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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6695707, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33708993

RESUMO

Background: The UAE reported its first cluster of COVID 2019 in a group of returned travellers from Wuhan in January 2020. Various comorbidities are associated with worse disease prognosis. Understanding the impact of ethnicity on the disease outcome is an important public health issue but data from our region is lacking. Aim: We aim to identify comorbidities among patients hospitalized for COVID-19 that are associated with inhospital death. Also, to assess if ethnicity is correlated with increased risk of death. Patients and Method. The study is a single-centre, observational study in Shaikh Shakhbout Medical City, Abu Dhabi. Patients admitted with COVID-19, between 1st of March and the end of May, were enrolled. Records were studied for demography, comorbidity, and ethnicity. Ethnicity was divided into Arabs (Gulf, North Africa, and the Levant), South Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Afghanistan), Africans, the Philippines, and others. The study was approved by the Department of Health of Abu Dhabi. Results: 1075 patients (972 males) were enrolled. There were 24 nationalities under 5 ethnicity groups. Mean (average) age was 51 years (20-81). 101 (9.4%) died with deceased patients being significantly older. Death risk was not significantly influenced by sex. Duration of hospitalization among survivors was 6.2 days (0.2-40.4) with older patients and men staying longer (P < 0.01). Comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, chronic renal disease, liver disease, and malignancy were associated with higher risk of mortality univariate, but only liver disease reached statistical significance after adjustment for age. The highest percentage of death was seen in Arab Levant (21.2) followed by the Asian Afghan (18.8); however, differences among ethnicities did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.086). Conclusion: COVID-19 outcome was worse in older people and those with comorbidities. Men and older patients required longer hospitalization. Ethnicity is not seen to impact the risk of mortality.


Assuntos
/etnologia , /mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ásia Sudeste/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 40, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of studies linking exposure to metals with certain health outcomes focus on known toxic metals. Alternatively, this study assesses the extent to which exposure to a wider range of metals during gestation is associated with childhood morbidity. METHODS: We analyzed the concentrations of 25 metals found in urine samples of 111 pregnant women of Arab-Bedouin origin collected prior to birth. In addition, we collected medical records on their offspring for six years following birth, including every interaction with HMOs, local hospitals, and pharmacies. RESULTS: The main types of morbidities diagnosed and treated during this period were preterm births, malformations, asthma-like morbidity, cardiovascular and behavioral problems, and obesity. Multivariable analysis showed that offspring born before term were more likely to have been exposed to elevated maternal concentrations of zinc, thallium, aluminum, manganese, and uranium, all with adjusted relative risk above 1.40 for an increase by each quintile. Likewise, children with asthma had been exposed to higher levels of magnesium, strontium, and barium at gestation, while behavioral outcomes were associated with elevated biometals, i.e., sodium, magnesium, calcium, selenium, and zinc, as well as higher levels of lithium, cobalt, nickel, strontium, cadmium, vanadium, arsenic, and molybdenum. A heatmap of adjusted relative risk estimates indicates the considerable implications that exposure to metals may have for preterm birth and developmental outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The current study shows that perinatal exposure to metals is adversely associated with pediatric morbidity. Further such analyses on additional samples are warranted.


Assuntos
Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Metais/urina , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Morbidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
3.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 17, 2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess all-cause mortality has been used in many countries as an estimate of mortality effects from COVID-19. What was the excess mortality in Israel in 2020 and when, where and for whom was this excess? METHODS: Mortality rates between March to November 2020 for various demographic groups, cities, month and week were compared with the average rate during 2017-2019 for the same groups or periods. RESULTS: Total mortality rates for March-November were significantly higher by 6% in 2020, than the average of 2017-2019, 14% higher among the Arab population and 5% among Jews and Others. Significantly higher monthly mortality rates were found in August, September and October by 11%, 13% and 19%, respectively, among Jews and Others, and by 19%, 64% and 40% in the Arab population. Excess mortality was significant only at older ages, 7% higher rates at ages 65-74 and 75-84 and 8% at ages 85 and above, and greater for males than females in all ages and population groups. Interestingly, mortality rates decreased significantly among the younger population aged under 25. The cities with most significant excess mortality were Ramla (25% higher), Bene Beraq (24%), Bat Yam (15%) and Jerusalem (8%). CONCLUSION: Israel has seen significant excess mortality in August-October 2020, particularly in the Arab sector. The excess mortality in March-November was statistically significant only at older ages, over 65. It is very important to protect this susceptible population from exposure and prioritize them for inoculations. Lockdowns were successful in lowering the excess mortality. The excess mortality is similar to official data on COVID-19 deaths.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Judeus/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/etnologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Inquiry ; 58: 46958021993944, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618573

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to offer a timely understanding of university students' knowledge, perception, and preventative practices related to COVID-19 in Palestine and to determine affecting factors (gender, region, and type of locality). A cross-sectional design was used and data was collected over 2 weeks in April 2020 through an online survey. A total of 484 surveys were collected from students from different Palestinian universities. Participants showed high levels of knowledge across multiple topics (symptoms and characteristics of COVID-19, prevention practices, and at-risk groups), although respondents were less likely to indicate mask wearing as an effective prevention practice compared to other practices, and almost one-third reported incorrectly that taking antibiotics is effective in preventing COVID-19 infection. Respondents reported the most trust in the Ministry of Health as a source of information, and the least trust in social media. A generally high level of acceptance of government regulations related to the COVID-19 pandemic was found. Given the current global situation and the second wave of infections in Palestine, plans should be in place to disseminate correct information and combat newly-emerging rumors and misinformation through channels that are trusted by the university student population.


Assuntos
Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Árabes/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Opinião Pública , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401543

RESUMO

The Israeli Mamanet Cachibol League (MCL) serves as a community model that incorporates physical activity and amateur team sports among women. Team sports have been shown to bridge gaps and build positive relationships between communities. There is a paucity of data regarding the advantages of team sports to promote the health and well-being of women from different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of participation in MCL with social capital, health, and well-being across two ethnic groups: Jewish and Arab women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among women aged 25-64: 102 Jewish and 96 Arab MCL participants, and 102 Jewish and 81 Arab non-MCL participants. Data regarding social capital (trust, social support and social involvement) and well-being (self-reported health and psychosomatic and depressive symptoms) were analyzed using two-way analyses of covariance and multiple regression models with sequential entry of the variables. MCL participants from both ethnic groups reported higher social capital (p < 0.001), better self-reported health (p < 0.001), and lower psychosomatic symptoms (p < 0.001) compared to non-participants. Jewish MCL participants reported lower depressive symptoms (p < 0.001) than non-participants, however no difference was found between Arab MCL participants and non-participants (p < 0.160). Amateur team sports such as MCL are related with higher levels of well-being and social capital. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies that examine the change in social capital and well-being over time.


Assuntos
Árabes , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Judeus , Capital Social , Esportes , Adulto , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Judeus/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(12): 788-793, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death. OBJECTIVES: To identify changing patterns of lung cancer and its histologic subtypes among different population groups in Israel over a 25 year period. METHODS: Primary lung cancers, all types and all stages, diagnosed during 1990-2014 were recorded in the Israel National Cancer Registry database. Demographic information was retrieved from the National Population Register. Age-standardized rates for the different subgroups were calculated for each year. Joinpoint software was used to analyze trends in incidence. RESULTS: We identified 42,672 lung cancer cases. The most common histology was adenocarcinoma (34%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (19%), large cell/not-otherwise-specified (19%), other histologies (15%), and small cell lung cancer (11%). The adenocarcinoma incidence rose from 25.7% to 48.2% during the examined period. Large cell/not-otherwise-specified incidence peaked around 2005-2006 and declined after. Lung cancer incidence increased significantly for the population overall and specifically in Arab females, followed by Jewish females and by Arab males. Adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer increased in Jewish females and in Arab males. A younger age of diagnosis was seen in Arab compared to Jewish patients. CONCLUSIONS: Jewish females and Arab males and females living in Israel demonstrated a constant increase in lung cancer incidence, mostly in adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer incidence. In addition, a younger age of diagnosis in Arabs was noted. Smoking reduction interventions and screening should be implemented in those populations.


Assuntos
Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Judeus/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/etnologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/etnologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Israel/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Sexuais , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/etnologia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23211, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181703

RESUMO

Dietary intake influences gut microbiota activity. Nevertheless, there is a lack of evidence available that illustrates the acute effects of high glucose meal on metabolic endotoxemia. The present study assessed the acute impact of high glucose meal on endotoxemia and other clinical parameters in Saudi females with varying degrees of glycemia.The subjects were 64 consenting pre-menopausal women, grouped into 3: control [n = 14 lean, non-T2DM, BMI = 22.2 ±â€Š2.2 kg/m]; overweight [n = 16, non-T2DM, BMI = 28.5 ±â€Š1.5 kg/m] and T2DM [n = 34, BMI = 35.2 ±â€Š7.7 kg/m]. After an overnight fast, all subjects were given a standardized high-glucose (75 g) meal. Anthropometrics were taken and blood samples were withdrawn at baseline and postprandial (0, 2 and 4-hours), serum glucose, endotoxin and lipid profile were quantified.At baseline, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and serum glucose levels were significantly higher (P values <.01) whereas significantly lower HDL-cholesterol levels (P < .01) were observed in T2DM subjects compared to other groups. Baseline endotoxin levels were highest in the overweight group (3.2 ±â€Š1.1 mmol/L) as compared to control (2.0 ±â€Š0.5 mmol/L) and T2DM (2.7 ±â€Š1.2 mmol/L) (P = .046). HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, significantly decreased in the T2DM group after 2 hours (P values <.05), whereas unremarkable changes observed in other groups. Lastly, endotoxin levels significantly increased only in the overweight group (3.2 ±â€Š1.1 vs 4.2 ±â€Š1.4 mmol/L; P < .05), 4 hours postprandial.High glucose meal elevates endotoxemia only among overweight subjects and impairs dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Endotoxemia/complicações , Glucose/análise , Obesidade/complicações , Administração Oral , Adulto , Árabes/classificação , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Endotoxemia/fisiopatologia , Jejum/sangue , Jejum/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Lipídeos/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita
8.
Rev Mal Respir ; 37(9): 699-709, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no validated Arabic version of the French questionnaire of quality of life, the VQ11. This study aimed to test the applicability of the Arabic version of the VQ11 in Tunisian patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: It was a prospective and cross-sectional study, spread over seven months, that included 40 stable COPD male patients. The Arabic version of VQ11, translated by a bilingual expert, was used. The functional, psychological, relational and total scores were calculated. Patients were divided into two groups according to the GOLD classification: "A-B" (n=25) and "C-D" (n=15). A significant correlation-coefficient (r) of≥0.51, between the VQ11 total score and the ADO index (age, dyspnoea, obstruction), and higher quality of life scores in GOLD "C-D" when compared to GOLD "A-B" would be in favour of application of the Arabic version of the VQ11. RESULTS: The mean±standard deviation of age, post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC, ADO index and VQ11 total score were 64±8 years, 0.55±0.08, 4.8±1.7 and 2±10, respectively. A significant "r" (0.56) was identified between the ADO index and the total score. Psychological, relational and total scores of GOLD "A-B" patients were significantly lower than those in GOLD "C-D" patients: 10±4 vs. 12±3, 11±4 vs. 13±3 and 30±11 vs. 36±7, respectively. CONCLUSION: The Arabic version of VQ11 is applicable in Tunisian COPD patients with reliable results.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Idioma , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comorbidade , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/psicologia , Religião e Medicina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Tradução , Tunísia/epidemiologia
9.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 154, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Arab ethnic minority makes up 21% of Israel's population, yet comprised just 8.8% of confirmed cases and 3.6% of deaths from COVID-19, despite their higher risk profile and greater burden of underlying illness. This paper presents differences in patterns of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 in the Arab, ultra-Orthodox and overall populations in Israel, and suggests possible reasons for the low rates of infection in the Arab population. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Israeli Ministry of Health's (MOH) open COVID-19 database, which includes information on 1270 localities and is updated daily. The database contains the number of COVID-19 diagnostic tests performed, the number of confirmed cases and deaths in Israel. RESULTS: In the first 4 months of Israel's COVID-19 outbreak, just 2060 cases were confirmed in the Arab population, comprising 8.8% of the 23,345 confirmed cases, or 2.38 times less than would be expected relative to the population size. In contrast, the ultra-Orthodox made up 30.1% of confirmed cases yet just 10.1% of the population. Confirmed case rate per 100,000 was twice as high in the general Jewish population compared to the Arab population. The Arab mortality rate was 0.57 per 100,000, compared to 3.37 in the overall population, and to 7.26 in the ultra-Orthodox community. We discuss possible reasons for this low morbidity and mortality including less use of nursing homes, and effective leadership which led to early closure of mosques and high adherence to social distancing measures, even during the month of Ramadan. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a disproportionate burden of underlying illness, the Arab population did not fulfil initial predictions during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak and maintained low numbers of infections and deaths. This contrasts with reports of increased mortality in ethnic minorities and economically disadvantaged populations in other countries, and with high rates of infection in the ultra-Orthodox sector in Israel. Effective leadership and cooperation between individuals and institutions, particularly engagement of community and religious leaders, can reduce a group's vulnerability and build resilience in an emergency situation such as the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Árabes/psicologia , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Liderança , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Papel (figurativo)
10.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 153, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic hit Israel in late February 2020. The present study examines patterns of the first wave of Covid-19 morbidity in Israel at the macro level, during the period of late February to early June 2020, when the first wave has faded out. The analysis focuses on the significance of four sociodemographic variables: socioeconomic status, population density, rate of elderly population and minority status (Jewish / Arab identity) of the population in cities with 5000 residents or more. Additionally, we take a closer look into the association between morbidity rates and one SES component - home Internet access. METHODS: The article is a cross sectional study of morbidity rates, investigated on a residential community basis. Following the descriptive statistics, we move on to present multivariate analysis to explore associations between these variables and Covid-19 morbidity in Israel. RESULTS: Both the descriptive statistics and regressions show morbidity rates to be positively associated with population density. Socioeconomic status as well as the size of elderly population were both significantly related to morbidity, but only in Jewish communities. Interestingly, the association was inverse in both cases. i.e., the higher the SES the lower the morbidity and the larger the elderly population, the lower the community's morbidity. Another interesting result is that overall, morbidity rates in Jewish cities were consistently higher than in Arab communities. CONCLUSIONS: We attribute the low morbidity rates in communities with relatively small elderly populations to the exceptionally high fertility rates in ultra-orthodox communities that sustained increased rates of morbidity; the lower morbidity in Arab communities is attributed to several factors, including the spatial Jewish-Arab segregation.


Assuntos
Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Judeus/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Morbidade/tendências , Densidade Demográfica , Classe Social
11.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 658-667, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805192

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The health profile of Arab American mothers and infants may differ from that of non-Arab American mothers and infants in the United States as a result of social stigma experienced in the historical and current sociopolitical climate. The objective of our study was to compare maternal health behaviors, maternal health outcomes, and infant health outcomes of Arab American mothers and non-Hispanic white mothers in Massachusetts and to assess the role of nativity as an effect modifier. METHODS: Using data from Massachusetts birth certificates (2012-2016), we conducted adjusted logistic and linear regression models for maternal health behaviors, maternal health outcomes, and infant health outcomes. We used Arab ethnicity as the exposure of interest and nativity as an effect modifier. RESULTS: Arab American mothers had higher odds than non-Hispanic white mothers of initiating breastfeeding (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.61; 95% CI, 2.39-2.86), giving birth to small-for-gestational-age infants (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.18-1.39), and having gestational diabetes (aOR = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.20-1.44). Among Arab American mothers, non-US-born mothers had higher odds than US-born mothers of having gestational diabetes (aOR = 1.80; 95% CI, 1.33-2.44) and lower odds of initiating prenatal care in the first trimester (aOR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.33-0.50). In linear regression models, infants born to non-US-born Arab American mothers weighed 42.1 g (95% CI, -75.8 to -8.4 g) less than infants born to US-born Arab American mothers. CONCLUSION: Although Arab American mothers engage in positive health behaviors, non-US-born mothers had poorer maternal health outcomes and access to prenatal care than US-born mothers, suggesting the need for targeted interventions for non-US-born Arab American mothers.


Assuntos
Árabes/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Massachusetts , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 835, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a leading risk factor for mortality and morbidity globally and in the Arab world. We summarize the evidence on awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, to assess the extent of gaps in the hypertension continuum of care. We also assess the influence of gender and other social determinants at each level of the cascade of care. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and SSCI databases for studies published between 2000 and 2017, reporting the rates of awareness, treatment or control of hypertension and/or their determinants in the Arab region. We included sources on both general populations and on clinical populations. The review process was based on the PRISMA guidelines. We present rates on the three stages of the care cascade corresponding to (1) awareness (2) treatment and (3) control of blood pressure, and estimated the losses that occur when moving from one stage to another. We also take stock of the evidence on social determinants and assess the statistical significance of gender differences in awareness, treatment and control. RESULTS: Data from 73 articles were included. Substantial proportions of hypertensives were lost at each step of the hypertension care continuum, with more missed opportunities for care resulting from lack of awareness of hypertension and from uncontrolled blood pressure. More than 40% and 19% of all hypertensive individuals were found to be unaware and to have uncontrolled blood pressure, respectively, but among individuals diagnosed with hypertension, less than 21% were untreated. Awareness rates were higher among women than men but this advantage was not consistently translated into better blood pressure control rates among women. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis of the cascade of care indicates that barriers to proper diagnosis and adequate control are greater than barriers to delivery of treatment, and discusses potential factors that may contribute to the gaps in delivery.


Assuntos
Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/terapia , Fatores Sexuais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Mundo Árabe , Conscientização , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Reprod Infant Psychol ; 38(3): 340-348, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573258

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The fact that little is yet known about the possible implications of COVID-19 for pregnancy, puts pregnant women at greater risk of heightened anxiety and psychological distress. In this study, we sought to explore the psychological distress and COVID-19-related anxiety of pregnant women during the crisis. METHODS: Israeli Jewish and Arab pregnant women (n = 336) aged 20-47 completed a set of questionnaires during the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020. RESULTS: The levels of all COVID-19-related anxieties were quite high (much or very much), with the highest regarding public places and transportation (87.5%, 70%, respectively), followed by concerns over the possible infection of other family members and the health of the foetus (71.7%, 70%, respectively), going for pregnancy check-ups (68.7%,), being infected themselves, and the delivery (59.2%, 55.4%, respectively). Although COVID-19-related anxieties were shared by pregnant women characterised by diverse sociodemographic variables, with very small nuances, Arab women were more anxious about each of the issues than Jewish women. DISCUSSION: Our findings highlight the importance of assessing anxiety and distress in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the need to be attentive to the double stress of pregnant women in times of crisis and to the potential vulnerability of subgroups, such as cultural minorities.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Árabes/psicologia , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Judeus/psicologia , Judeus/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 314, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Refugee populations have particularly high rates of mental health problems, including Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, uptake of mental health care may be low even when severe depression and PTSD symptoms are present in individuals following resettlement. This is likely due, at least in part, to cultural influences on refugees' knowledge and beliefs about mental health problems and their treatment. We sought to provide preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of a culturally tailored mental health promotion program for Arabic-speaking refugees. METHODS: A total of 33 Arabic-speaking refugees resettled in South Western Sydney were recruited and completed intervention which consisted of weekly three-hour sessions for 4 weeks delivered in Arabic. Key aspects of mental health literacy, help-seeking intentions and levels of general psychological distress were assessed, by means of a self-report survey, pre-intervention, (immediately) post-intervention and 3 months following intervention. RESULTS: Of the 33 participants that completed the intervention, 31 completed the immediate post-intervention survey and 29 completed the 3 months follow-up survey. Improvements in most aspects of mental health literacy assessed were found immediately post-intervention and at follow-up, although only changes relating to stigmatising attitudes were statistically significant. Additionally, a statistically significant decrease in participants' levels of general psychological distress was observed immediately following the intervention, and this decrease was sustained at follow-up. CONCLUSION: While further research employing a more rigorous study design and larger sample size will be needed, results of this initial trial suggest that a culturally tailored mental health promotion program targeting key aspects of mental health literacy can improve the mental health of Arabic-speaking refugees resettled in a Western nation.


Assuntos
Árabes/psicologia , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Idioma , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados/psicologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(24): e20292, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541453

RESUMO

To examine the psychometric properties of a short form TSK-AV in Arabic-speaking patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP).One hundred one CLBP patients recruited from Jordan University Hospital provided demographic information and completed the TSK-AV full version and measures of pain severity and disability. Explorative factor analysis was used to determine whether a generally accepted 2-factor model consisting of fewer TSK items applies to the TSK-AV and exhibits acceptable psychometric properties.A 2-factor model provided an adequate-to-good fit to our data, explaining 46.54% of the variance. Factor 1 (labeled as "activity avoidance") comprised items 1, 2, 7, 9, 14, 15, and 17. Factor 2 was labeled as "somatic focus" and comprised items 3, 6, 11, and 13. The 11-item TSK-AV comprised of the 2 factors (TSK-AV-11) as well as its subscales all remained independent significant (P < .001) predictors of pain disability in Jordanian patients with CLBP after accounting for factors such as age, gender, pain duration, and pain severity.The short, 11-item TSK-AV (TSK-AV-11) appears to be an ideal clinical and research tool for measuring fear of movement/re (injury) in Arabic-speaking patients.


Assuntos
Árabes/psicologia , Dor Lombar/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Adulto , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Doença Crônica , Avaliação da Deficiência , Análise Fatorial , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento , Dor Nociceptiva/diagnóstico , Medição da Dor/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 864, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among women of childbearing age is considered a public health concern. Few studies have been conducted in the Gaza Strip to determine the magnitude of overweight and obesity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity along with their associated factors among women in the Gaza Strip. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to recruit a total of 357 mothers aged 18-50 years. Interviews were carried out among mothers to collect sociodemographic information, nutritional information, and physical activity. Anthropometric measurements [height, weight and waist circumference (WC)] were conducted with the mothers. Body Mass Index (BMI) was computed to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associated factors of overweight and obesity. RESULTS: The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among mothers was (64.1%). The results of multinomial logistic regression showed the risk of overweight and obesity increased with age, the highest risk being in mothers aged > 33.0 years (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: (1.06,6.86)), and (OR = 5.72, 95% CI: (2.07,15.78)), respectively, compared to mothers aged < 33.0 years. Moreover, mothers with medium and high educational levels had a slightly higher risk of obesity (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.15,0.64)), and (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: (0.12,0.82)) respectively than mothers with low educational level. Household income was positively associated with overweight and obesity. Mothers exposed to higher monthly income were more likely to be overweight or obese (OR = 2.64, 95% CI: (1.20, 5.83)), and (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: (1.28,7.29)), respectively. Nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with a high prevalence of obesity (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: (1.03,1.38)). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among Palestinian women than previous studies. Age, educational level, monthly income, and nutrition knowledge were associated with the prevalence of overweight and obesity, compared to other variables that were not associated with overweight and obesity such as location, work status, physical activity, and sitting hours. Urgent action is needed to tackle overweight and obesity among women. Effective intervention is required to increase nutrition knowledge among women to improve their eating behaviors.


Assuntos
Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
18.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(5): 303-309, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survivors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are at increased risk for recurrent cardiac events and tend to use excessive healthcare services, thus resulting in increased costs. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the disparities in healthcare resource utilization and costs throughout a decade following a non-fatal AMI according to sex and ethnicity groups in Israel. METHODS: A retrospective study included AMI patients hospitalized at Soroka University Medical Center during 2002-2012. Data were obtained from electronic medical records. Post-AMI annual length of hospital stay (LOS); number of visits to the emergency department (ED), primary care facilities, and outpatient consulting clinics; and costs were evaluated and compared according sex and ethnicity groups. RESULTS: A total of 7685 patients (mean age 65.3 ± 13.6 years) were analyzed: 56.8% Jewish males (JM), 26.6% Jewish females (JF), 12.4% Bedouin males (BM), and 4.2% Bedouin females (BF). During the up-to 10-years follow-up (median 5.8 years), adjusted odds ratios [AdjOR] for utilizations of hospital-associated services were highest among BF (1.628 for LOS; 1.629 for ED visits), whereas AdjOR for utilization of community services was lowest in BF (0.722 for primary clinic, 0.782 for ambulatory, and 0.827 for consultant visits), compared with JM. The total cost of BF was highest among the study groups (AdjOR = 1.589, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term use of hospital-associated healthcare services and total costs were higher among Bedouins (especially BF), whereas utilization of ambulatory services was lower in these groups. Culturally and economically sensitive programs optimizing healthcare resources utilization and costs is warranted.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Israel , Judeus/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/economia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 244, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Co-existence of depression and anxiety can be associated with severe detrimental consequences to the physical, mental and social wellbeing of the affected populations. This study was conducted to determine prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms among Palestinian medical students and to investigate associations between sociodemographic factors of the students with depressive and anxiety symptoms. METHODS: This study was conducted in a cross-sectional observational design using a questionnaire in the period between September 2018 and April 2019 in a major university in the West Bank of Palestine. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The questionnaire also collected the sociodemographic characteristics of the students. Reliability of the questionnaire was tested using the test re-test method. A total of 425 medical students were invited to participate in the study. RESULTS: Of those invited, 286 students completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 67.3%. More than half (56.6%) of the students had minimal depression, 20.3% had mild depression, 14.0% had moderate depression, 9.1% had severe depression, 23.4% had no anxiety, 29.7% had mild to moderate anxiety, 25.5% had moderate to severe anxiety, and 21.3% had severe anxiety. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that academic stage (p-value < 0.01), Grade Point Average (p-value < 0.01), mental health status (p-value < 0.001), ever attempted suicide (p-value < 0.05), and religious commitment (p-value < 0.01) were predictors of BDI-II scores. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that academic stage (p-value < 0.05) and mental health status (p-value < 0.001) were predictors of BAI scores. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive and anxiety symptoms were prevalent among Palestinian medical students in a major university in the West Bank of Palestine. Interventions might be designed to improve self-rated mental health of medical students in their academic years, ameliorate study conditions, and provision of counseling services to improve spirituality might be effective in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety among medical students in Palestine. Future studies are still needed to investigate if these interventions could be useful in reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms among Palestinian medical students.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Árabes/psicologia , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8107, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415247

RESUMO

Prior infection with adenovirus 36 (Adv36) has been associated with increased adiposity, improved insulin sensitivity, and a lower prevalence of diabetes. This study investigated the prevalence of Adv36 seropositivity and its association with obesity and diabetes among adults attending a diabetes centre in the UAE.Participants (N = 973) with different weight and glucose tolerance categories were recruited. Adv36 seropositivity (Adv36 + ) was assessed using ELISA. Differences among groups were analyzed using statistical tests as appropriate to the data. Prevalence of Adv36+ in the study population was 47%, with no significant difference in obese and non-obese subgroups (42.5% vs 49.6% respectively; p=non-significant). Females were more likely to be Adv36+ compared to males (odds ratio 1.78; 95% CI 1.36-2.32, p < 0.001). We found no significant association between Adv36 seropositivity and different BMI categories, or glucose tolerance status. In our population, the effect of Adv36 infection on lipid profile varied between healthy individuals and individuals with obesity. Adv36 infection is more prevalent in the UAE than in other countries but has no association with obesity. Our study found that females were more likely to be Adv36 positive regardless of weight or diabetes status.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/complicações , Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Adiposidade , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/virologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/virologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
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