxidant activities, with the maximum activity seen for Pleurotus ostreatus (IC50 µg/mL) = 39.46 ± 1.27 for DPPH; 11.22 ± 1.81 for ABTS; and 21.40 ± 2.20 for ORAC assays. This study encourages the use of these mushrooms in medicine in the light of their low cytotoxicity on normal PBMCs vis à vis their antiviral, antitumor and antioxidant capabilities.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antivirais/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Pleurotus/química , Proteoma/química , Cogumelos Shiitake/química , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Misturas Complexas/química , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/classificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/isolamento & purificação , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteoma/classificação , Proteoma/isolamento & purificação , Serina Proteases/química , Serina Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Cogumelos Shiitake/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Superóxido Dismutase/química , Superóxido Dismutase/isolamento & purificação , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/química , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/isolamento & purificação , Vitaminas/química , Vitaminas/isolamento & purificação , Água/química
13.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 69(8): 727-733, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334516

RESUMO

Recently, a novel humidifier that sprays water fine droplets equipped with a copolymer, poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) was developed. PEDOT/PSS in the humidifier absorbs water from the environment and releases fine water droplets by heating. In the present study, the effect of hydration on the skin barrier, stratum corneum, was first determined by the application of fine water droplets using the humidifier. The skin-penetration enhancement effect of a model hydrophilic drug, caffeine, was also investigated using the humidifier and compared with a conventional water-evaporative humidifier. More prolonged skin hydration effect was observed after application of the fine water droplet release humidifier using PEDOT/PSS than that using a conventional humidifier. In addition, markedly higher skin permeation of caffeine was observed in both infinite and finite dose conditions. Furthermore, higher skin permeation of caffeine from oil/water emulsion containing caffeine was observed in finite dose conditions by pretreatment with the humidifier using PEDOT/PSS. This device can provide water droplets without replenishing water, so it is more convenient for enhancing the skin permeation of chemical compounds from topical drugs and cosmetic formulations.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Umidificadores , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Cutânea , Ar , Animais , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Cafeína/química , Umidade , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Tamanho da Partícula , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Pelados , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura , Água/química
14.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443312

RESUMO

Subcritical water extraction of Himanthalia elongata and the subsequent acetone fractionation to precipitate crude fucoidans generated a liquid phase which was used to recover alginates with a wide range of viscoelastic features and other soluble extracts with potential biological activities. The precipitated alginate was converted to sodium alginate using an environmentally friendly treatment before being characterized by Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance, nuclear magnetic resonance, high performance size exclusion chromatography and rheological measurements. The cell viability of three human cell lines (A549, HCT-116, T98G) in the presence of the extracts obtained before and after acetone fractionation was assessed. Fractionation with different acetone volumes showed a slight effect in the behavior of the different tested cell lines. Results also indicated a notable effect of the processing conditions on the block structure and molar mass of the extracted biopolymer, with the subsequent impact on the rheological properties of the corresponding gelled matrices.


Assuntos
Alginatos/isolamento & purificação , Feófitas/química , Água/química , Alginatos/química , Alginatos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Conformação Molecular , Reologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445355

RESUMO

Recently, lithium nitride (Li3N) has been proposed as a chemical warfare agent (CWA) neutralization reagent for its ability to produce nucleophilic ammonia molecules and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution. Quantum chemical calculations can provide insight into the Li3N neutralization process that has been studied experimentally. Here, we calculate reaction-free energies associated with the Li3N-based neutralization of the CWA VX using quantum chemical density functional theory and ab initio methods. We find that alkaline hydrolysis is more favorable to either ammonolysis or neutral hydrolysis for initial P-S and P-O bond cleavages. Reaction-free energies of subsequent reactions are calculated to determine the full reaction pathway. Notably, products predicted from favorable reactions have been identified in previous experiments.


Assuntos
Descontaminação , Compostos de Lítio/química , Compostos Organotiofosforados/química , Água/química , Amônia/química , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/química , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/farmacologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Hidrólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Lítio/química , Modelos Moleculares , Compostos Organotiofosforados/farmacologia , Teoria Quântica
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445798

RESUMO

The bacterium Legionella pneumophila is still one of the probable causes of waterborne diseases, causing serious respiratory illnesses. In the aquatic systems, L. pneumophila exists inside free-living amoebae or can form biofilms. Currently developed disinfection methods are not sufficient for complete eradication of L. pneumophila biofilms in water systems of interest. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a method that results in an antimicrobial effect by using a combination of light and a photosensitizer (PS). In this work, the effect of PDI in waters of natural origin and of different hardness, as a treatment against L. pneumophila biofilm, was investigated. Three cationic tripyridylporphyrins, which were previously described as efficient agents against L. pneumophila alone, were used as PSs. We studied how differences in water hardness affect the PSs' stability, the production of singlet oxygen, and the PDI activity on L. pneumophila adhesion and biofilm formation and in biofilm destruction. Amphiphilic porphyrin showed a stronger tendency for aggregation in hard and soft water, but its production of singlet oxygen was higher in comparison to tri- and tetracationic hydrophilic porphyrins that were stable in all water samples. All three studied porphyrins were shown to be effective as PDI agents against the adhesion of the L. pneumophila to polystyrene, against biofilm formation, and in the destruction of the formed biofilm, in their micromolar concentrations. However, a higher number of dissolved ions, i.e., water hardness, generally reduced somewhat the PDI activity of all the porphyrins at all tested biofilm growth stages.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cátions/farmacologia , Dureza/efeitos dos fármacos , Legionella pneumophila/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Porfirinas/farmacologia , Água/química , Amoeba/microbiologia , Oxigênio Singlete/farmacologia , Microbiologia da Água
17.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361733

RESUMO

Biocomposites comprising a combination of natural fibres and bio-based polymers are good alternatives to those produced from synthetic components in terms of sustainability and environmental issues. However, it is well known that water or aqueous chemical solutions affect natural polymers/fibres more than the respective synthetic components. In this study the effects of water, salt water, acidic and alkali solutions ageing on water uptake, mechanical properties and flammability of natural fibre-reinforced polypropylene (PP) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites were compared. Jute, sisal and wool fibre- reinforced PP and PLA composites were prepared using a novel, patented nonwoven technology followed by the hot press method. The prepared composites were aged in water and chemical solutions for up to 3 week periods. Water absorption, flexural properties and the thermal and flammability performances of the composites were investigated before and after ageing each process. The effect of post-ageing drying on the retention of mechanical and flammability properties has also been studied. A linear relationship between irreversible flexural modulus reduction and water adsorption/desorption was observed. The aqueous chemical solutions caused further but minor effects in terms of moisture sorption and flexural modulus changes. PLA composites were affected more than the respective PP composites, because of their hydrolytic sensitivity. From thermal analytical results, these changes in PP composites could be attributed to ageing effects on fibres, whereas in PLA composite changes related to both those of fibres present and of the polymer. Ageing however, had no adverse effect on the flammability of the composites.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Fibras Minerais/análise , Poliésteres/química , Polipropilenos/química , Água/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/análise , Fibra de Algodão/análise , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Poliésteres/análise , Polipropilenos/análise , Soluções , Fibra de Lã/análise
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445650

RESUMO

Cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) has become a routine technology for resolving the structure of biological macromolecules due to the resolution revolution in recent years. The specimens are typically prepared in a very thin layer of vitrified ice suspending in the holes of the perforated amorphous carbon film. However, the samples prepared by directly applying to the conventional support membranes may suffer from partial or complete denaturation caused by sticking to the air-water interface (AWI). With the application in materials, graphene has also been used recently to improve frozen sample preparation instead of a suspended conventional amorphous thin carbon. It has been proven that graphene or graphene oxide and various chemical modifications on its surface can effectively prevent particles from adsorbing to the AWI, which improves the dispersion, adsorbed number, and orientation preference of frozen particles in the ice layer. Their excellent properties and thinner thickness can significantly reduce the background noise, allowing high-resolution three-dimensional reconstructions using a minimum data set.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Grafite/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Água/química
19.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(34): 8416-8422, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436909

RESUMO

Polyproline II (pPII) is a left-handed 31-helix conformation, which has been observed to be the most abundant secondary structure in unfolded peptides and proteins compared to α-helix and ß-sheet. Although pPII has been reported as the most stable conformation for several unfolded short chain peptides in aqueous solution, it is rarely observed in their solid state. Here, we show for the first time a glycine homopeptide (gly-gly-gly) adopting the pPII conformation in its crystalline dihydrate structure. The single crystal X-ray structure with molecular dynamic simulation suggests that a network of water and the charged carboxylate group is critical in stabilizing the pPII conformation in solid state, offering an insight into the structures of unfolded regions of proteins and the role of water in peptide crystallization.


Assuntos
Oligopeptídeos/química , Peptídeos/química , Água/química , Cristalização , Conformação Molecular
20.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(33): 8039-8045, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402624

RESUMO

Calcite dissolution is initiated by the formation of a nanoscale etch pit followed by step edge propagation and hence strongly influenced by the interactions between surface diffusing ions and step edges. However, such atomic-scale dynamics are mostly inaccessible with current imaging tools. Here, we overcome this limitation by using our recent development of high-speed frequency modulation atomic force microscopy. By visualizing atomic-scale structural changes of the etch pits at the calcite surface in water, we found the existence of mobile and less-mobile surface adsorption layers (SALs) in the etch pits. We also found that some etch pits maintain their size for a long time without expansion, and their step edges are often associated with less-mobile SALs, suggesting their step stabilization effect.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Adsorção , Cristalografia , Estrutura Molecular , Solubilidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Água/química
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