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1.
J Water Health ; 18(1): 30-37, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129184

RESUMO

Wastewater plays a major role in water pollution causing transmission of several viral pathogens, including Aichi virus (AiV) and human bocavirus (HBoV), associated with gastrointestinal illness in humans. In this study, we investigated the presence of AiV and HBoV in aquatic, sludge, sediment matrices collected from Abu-Rawash wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), El-Rahawy drain, Rosetta branch of the River Nile in Egypt by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). AiV RNA was detected in 16.6% (2/12), 8.3% (1/12), 8.3% (1/12), 22% (16/72), 12.5% (3/24), 4% (1/24), and 0/24 (0%) of untreated raw sewage, treated sewage, sewage sludge, drainage water, drain sediment, river water, and river sediment, respectively. On the other hand, HBoV DNA was detected in 41.6% (5/12), 25% (3/12), 16.6% (2/12), 48.6% (35/72), 29% (7/24), 3/24 (12.5%), 4% (1/24) of untreated raw sewage, treated raw sewage, sewage sludge, drainage water, drain sediment, river water, and river sediment, respectively. This study provides data on the presence of these viruses in various types of water samples that are valuable to environmental risk assessment. In addition, the current study demonstrates the importance of environmental monitoring as an additional tool to investigate the epidemiology of AiV and HBoV circulating in a given community.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Bocavirus Humano , Kobuvirus , Rios/virologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Egito , Humanos , Esgotos
2.
J Water Health ; 17(6): 971-977, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850903

RESUMO

Torque teno virus (TTV) is a single-stranded DNA virus which is predominantly transmitted by the fecal-oral route and may be excreted in the absence of the clinical symptoms. TTV was previously considered a probable cause of hepatitis, but further studies could not strongly connect TTV to any serious health problem. TTV is highly resistant to water and wastewater treatment processes and can be a useful indicator for determining the fecal contamination of water. The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence and molecular characterization of TTV in treated wastewater in Tehran. Thirteen effluent samples were collected monthly from the biggest wastewater treatment plant in Tehran, Iran (from September 2017 to August 2018). The presence of the TTV was monitored in the samples by the nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The TTV genome was found in 76.9% of the samples, and TTV of groups 1 and 3 were determined using phylogenetic analysis. Therefore, treated wastewater can play a key role in the transmission of TTV and the usage of treated wastewater as a source of potable water needs to be carefully controlled.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/genética , Torque teno virus/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/virologia , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Prevalência , Torque teno virus/genética
3.
J Water Health ; 17(5): 670-682, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638019

RESUMO

In Ontario, Canada, information is lacking on chlorine and ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection performance against enteric viruses in wastewater. We enumerated enteroviruses and noroviruses, coliphages, and Escherichia coli per USEPA methods 1615, 1602, and membrane filtration, respectively, in pre- and post-disinfection effluent at five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with full-year monthly sampling, and calculated log10 reductions (LRs) while WWTPs complied with their monthly geometric mean limit of 200 E. coli/100 mL. Modeling of densities by left-censored estimation and Bayesian inference gave very similar results. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-detected enteroviruses and noroviruses were abundant in post-disinfection effluent (mean concentrations of 2.1 × 10+4-7.2 × 10+5 and 2.7 × 10+4-3.6 × 10+5 gene copies (GC)/L, respectively). Chlorine or UV disinfection produced modest LRs for culture- (0.3-0.9) and PCR-detected enteroviruses (0.3-1.3), as well as noroviruses GI + GII (0.5-0.8). Coliphages and E. coli were more susceptible, with LRs of 0.8-3.0 and 2.5, respectively. Sand-filtered effluent produced significantly higher enteric virus LRs (except cultured enteroviruses). Coliphage and human enteric virus densities gave significantly positive correlations using Kendall's Tau test. Enteric viruses are abundant in wastewater effluent following routine chlorine or UV disinfection processes that target E. coli. Coliphages appear to be good indicators for evaluating wastewater disinfection of enteric viruses.


Assuntos
Desinfecção , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Teorema de Bayes , Cloro , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Ontário , Raios Ultravioleta
4.
Food Environ Virol ; 11(4): 364-373, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571037

RESUMO

To enhance our ability to monitor poliovirus circulation and certify eradication, we evaluated the performance of the bag-mediated filtration system (BMFS) against the two-phase separation (TPS) method for concentrating wastewater samples for poliovirus detection. Sequential samples were collected at two sites in Mexico; one L was collected by grab and ~ 5 L were collected and filtered in situ with the BMFS. In the laboratory, 500 mL collected by grab were concentrated using TPS and the sample contained in the filter of the BMFS was eluted without secondary concentration. Concentrates were tested for the presence of poliovirus and non-poliovirus enterovirus (NPEV) using Global Poliovirus Laboratory Network standard procedures. Between February 16, 2016, and April 18, 2017, 125 pairs of samples were obtained. Collectors spent an average (± standard deviation) of 4.3 ± 2.2 min collecting the TPS sample versus 73.5 ± 30.5 min collecting and filtering the BMFS sample. Laboratory processing required an estimated 5 h for concentration by TPS and 3.5 h for elution. Sabin 1 poliovirus was detected in 37 [30%] samples with the TPS versus 24 [19%] samples with the BMFS (McNemar's mid p value = 0.004). Sabin 3 poliovirus was detected in 59 [47%] versus 49 (39%) samples (p = 0.043), and NPEV was detected in 67 [54%] versus 40 [32%] samples (p < 0.001). The BMFS method without secondary concentration did not perform as well as the TPS method for detecting Sabin poliovirus and NPEV. Further studies are needed to guide the selection of cost-effective environmental surveillance methods for the polio endgame.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Filtração , México , Poliovirus/classificação , Poliovirus/genética , Esgotos/virologia , Águas Residuárias/química
5.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2707-2713, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456085

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that the fecal indicator bacteria that are routinely used for testing water quality are inadequate for ensuring protection of the public health. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) has recently been suggested as an alternative indicator of human fecal contamination in water; however, in Egypt there are no data available about its occurrence and concentration in aquatic environment. The concentration of PMMoV in the influent and effluent of three wastewater treatment plants was measured using qRT-PCR over a period of one year and compared to that of human adenovirus (HAdV), which is considered an indicator for human fecal contamination. PMMoV was detected in ~ 94% of the influent samples and 78% of the effluent samples, with concentrations ranging from 3.9 × 104 to 3.3 × 108 genome copies/l (GC/l) in the influent and 3.9 × 104 to 1.2 × 107 GC/l in the effluent. Similarly, HAdV was identified in 88% and 78% of the influent and effluent samples, respectively. The HAdV concentration ranged between 1.5 × 104 and 1.5 × 107 GC/l for the influent and 2.6 × 104 and 4.4 × 106 GC/l for the effluent. No significant difference was found between the removal ratio of PMMoV and HAdV. Viral reduction of 0.2-1.9 log10 and 0.2- 2.3 log10 by the treatment process was observed for PMMoV and HAdV, respectively. Both viruses showed no clear seasonality. Our data support the use of PMMoV as a fecal indicator of wastewater contamination and a process indicator for the performance of the treatment process.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Tobamovirus/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Poluição da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , DNA Viral/análise , Egito , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Tobamovirus/genética , Microbiologia da Água
6.
Arch Virol ; 164(10): 2599-2603, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278422

RESUMO

This work describes the characterization and genome annotation of a new lytic Enterococcus faecalis siphovirus, vB_EfaS_AL3 (referred to as AL3), isolated from wastewater samples collected in Liaoning Province, China. The genome of phage AL3 is composed of linear double-stranded DNA that is 40,789 bp in length with a G + C content of 34.84% and 61 putative protein-coding genes. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses indicate that phage AL3 should be considered a novel phage.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/virologia , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Bacteriólise , Composição de Bases , China , DNA/química , DNA/genética , DNA Viral/química , DNA Viral/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Ensaio de Placa Viral , Vírion/ultraestrutura
7.
Food Environ Virol ; 11(4): 350-363, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154654

RESUMO

Wastewater represents the main reusable water source after being adequately sanitized by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this sense, only bacterial quality indicators are usually checked to this end, and human pathogenic viruses usually escape from both sanitization procedures and controls, posing a health risk on the use of effluent waters. In this study, we evaluated a protocol based on aluminum adsorption-precipitation to concentrate several human enteric viruses, including norovirus genogroup I (NoV GI), NoV GII, hepatitis A virus (HAV), astrovirus (HAstV), and rotavirus (RV), with limits of detection of 4.08, 4.64, 5.46 log genomic copies (gc)/L, 3.31, and 5.41 log PCR units (PCRU)/L, respectively. Furthermore, the method was applied in two independent laboratories to monitor the presence of NoV GI, NoV GII, and HAV in effluent and influent waters collected from five WWTPs at two different sampling dates. Concomitantly, a viability PMAxx-RT-qPCR was applied to all the samples to get information on the potential infectivity of both influent and effluent waters. The ranges of the titers in influent waters for NoV GI, NoV GII, RV, and HAstV were 4.80-7.56, 5.19-7.31 log gc/L, 5.41-6.52, and 4.59-7.33 log PCRU/L, respectively. In effluent waters, the titers ranged between 4.08 and 6.27, 4.64 and 6.08 log gc/L, < 5.51, and between 3.31 and 5.58 log PCRU/L. Moreover, the viral titers detected by viability RT-qPCR showed statistical differences with RT-qPCR alone, suggesting the potential viral infectivity of the samples despite some observed reductions. The proposed method could be applied in ill-equipped laboratories, due to the lack of a requirement for a specific apparatus (i.e., ultracentrifuge).


Assuntos
Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Laboratórios/normas , Virologia/métodos , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Enterovirus/classificação , Enterovirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Esgotos/virologia , Virologia/normas
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 23346-23358, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197665

RESUMO

With increasing environment pollution and bacterial transmitted viral diseases globally, the development of new, effective, and low-cost materials/strategies is the current major challenge. To combat with this alarming problem, three new multi-functional and thermally stable SnO2NPs@ZIF-8 composites (NC1, NC2, and NC3) were synthesized by a facile and sustainable approach involving in situ encapsulation of SnO2NPs (150, 300, and 500 µL suspension in methanol) within zeolitic imidazole framework at room temperature. The morphology and crystallinity of ZIF-8 remained unchanged upon the proper encapsulation of SnO2NPs in its matrix. Herein, for the first time, the antiviral potential of ZIF-8 and SnO2NPs@ZIF-8 against chikungunya virus is reported by investigating their cytotoxicity against Vero cell line (employing MTT ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide)) assay). The maximum non-toxic doses were 0.04 mg mL-1 for ZIF-8 and SnO2NPs@ZIF-8 and 0.1 mg mL-1 for SnO2NPs. Further, NC1 exhibited (based on plaque assay) reduction in viral load/titers up to > 80% during post-treatment and > 50% during pre-treatment, greater than that of ZIF-8 and SnO2NPs due to synergistic effect. Further, NC1 (10 mg) exhibited enhanced photocatalytic efficiency (≥ 96%) for degradation of methylene blue (0.5 × 10-5 M) at pH ˃ 7.0. The probable mechanism for their antiviral activity and photocatalytic activity has been discussed. The multi-functional composites can effectively be used to reduce water pollution and as remedy for mosquito/bacterial transmitted viral diseases.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Imidazóis , Azul de Metileno , Processos Fotoquímicos , Purificação da Água , Zeolitas
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 33-42, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075600

RESUMO

Analysis of virus removal by tertiary or advanced sewage treatment processes is an emerging topic due to importance of reusing water on a global level. This study aimed to monitor important human viral pathogens: the human adenovirus (HAdV), JC polyomavirus (JCV) and Species A rotaviruses (RVA) in urban sewage, secondary effluents and reclaimed water from metropolitan São Paulo (MSP), Brazil. Four large wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in MSP were sampled monthly during a one-year period (April 2015 to March 2016). The viruses were quantified by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and HAdV viability was tested by the integrated cell culture (ICC)-qPCR assay. WWTPs are composed of activated sludge processes and different tertiary treatments (coagulation/sedimentation, sand-anthracite filters, membrane bioreactors (MBRs)/reverse osmosis (RO) and disinfection by chlorination). Physicochemical parameters were also evaluated to verify association with density of viruses detected in different treatment stages. HAdV, JCV and RVA were consistently detected (100%) in the sewage influent samples (range: 106-108 genome copies GC/L). In the secondary effluent, HAdV was detected in 100% (48/48) of the analysed samples, JCV in 85.4% and RVA in 97.9% (range: 104-107 GC/L for all viruses tested). HAdV was the most frequently detected virus in the tertiary effluent (62.2%) (28/45), exhibiting a viability between 0 and 44% of the tested samples in the wastewater reclamation systems. The MBR/RO systems demonstrated better virus removal efficiencies (range: 2.3-2.9 log10). Temperature, pH, turbidity and total organic carbon presented association with the viral density in the reclaimed water samples. Presence of viruses in treated effluents can indicates health risks depending on uses of recovery water. Further risk assessment studies should be conducted to better assess health risks under different exposure scenarios for water recovery in urban settings.


Assuntos
Enterovirus , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Microbiologia da Água
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 1135-1145, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096327

RESUMO

Aerated Constructed Wetlands are a state-of-the-art design that provides a different physical and chemical environment (compared to traditional passive wetland designs) for the wastewater treatment processes and, thus, may have different pathogen removal characteristics. In order to establish the fate of bacterial and viral indicators, a field study was carried out at a Sewage Treatment Works (STW) in the UK (serving 20,000 pe). The STW consists of primary and secondary sedimentation tanks and trickling filters (TF) as the biological stage. A large (1,160 m2) pilot aerated Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland (AVFCW) was constructed at the STW as tertiary stage receiving » of the total flow rate, i.e., 1250 m3/day. Effluent quality of the AVFCW complied with national and international standards for environmental discharge and reuse. For the first time, two sets of bacterial (Faecal coliforms, E.coli and intestinal enterococci) and viral indicators (Somatic coliphages, F-RNA specific bacteriophages and human-specific B. fragilis GB124 phages) were simultaneously investigated in an AVFCW and TF. High elimination rates were detected (up to 3.7 and 2.2 log reduction for bacteria indicators and phages, respectively) and strong correlations between the two sets were found. The superior efficiency of the aerated Constructed Wetlands in microbiological contamination removal compared to passive wetland systems was established for the first time, which may have implications for process selection for wastewater reuse. This field study therefore provides new evidence on the fate of bacteriophages and a first indication of their potential use for performance evaluation in TF and aerated Constructed Wetlands. It also demonstrates that the combination of TF with aerated constructed wetlands could be a novel and effective treatment scheme for new STW or for the upgrade of existing STW.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacteriófagos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Microbiologia da Água , Áreas Alagadas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/virologia
11.
Food Environ Virol ; 11(3): 220-228, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037614

RESUMO

While one of the biggest problems we are facing today is water scarcity, enormous quantities of water are still being used in irrigation. If contaminated, this water can act as an effective pathway for the spread of disease-causing agents, like viruses. Here, we present a novel, environmentally friendly method known as cold atmospheric plasma for inactivation of viruses in water used in closed irrigation systems. We measured the plasma-mediated viral RNA degradation as well as the plasma-induced loss of viral infectivity using potato virus Y as a model virus due to its confirmed water transmissibility and economic as well as biological importance. We showed that only 1 min of plasma treatment is sufficient for successful inactivation of viruses in water samples with either high or low organic background. The plasma-mediated inactivation was efficient even at markedly higher virus concentrations than those expected in irrigation waters. Obtained results point to reactive oxygen species as the main mode of viral inactivation. Our laboratory-scale experiments confirm for the first time that plasma has an excellent potential as the eukaryotic virus inactivation tool for water sources and could thus provide a cost-effective solution for irrigation mediated plant virus transmission. The outstanding inactivation efficiency demonstrated by plasma treatments in water samples offers further expansions of its application to other water sources such as reused wastewater or contaminated drinking waters, as well as other plant, animal, and human waterborne viruses, ultimately leading to the prevention of water scarcity and numerous human, animal, and plant infections worldwide.


Assuntos
Desinfecção/métodos , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Potyvirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Irrigação Agrícola , Potyvirus/fisiologia , Poluição da Água
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 675: 305-312, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030137

RESUMO

Human mastadenoviruses (HAdVs) are DNA viruses that can cause a wide range of clinical diseases, including gastroenteritis, respiratory illnesses, conjunctivitis, and in more severe cases hepatitis, pancreatitis and disseminated diseases. HAdV infections are generally asymptomatic or self-limiting, but can cause adverse outcomes within vulnerable populations. Since most HAdV serotypes replicate within the human gastrointestinal tract, high levels of HAdV DNA are excreted into wastewater systems. In this study, we identified the genetic diversity of HAdV at a population level using wastewater samples collected from Sydney and Melbourne from 2016 to 2017, with the use of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. In addition, HAdV DNA levels were quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) based methods to better understand the health risks involved if wastewater contamination occurs. An average of 1.8 × 107 genome copies of HAdV DNA was detected in one litre of wastewater collected in Sydney and Melbourne, over the two-year study period. A total of six major groups of HAdV were identified in wastewater samples using MiSeq, which included 19 different serotypes. Of those, the most prevalent was F41 (83.5%), followed by F40 (11.0%) and A31 (3.7%). In contrast, five groups of HAdV were identified in clinical samples with F41 as the most dominant serotype, (52.5% of gastroenteritis cases), followed by C1 and C2 (each responsible for 15.0%), and B3 was the fourth most common serotype (7.5%). This study demonstrated the practicability of using amplicon based NGS to identify HAdV diversity and quantify HAdV genome levels in environmental water samples, as well as broadening our current understanding of circulating HAdV in the Australian population.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Variação Genética , Mastadenovirus/genética , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Austrália , DNA Viral , Genótipo , Humanos , Mastadenovirus/classificação
14.
J Water Health ; 17(2): 287-294, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942778

RESUMO

Incidence of enteric viruses in sewage, the efficacy of wastewater treatment plants to remove these viruses, and health effects from their release into the surface water are very important environmental issues in the microbiology field. One of the most pathogenic enteric viruses is adenovirus which can cause a serious disease such as gastroenteritis with low grade fever and mild dehydration in humans. In this study we performed qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of HAdV on 60 stool samples from children with acute gastroenteritis admitted to Abu-Rish hospital and 96 environmental samples (32 raw sewage, 32 treated sewage, 32 sewage sludge) collected from Zenin wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). HAdV were detected in 17 (28.3%) of stool, 27 (84.4%) of raw sewage, 16 (50%) of treated sewage and 25 (78%) of sludge samples. The viral concentrations were in the range of 2.02 × 106-7.23 × 106, 8.7 × 105-4.3 × 106, 1.22 × 104-3.7 × 106 and 1.48 × 106-1.77 × 107 GC/mL in stool, raw sewage, treated sewage, and sludge, respectively. HAdV was detected throughout the whole year of sample collection. Moreover, our results suggested that males were more susceptible to adenovirus infections than females. The results indicate that the high incidence of HAdV in the treated sewage may cause adverse health effects.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Criança , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Esgotos
15.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 223, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Zero-valent iron sand filtration can remove multiple contaminants, including some types of pathogenic bacteria, from contaminated water. However, its efficacy at removing complex viral populations, such as those found in reclaimed water used for agricultural irrigation, has not been fully evaluated. Therefore, this study utilized metagenomic sequencing and epifluorescent microscopy to enumerate and characterize viral populations found in reclaimed water and zero-valent iron-sand filtered reclaimed water sampled three times during a larger greenhouse study. RESULTS: Zero-valent iron-sand filtered reclaimed water samples had significantly less virus-like particles than reclaimed water samples at all collection dates, with the reclaimed water averaging between 108 and 109 and the zero-valent iron-sand filtered reclaimed water averaging between 106 and 107 virus-like particles per mL. In addition, for both sample types, viral metagenomes (viromes) were dominated by bacteriophages of the order Caudovirales, largely Siphoviridae, and genes related to DNA metabolism. However, the proportion of sequences homologous to bacteria, as well as the abundance of genes possibly originating from a bacterial host, was higher in the viromes of zero-valent iron-sand filtered reclaimed water samples. Overall, zero-valent iron-sand filtered reclaimed water had a lower total concentration of virus-like particles and a different virome community composition compared to unfiltered reclaimed water.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Caudovirales/genética , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Ferro/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Siphoviridae/genética , Adsorção , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Caudovirales/classificação , Caudovirales/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Filtração/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Metagenômica/métodos , Filogenia , Siphoviridae/classificação , Siphoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Vírion/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Purificação da Água/métodos
16.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(2): 342-348, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865605

RESUMO

Contribution of specific interactions between human enteric viruses and wastewater suspended solids on human enteric virus removal by microfiltration was studied. A cross-flow microfiltration system was used with rotavirus HAL1166 and Enterobacter cloacae SENG-6 as the model virus and wastewater suspended solid. Cleavage of rotavirus HAL1166 protein VP4 by trypsin produces the VP8* subunit, which specifically interacts with histo-blood group antigen (HBGA). In the presence of Enterobacter cloacae SENG-6, the trypsin-treated rotavirus concentration reduced with time (R2 > 0.6) compared to the reduction of non-trypsin treated rotavirus. Calculation of the gel/cake layer deposited on the membrane, consisting of Enterobacter cloacae SENG-6 and either trypsin-treated or non-trypsin treated rotavirus HAL1166, revealed that the microflocs consisting of trypsin-treated rotavirus and Enterobacter cloacae SENG-6 have lower porosity and permeability, displaying higher resistance to virus passage through the membrane. The results provide evidence that specific wastewater suspended solids-human enteric virus interaction can contribute to increasing the removal of human enteric viruses by microfiltration.


Assuntos
Enterobacter cloacae/fisiologia , Rotavirus/fisiologia , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Humanos , Tripsina , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/virologia
17.
Arch Virol ; 164(6): 1527-1533, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900072

RESUMO

A novel virulent bacteriophage, φAbp2, infecting multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii was isolated from the wastewater of a sewage management centre at Southwest Hospital, China. Transmission electron microscopy and phylogenetic analysis revealed that φAbp2 belongs to the subfamily Peduovirinae. A one-step growth curve demonstrated that φAbp2 had a latent period of 15 min, a lysis period of 35 min, and a burst size of 222 particles per infected host cell. Moreover, φAbp2 showed a relatively broad host range in local A. baumannii, and it also exhibited tolerance over a wider range of thermal and pH conditions. Genomic sequencing revealed that φAbp2 has a circular double-stranded DNA genome with no sequence similarity to our previously isolated φAbp1. Eighty-eight putative open reading frames (ORFs) encoding 41 proteins of known function and 47 of unknown function were identified, and the G/C content was 37.84%. φAbp2 is a new member of the subfamily Peduovirinae of the family Myoviridae. Its genome sequence is very similar to that of the A. baumannii phage LZ35.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter baumannii/virologia , Genoma Viral , Myoviridae/classificação , Myoviridae/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Bacteriófagos/classificação , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Composição de Bases , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Myoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Águas Residuárias/virologia
18.
Infect Genet Evol ; 71: 151-158, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905776

RESUMO

Human polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) is a widely distributed viral agent and because it high resistance against environmental conditions it is frequently recovered from diverse sources of water and is considered a good marker for human pollution. Phylogenetic analysis of JCPyV isolated in different part of the world has revealed 7 genotypes, which have been associated with specific populations or ethnics groups. This feature has been used to trace pre-historic and historic human migration patterns across the world. Although there are many reports describing genotypes distribution around the world, data on JCPyV genotypes in the southernmost areas of South America are scarce. The goal of this study is to detect and characterize the JCPyV that circulates in Santiago, Chile using sewage samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Sewage samples were obtained monthly during 1 year from three WWTPs which together process about 80% of wastewater generated in the city of Santiago, Chile. Our results show that JCPyV profusely circulates in Santiago, Chile, because it was detected in 80.56% of the samples, reinforcing the use of JCPyV as a feasible marker to assess human environmental pollution. JCPyV was detected in high frequency in influents and effluents samples, with the largest WWTPs showing the highest percentage of detection and viral loads. In the phylogenetic analysis the Chilean sequences clustered mainly with genotype 2A (Asian genotype). This is similar to that previously reported from Buenos Aires, Argentina and divergent to data from Brazil, where the circulation of European subtypes 1 and 4 and African subtypes 3 and 6 has been described.


Assuntos
Vírus JC/genética , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Poluição Ambiental , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Genótipo , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Esgotos/virologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia
19.
Viruses ; 11(3)2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841581

RESUMO

Human norovirus is the major cause of non-bacterial epidemic gastroenteritis. Human norovirus binds to environmental solids via specific and non-specific interactions, and several specific receptors for human norovirus have been reported. Among them, histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) are the most studied specific receptor. Studies have identified the presence of HBGA-like substances in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of human enteric bacteria present in aquatic environments, gastrointestinal cells, gills, and palps of shellfish, and cell walls, leaves, and veins of lettuce. These HBGA-like substances also interact with human norovirus in a genotype-dependent manner. Specific interactions between human norovirus and environmental matrices can affect norovirus removal, infectivity, inactivation, persistence, and circulation. This review summarizes the current knowledge and future directions related to the specific interactions between human norovirus and HBGA-like substances in environmental matrices and their possible effects on the fate and circulation of human norovirus.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Meio Ambiente , Norovirus/fisiologia , Sítios de Ligação , Vírus de DNA , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Genótipo , Humanos , Alface/virologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Norovirus/genética , Frutos do Mar/virologia , Águas Residuárias/virologia
20.
Food Environ Virol ; 11(2): 113-119, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758724

RESUMO

The discharge of human-derived wastewater represents a major threat to water quality with the potential for waterborne disease outbreaks mainly associated with enteric viruses. To prevent illnesses, indicators associated with fecal contamination are monitored in polluted areas, however, their prevalence often does not correlate well with viral pathogens. In this study, we used crAssphage, a recently discovered human-specific gut-associated bacteriophage, for the surveillance of wastewater-derived viral contamination. Untreated and treated wastewater, surface water, sediment and mussel samples were collected monthly over 1 year from the Conwy River and estuary (UK) and were analyzed for crAssphage marker by quantitative PCR. This is the first long-term catchment-to-coast scale study of environmental crAssphage concentrations. CrAssphage was detected in all sample types and showed no distinct seasonal pattern. CrAssphage concentrations were 2 × 105-109 genome copies (gc)/L in all untreated wastewater influent and 107-108 gc/L in secondary treated effluent samples, 3 × 103 gc/L-3 × 107 gc/L in surface water samples (94% positive) and 2 × 102-104 gc/g sediment (68% positive) and mussel digestive tissue (79% positive). CrAssphage concentrations were 1-5 log10 higher than human enteric virus titers (norovirus, sapovirus, adenovirus, polyomavirus). Our results indicate that crAssphage is well suited to tracking human wastewater contamination and pollution risk assessment in aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rios/virologia , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Animais , Bivalves/virologia , Enterovirus/classificação , Enterovirus/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes/virologia , Sedimentos Geológicos/virologia , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Esgotos , Reino Unido , Poluição da Água
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