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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125912, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492846

RESUMO

Emerging contaminants (ECs) in wastewater have recently attracted the attention of researchers as they pose significant risks to human health and wildlife. This paper presents the state-of-art technologies used to remove ECs from wastewater through a comprehensive review. It also highlights the challenges faced by existing EC removal technologies in wastewater treatment plants and provides future research directions. Many treatment technologies like biological, chemical, and physical approaches have been advanced for removing various ECs. However, currently, no individual technology can effectively remove ECs, whereas hybrid systems have often been found to be more efficient. A hybrid technique of ozonation accompanied by activated carbon was found significantly effective in removing some ECs, particularly pharmaceuticals and pesticides. Despite the lack of extensive research, nanotechnology may be a promising approach as nanomaterial incorporated technologies have shown potential in removing different contaminants from wastewater. Nevertheless, most existing technologies are highly energy and resource-intensive as well as costly to maintain and operate. Besides, most proposed advanced treatment technologies are yet to be evaluated for large-scale practicality. Complemented with techno-economic feasibility studies of the treatment techniques, comprehensive research and development are therefore necessary to achieve a full and effective removal of ECs by wastewater treatment plants.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126184, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492955

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are continuously introduced into the agroecosystem via reclaimed wastewater irrigation, a common agricultural practice in water-scarce regions. Although reclaimed wastewater irrigated crops are sold and consumed, only limited information is available on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other CECs in edible produce. Here, we report data on CECs in irrigation water, soils, and crops collected from 445 commercial fields irrigated with reclaimed wastewater in Israel. The following produce were analyzed: leafy greens, carrot, potato, tomato, orange, tangerine, avocado, and banana. Pharmaceuticals and CECs were found in quantifiable levels in all irrigation water, soils, and plants (>99.6%). Leafy greens exhibited the largest number and the highest concentration of pharmaceuticals. Within the same crop, contamination levels varied due to wastewater source and quality of treatment, and soil characteristics. Anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and gabapentin) were the most dominant therapeutic group found in the reclaimed wastewater-soil-plant continuum. Antimicrobials were detected in ~85% of the water and soil samples, however they exhibited low detection frequencies and concentrations in produce. Irrigation with reclaimed wastewater should be limited to crops where the risk for pharmaceutical transfer to the food chain is minimal.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Águas Residuárias , Irrigação Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas , Israel , Águas Residuárias/análise
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 653, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528154

RESUMO

The use of fast-growing tree species, such as Casuarina glauca for wastewater treatment could improve the quality of wastewater and offer an ecological and sustainable system. A hydroponically experiment was conducted to evaluate C. glauca ability to remove heavy metals from secondary treated urban wastewater (SWW). The effect of the SWW on plant biomass, some physiological parameters, heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn) bioaccumulation and removal from wastewater was evaluated. After 28 days, wastewater treatment C. glauca showed high efficiency for the removal of pathogenic bacteria such as faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci from SWW. A significant reduction was found for electrical conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids with 31%, 92%, 83% and 31% respectively. Casuarina glauca plants were able to remove heavy metal ions Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn from SWW and the removal efficiency was 92%, 77%, 83% and 73%, respectively. Casuarina glauca plants accumulated concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn) in their roots higher than the shoots. SWW had a remarkable effect on plant growth and photosynthetic capacity in C. glauca compared with plants grown in tap water (control). The results indicated that C. glauca can act as scavengers of heavy metal ions from polluted water and confirms their ability for wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Purificação da Água , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise
4.
Talanta ; 234: 122627, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364436

RESUMO

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an established tool to analyse patterns of community drug use. In recent times, monitoring the use of analgesics has become a public health priority. An analytical method was developed, optimised and validated for a broad range of common analgesics (non-steroidal anti-inflammatories and opioids) and their metabolites at trace concentrations in wastewater influent. Samples were analysed via liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with an electrospray ionization source (ESI) in both positive and negative ion multiple reaction monitoring modes. Fifteen of the thirty-five biomarkers were validated for LC-MS/MS analysis by direct injection, while the other 20 biomarkers were present in wastewater at lower concentrations, requiring extraction by solid phase extraction (SPE) using Oasis HLB cartridges. The limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged between 17 ng/L - 191 ng/L and 13 ng/L -110 ng/L for direct injection and SPE, respectively. Recoveries for SPE ranged between 80% and 120%. Following validation, the method was applied to 28 wastewater samples from four municipal wastewater treatment plants. Twenty-eight of the thirty-five analgesic biomarkers were detected in the samples at concentrations of between 0.03 and 289 µg/L. Population normalised mass loads ranged from 10 mg/day/1000 (meperidine) to 72,000 mg/day/1000 (paracetamol) among all investigated compounds. The described method is a suitable analytical tool for wastewater-based epidemiology applications to estimate analgesics consumption.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Analgésicos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113234, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351302

RESUMO

Water scarcity has resulted in extensive wastewater recycling for agricultural irrigation in both Israel and the Palestinian Territories. However, minimal data have been collected regarding perceptions about wastewater recycling between the populations in these two areas. While geographically close and economically linked, these two populations differ in terms of governance, income, and access to technology for wastewater recycling. To address the data gap pertaining to perceptions of wastewater recycling, a survey was administered among a convenience sample of subjects (n = 236) recruited from Eilat, Israel and Bethlehem, West Bank, from May to November 2018. The survey included questions addressing knowledge of water sources, water scarcity, and recycled water; willingness to use recycled water for produce irrigation and household tasks; and demographics. Israeli willingness to use recycled water for various purposes ranged from 8.3% to 55.1%, and more than half of Israeli respondents were willing to serve both raw and cooked produce irrigated with recycled water. Willingness to use recycled water ranged from 28.9% to 41.7% among the Palestinian respondents, and Palestinian respondents were more willing to engage in high-contact uses (i.e. drinking and cooking) than Israeli respondents. Among the Israeli respondents, experience or familiarity with wastewater recycling and water contamination were frequently significantly associated with willingness to use recycled water. In contrast, among Palestinian respondents, personal water contamination experience, home water safety testing, and trust in authorities to monitor recycled wastewater reuse were frequently significantly associated with willingness to use recycled water. Given the likely increasing water stress in both Israel and the Palestinian Territories, as well as the continued evolution of wastewater treatment technologies and the substantial amount of agricultural trade ongoing between Israel and the Palestinian Territories, it is important to identify effective and appropriate outreach and communication strategies to enable successful and acceptable water recycling.


Assuntos
Árabes , Água , Irrigação Agrícola , Humanos , Percepção , Águas Residuárias/análise
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112595, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390984

RESUMO

The implementation of the new Water Reuse regulation in the European Union brings to the forefront the need to evaluate the risks of using wastewater for crop irrigation. Here, a two-tier ecotoxicological risk assessment was performed to evaluate the fate of wastewater-borne micropollutants in soil and their ecotoxicological impact on plants and soil microorganisms. To this end, two successive cultivation campaigns of lettuces were irrigated with wastewater (at agronomical dose (not spiked) and spiked with a mixture of 14 pharmaceuticals at 10 and 100 µg/L each) in a controlled greenhouse experiment. Over the two cultivation campaigns, an accumulation of PPCPs was observed in soil microcosms irrigated with wastewater spiked with 100 µg/L of PPCPs with the highest concentrations detected for clarithromycin, hydrochlorothiazide, citalopram, climbazole and carbamazepine. The abundance of bacterial and fungal communities remained stable over the two cultivation campaigns and was not affected by any of the irrigation regimes applied. Similarly, no changes were observed in the abundance of ammonium oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), nor in clade A of commamox no matter the cultivation campaign or the irrigation regime considered. Only a slight increase was detected in clade B of commamox bacteria after the second cultivation campaign. Sulfamethoxazole-resistant and -degrading bacteria were not impacted either. The irrigation regimes had only a limited effect on the bacterial evenness. However, in response to wastewater irrigation the structure of soil bacterial community significantly changed the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia, Beta-, Gamma- and Deltaprotebacteria. Twenty-eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified as responsible for the changes observed within the bacterial communities of soils irrigated with wastewater or with water. Interestingly, the relative abundance of these OTUs was similar in soils irrigated with either spiked or non-spiked irrigation solutions. This indicates that under both agronomical and worst-case scenario the mixture of fourteen PPCPs had no effect on soil bacterial community.


Assuntos
Solo , Águas Residuárias , Irrigação Agrícola , Alface , Medição de Risco , Microbiologia do Solo , Águas Residuárias/análise
8.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443481

RESUMO

This study explores the capability of Sulfate Radical-based Advanced Oxidation Processes (SR-AOPs) for the simultaneous disinfection and decontamination of urban wastewater. Sulfate and hydroxyl radicals in solution were generated activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS) under UV-C irradiation at pilot plant scale. The efficiency of the process was assessed toward the removal of three CECs (Trimethoprim (TMP), Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and Diclofenac (DCF)) and three bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., and Pseudomonas spp.) in actual urban wastewater (UWW), obtaining the optimal value of PMS at 0.5 mmol/L. Under such experimental conditions, bacterial concentration ≤ 10 CFU/100 mL was reached after 15 min of UV-C treatment (0.03 kJ/L of accumulative UV-C radiation) for natural occurring bacteria, no bacterial regrowth was observed after 24 and 48 h, and 80% removal of total CECs was achieved after 12 min (0.03 kJ/L), with a release of sulfate ions far from the limit established in wastewater discharge. Moreover, the inactivation of Ampicillin (AMP), Ciprofloxacin (CPX), and Trimethoprim (TMP) antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and reduction of target genes (ARGs) were successfully achieved. Finally, a harmful effect toward the receiving aquatic environment was not observed according to Aliivibrio fischeri toxicity tests, while a slightly toxic effect toward plant growth (phytotoxicity tests) was detected. As a conclusion, a cost analysis demonstrated that the process could be feasible and a promising alternative to successfully address wastewater reuse challenges.


Assuntos
Peróxidos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Aliivibrio fischeri/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Oxirredução , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfatos/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Águas Residuárias/análise , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos da radiação
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(34): 46319-46333, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341925

RESUMO

With the industrial-level panel data on total output and wastewater discharge over the period of 1997 to 2018, this paper employs GIS and ESDA methods to empirically investigate the spatial relationship between industrial total output and wastewater discharge. In this paper, we empirically examine whether and how industrial wastewater discharge in a particular province may affect the wastewater discharge in its neighboring provinces. Results suggest that provinces (municipalities) with large-scale industrial sewage discharge are located along riversides and coastal areas and these discharges then gradually distribute to coastal, central, and western areas. Results also show a strong spatial autocorrelation of industrial wastewater discharge between the observed local province and its neighboring provinces which is increasing over time. In addition, there is also a significant spatial spillover effect of industrial wastewater discharge among neighboring provinces in China's eastern and central regions, indicating a structural convergence of high-pollution industries.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Águas Residuárias , China , Cidades , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Águas Residuárias/análise
10.
Water Res ; 203: 117537, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416647

RESUMO

Evolving complex mixtures of pharmaceuticals and transformation products in effluent-dominated streams pose potential impacts to aquatic species; thus, understanding the attenuation dynamics in the field and characterizing the prominent attenuation mechanisms of pharmaceuticals and their transformation products (TPs) is critical for hazard assessments. Herein, we determined the attenuation dynamics and the associated prominent mechanisms of pharmaceuticals and their corresponding TPs via a combined long-term field study and controlled laboratory experiments. For the field study, we quantified spatiotemporal exposure concentrations of five pharmaceuticals and six associated TPs in a small, temperate-region effluent-dominated stream during baseflow conditions where the wastewater plant was the main source of pharmaceuticals. We selected four sites (upstream, at, and two progressively downstream from effluent discharge) and collected water samples at 16 time points (64 samples in total, approximately twice monthly, depending on flows) for 1 year. Concurrently, we conducted photolysis, sorption, and biodegradation batch tests under controlled conditions to determine the major attenuation mechanisms. We observed 10-fold greater attenuation rates in the field compared to batch tests, demonstrating that connecting laboratory batch tests with field measurements to enhance predictive power is a critical need. Batch systems alone, often used for assessment, are useful for determining fate processes but poorly approximate in-stream attenuation kinetics. Sorption was the dominant attenuation process (t1/2<7.7 d) for 5 of 11 compounds in the batch tests, while the other compounds (n = 6) persisted in the batch tests and along the 5.1 km stream reach. In-stream parent-to-product transformation was minimal. Differential attenuation contributed to the evolving pharmaceutical mixture and created changing exposure conditions with concomitant implications for aquatic and terrestrial biota. Tandem field and laboratory characterization can better inform modeling efforts for transport and risk assessments.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Laboratórios , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Water Res ; 203: 117533, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416649

RESUMO

Studies to understand the role wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play in the dissemination of antibiotics (ABs), and in the emergence of antibiotic resistance (ABR), play an important role in tackling this global crisis. Here we describe the abundance and distribution of 16 ABs, and 4 corresponding antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), sampled from the influent to five WWTPs within a single river catchment. We consider four classes of antibiotics: fluroquinolones, macrolides, sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol, as well the corresponding antibiotic resistance genes qnrS, ermB, sul1 and catA. All antibiotics, apart from four fluroquinolones (besifloxacin, lomefloxacin, ulifloxacin, prulifloxacin), were detected within all influent wastewater from the 5 cities (1 city = 1 WWTP), as were the corresponding antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Strong correlations were observed between the daily loads of ABs and ARGs versus the size of the population served by each WWTP, as well as between AB and ARG loads at a single site. The efficiency of ABs and ARGs removal by the WWTPs varied according to site (and treatment process utilized) and target, although strong correlations were maintained between the population size served by WWTPs and daily loads of discharged ABs and ARGs into the environment. We therefore conclude that population size is the main determinant of the magnitude of AB and ARG burden in the environment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Rios , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Águas Residuárias/análise
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148269, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380240

RESUMO

The presence of bisphenol analogues (BPs) in wastewater can have adverse effects to organisms in the environment. However, knowledge of the wastewater sources, such as hospitals and landfills, as well as the removal of BPs are still limited. Fifteen BPs were investigated in hospital, landfills, and municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in South China. Eleven BPs were detected in various source wastewaters, and bisphenol A (BPA) is generally the dominant pollutant. In 4 hospitals, the total concentrations of BPs (∑BPs) in hospital wastewater and treated wastewater ranged from 122 to 1040 ng/L. In the landfill, ∑BPs in leachate and treated leachates were 32,130 and 145 ng/L, respectively. In 5 municipal WWTPs, ∑BPs was up to 17,200 ng/L in influents, 502 ng/L in effluents, and 291 ng/g in sludges. The modified A2/O process exhibited best removal profile for BPs, while the UNITANK process had no advantages. The annual mass load estimates of hospital treated wastewater, landfill treated leachate, and WWTP effluents in Guangdong Province, South China, were 630, 9.46, and 4697 kg/y, respectively. The risk quotient values in source effluents revealed low to medium estrogenic risks to receiving rivers. Control measures should be applied to further remove BPs not only from WWTP effluents but also from other sources.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Compostos Benzidrílicos , China , Hospitais , Fenóis , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148222, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380253

RESUMO

Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions are widely related to climate change, triggering several environmental problems of global concern and producing environmental, social, and economic negative impacts. Therefore, global research seeks to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the use of wastes under a circular economy scheme generates subproducts from the range of high to medium-value, representing a way to help sustainable development. Therefore, the use of wastewater as a culture medium to grow microalgae strains that biocapture environmental CO2, is a proposal with high potential to reduce the GHG presence in the environment. In this work, Scenedesmus sp. was cultivated using BG-11 medium and industrial wastewater (IWW) as a culture medium with three different CO2 concentrations, 0.03%, 10%, and 20% to determine their CO2 biocapture potential. Furthermore, the concomitant removal of COD, nitrates, and total phosphorus in wastewater was evaluated. Scenedesmus sp. achieves a biomass concentration of 1.9 g L-1 when is grown in BG-11 medium, 0.69 g L-1 when is grown in a combination of BG-11 medium and 25% of industrial wastewater; both cases with 20% CO2 supplied. The maximum CO2 removal efficiency (8.4%, 446 ± 150 mg CO2 L-1 day-1) was obtained with 10% CO2 supplied and using a combination of BG-11 medium and 50% IWW (T2). Also, the highest removal of COD was reached with a combination of BG-11 medium and T2 with a supply of 20% CO2 (82% of COD removal). Besides, the highest nitrates removal was achieved with a combination of BG-11 medium and 75% IWW (T3) with a supply of 10% CO2 (42% of nitrates removal) and the maximum TP removal was performed with the combination of BG-11 medium and 25% IWW (T1) with a supply of 10% CO2 (67% of TP removal). These results indicate that industrial wastewater can be used as a culture media for microalgae growth and CO2 biocapture can be performed as concomitant processes.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Scenedesmus , Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono , Águas Residuárias/análise
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148214, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380280

RESUMO

Constructed wetlands (CWs) as a green eco-technology have been applied for treating various wastewaters for several decades. However, sustainable reclamation of the harvested wetland biomass remains a challenge. Utilization of wetland biomass for value-added activated carbon (AC) production could be a potential strategy to improve the sustainability with multi-functions such as energy storage, resource recovery and environmental remediation. This paper aims to present a comprehensive review on the recent advances in production of ACs from wetland biomass and their application for adsorption of metal ions from wastewaters. The physicochemical properties of the ACs with chemical activations and their feasibility for heavy metal ions adsorption are compared, and the adsorption mechanisms are found to be complexation, physical adsorption, ion-exchange and electrostatic interactions. The surface chemistry of ACs impacted more on the adsorption ability towards heavy metal ions than their porosity. The in-situ modification during H3PO4 activation and new phosphorus-based activation are also summarized for enhancing the surface functionality and introducing specific surface functionalities on ACs, in turn promoting their adsorption ability for heavy metal ions. The high adsorption capacity and cost-effectiveness make these ACs as economical alternatives for waste remediation, and future research on the optimization and applications of ACs was also highlighted.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Biomassa , Carvão Vegetal , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360259

RESUMO

Human and veterinary pharmaceuticals are being increasingly used for disease treatment; hence, their distribution and factors influencing them in the aquatic environment need to be investigated. This study observed the effect of human and animal populations, usage, purchasing criteria (prescription vs. non-prescription), and land use to identify the spatio-temporal distribution of eight pharmaceuticals at twenty-four sites of the tributaries of the Han River watershed. In rural areas, the mean concentration (detection frequency) of non-prescription pharmaceuticals (NPPs) was higher (lower) compared to that of prescription pharmaceuticals (PPs); in urban areas, a reverse trend was observed. Pharmaceutical concentrations in urban and rural areas were mainly affected by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and non-point sources, respectively; concentrations were higher downstream (4.9 times) than upstream of the WWTPs. The concentration distribution (according to the target) was as follows: human-veterinary > human > veterinary. Correlation between total concentration and total usage of the pharmaceuticals was high, except for NPPs. Most livestock and land use (except cropland) were significantly positively correlated with pharmaceutical concentrations. Concentrations were mainly higher (1.5 times) during cold seasons than during warm seasons. The results of this study can assist policymakers in managing pharmaceutical pollutants while prioritizing emerging pollutants.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Drogas Veterinárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , República da Coreia , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Chemosphere ; 281: 130735, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289640

RESUMO

In many parts of the world, clean water has become increasingly scarce. Irrigation of agricultural land with treated wastewater is commonly used in response to water shortages but there is concern about the environmental fate and transport of contaminants present in the irrigation wastewater. This study aimed to examine the presence of wastewater sourced contaminants in soil and field grown corn (Zea mays) crops spray irrigated with treated wastewater. Soil, corn grain, leaves, and roots were sampled and tested from a long-term wastewater irrigation site as well as a non-irrigated control site in close geographic proximity. Samples were analyzed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) and both targeted and non-targeted analyses were conducted to determine chemical differences between the wastewater irrigated and control samples. Target compounds detected and quantified in the samples include herbicides, phthalates, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Non-targeted analysis showed chemical differences between each the wastewater irrigated and control samples. Furthermore, new chloro-dimethyl-benzotriazole compounds, which are suspected to be transformation products created by the chlorine disinfection process of the wastewater treatment plant, were tentatively identified in the wastewater effluent. Twenty of these new benzotriazoles were detected and semi-quantified in the wastewater irrigated soil samples at a maximum concentration of 472 ng/g. Eight of the most abundant benzotriazoles were also detected in the corn roots at concentrations up to 56 ng/g.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Águas Residuárias , Irrigação Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Zea mays
17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(7): 3375-3384, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212663

RESUMO

A petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PWWTP) was selected to investigate the distribution and removal of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and three forms of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), namely intracellular ARGs (iARGs), adsorbed-extracellular ARGs (aeARGs), and free extracellular ARGs (feARGs). Tetracycline, sulfanilamide, and ampicillin ARB were detected with the total absolute concentration of 8.45×102-2.38×105 CFU·mL-1; the absolute concentrations of three types of ARB decreased by 0.04 lg-0.21 lg through anaerobic treatment. The effect of aeration and precipitation treatment on ARB varies with its type, and the absolute concentration of ARB in effluent was 0.12 lg-0.63 lg higher than that in influent. The absolute abundance of aeARGs and iARGs in activated sludge was 1.96×107-3.02×1010 copies·g-1 and 5.22×107-4.15×1010 copies·g-1, respectively; the absolute abundance of feARGs in wastewater was 5.90×108-1.01×1012 copies·L-1. Anaerobic treatment can remove 0.13 lg-0.65 lg aeARGs and 0.04 lg-0.28 lg iARGs, while the removal efficiency of aeARGs and iARGs by aeration and precipitation process was affected by ARGs types and forms. The absolute abundance of feARGs in effluent is 0.06 lg-0.81 lg higher than that in influent. Redundancy analysis showed that the concentration of ARB was significantly positively correlated with chemical oxygen demand (COD), Cl-, and total nitrogen concentration (P<0.05). The abundance of aeARGs was positively correlated with COD and total nitrogen concentration (P<0.05), and both the abundance of iARGs and feARGs are positively correlated with heavy metals concentration (P<0.05). This study confirmed the enrichment risk of ARB and different forms of ARGs in PWWTPs, which provided references for the research and prevention of antibiotic resistance pollution in industrial wastewater.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Purificação da Água , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos , Águas Residuárias/análise
18.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(1): 1-15, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280151

RESUMO

The carwash is known as one of the most important urban services that brings about the production of huge volume of wastewater with high turbidity and high chemical oxygen demand (COD). Seasonal and carwash location features affect the quality of carwash wastewater. Various methods with special focus on chemical processes have been employed for carwash wastewater treatment and eliminating different pollutants from this wastewater of great concern for the environment. This review was conducted for identifying and comparing the efficiency of chemical processes for carwash wastewater treatment. To this aim, key words were identified and a search protocol was defined to search studies in three databases: Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed. The results of this systematic review indicated that coagulation (66%) is the most common chemical processes for carwash wastewater treatment. Although chemical processes are able to reduce the turbidity and COD over 80%. Due to the characteristics of carwash wastewater, chemical processes are a necessary pretreatment for processes such as membrane technology. Rapid treatment and high efficiency are the advantages of wastewater treatment by chemical methods, but the energy consumption and sludge volume are two main factors in selection the chemical processes for carwash wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Esgotos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Água
19.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299632

RESUMO

Monitoring and quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the environment constitute important and challenging tasks, as they are directly associated with human health. Three commonly used proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), namely, omeprazole sodium (OMP), pantoprazole sodium (PNT), and lansoprazole sodium (LNZ) are well separated and quantified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in pharmaceutical industrial wastewater. The separation of the studied drugs was performed on a stationary phase with a WatersTM column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm). The mobile phase was composed of methanol:0.05 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (adjusted to pH 7.5 using NaOH) (50:50, v/v). The elution process was done in gradient mode by changing the relative proportions of the mobile phase components with time to get an optimum separation pattern. The flow rate of the developing system was adjusted to 0.8 mL/minute. Detection of the separated drugs was performed at 230 nm. The studied drugs were quantified in the concentration range of 10-200 ng/mL for all drugs. The cited method was fully validated according to the international conference on harmonization (ICH-Q2B) guidelines, then it was applied successfully for quantification of the studied PPIs in real wastewater samples after their solid phase extraction (SPE).


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Arábia Saudita
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148611, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225150

RESUMO

Water scarcity is becoming an alarming issue in the Mediterranean countries. Therefore, using the treated wastewater in the irrigation is considered as a valuable option. However, uncontrolled and long-term irrigation by wastewater leads to human health and environmental damages, mainly related to some specific pollutants. The assessment of the availability and toxicity of the heavy metals after long term irrigation, under semi-arid climate, is not yet well documented. In this study, physicochemical properties, genotoxicity (Vicia faba micronucleus test), total and available (CaCl2-extractable) concentrations of Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Co and Cd in eight soils of peri-urban farms irrigated with wastewater were examined to evaluate their accumulation. The results indicated that long-term irrigation with wastewater induced significant increase of electrical conductivity, organic matter, calcium carbonate equivalent and nutrient availability. Total and available concentration of heavy metals were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in irrigated soils by wastewater. The total concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd and Co in irrigated soils by wastewater at 0-40 cm depth were 85.69, 43.94, 34.86, 14.62, 9.94 and 7.17 mg kg-1, respectively. Furthermore, the increase of the available metal fraction in irrigated soils by wastewater at 0-40 cm depth followed the following order: Co (1270.1%) > Cd (914.5%) > Cu (881.5%) > Cr (471.2%) > Pb (230.8%) > Zn (223.8%). The micronucleus assay indicated significant increase of micronucleus frequencies (41.25‰, 35.48‰, 21.66‰, 16.23‰ and 13.62‰ respectively for P1, P2, P3, P4 and P7) which were higher than the negative control (0‰) and the irrigated soil by fresh water (3.29‰). The micronucleus induction was significantly correlated with the high available fraction of Cd, Co and Zn at P1, P2 and P7. The genotoxicity can be a powerful test to assess the ecological effects associated with the interactions of heavy metals with other pollutants.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Irrigação Agrícola , Dano ao DNA , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Águas Residuárias/análise
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