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1.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(1): 107-120, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506717

RESUMO

The oriental gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus represents a limiting pest for the European Chestnut (Castanea sativa, Fagaceae) as it creates severe yield losses. The European Chestnut is a deciduous tree, having major social, economic and environmental importance in Southern Europe, covering an area of 2.53 million hectares, including 75,000 ha devoted to fruit production. Cultivars show different susceptibility and very few are resistant to gall wasp. To deeply investigate the plant response and understand which factors can lead the plant to develop or not the gall, the study of transcriptome is basic (fundamental). To date, little transcriptomic information are available for C. sativa species. Hence, we present a de novo assembly of the chestnut transcriptome of the resistant Euro-Japanese hybrid 'Bouche de Bétizac' (BB) and the susceptible cultivar 'Madonna' (M), collecting RNA from buds at different stages of budburst. The two transcriptomes were assembled into 34,081 (BB) and 30,605 (M) unigenes, respectively. The former was used as a reference sequence for further characterization analyses, highlighting the presence of 1444 putative resistance gene analogs (RGAs) and about 1135 unigenes, as putative MiRNA targets. A global quantitative transcriptome profiling comparing the resistant and the susceptible cultivars, in the presence or not of the gall wasp, revealed some GO enrichments as "response to stimulus" (GO:0050896), and "developmental processes" (e.g., post-embryonic development, GO:0009791). Many up-regulated genes appeared to be transcription factors (e.g., RAV1, AP2/ERF, WRKY33) or protein regulators (e.g., RAPTOR1B) and storage proteins (e.g., LEA D29) involved in "post-embryonic development". Our analysis was able to provide a large amount of information, including 7k simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 335k single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)/INDEL markers, and generated the first reference unigene catalog for the European Chestnut. The transcriptome data for C. sativa will contribute to understand the genetic basis of the resistance to gall wasp and will provide useful information for next molecular genetic studies of this species and its relatives.


Assuntos
Fagaceae/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Vespas/patogenicidade , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Fagaceae/parasitologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Árvores/genética , Árvores/parasitologia , Regulação para Cima/genética
2.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 231, 2019 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural selection on fitness-related traits can be temporally heterogeneous among populations. As climate changes, understanding population-level responses is of scientific and practical importance. We examined 18 phenotypic traits associated with phenology, biomass, and ecophysiology in 403 individuals of natural Populus trichocarpa populations, growing in a common garden. RESULTS: Compared with tree origin settings, propagules likely underwent drought exposures in the common garden due to significantly low rainfall during the years of measurement. All study traits showed population differentiation reflecting adaptive responses due to local genetic adaptation. Phenology and biomass traits were strongly under selection and showed plastic responses between years, co-varying with latitude. While phenological events (e.g., bud set and growth period) and biomass were under positive directional selection, post-bud set period, particularly from final bud set to the onset of leaf drop, was selected against. With one exception to water-use efficiency, ecophysiology traits were under negative directional selection. Moreover, extended phenological events jointly evolved with source niches under increased temperature and decreased rainfall exposures. High biomass coevolved with climatic niches of high temperature; low rainfall promoted high photosynthetic rates evolution. CONCLUSIONS: This work underpins that P. trichocarpa is likely to experience increased fitness (height gain) by evolving toward extended bud set and growth period, abbreviated post-bud set period, and increased drought resistance, potentially constituting a powerful mechanism for long-lived tree species in surviving unpredictably environmental extremes (e.g., drought).


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Populus/genética , Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Biomassa , Evolução Molecular , Jardins , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Populus/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Árvores/genética , Árvores/fisiologia
3.
Gene ; 716: 144024, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390541

RESUMO

The young leaves generally accumulate a certain concentration anthocyanins in the dominant species of the subtropical forest, and the changes of anthocyanin synthesis-related enzyme genes expression levels had an important effect on the study photoprotection of anthocyanins in the young leaves of subtropical forests. The determination of anthocyanin synthesis-related enzyme gene sequences and the selection of appropriate reference genes provide a basis for analyzing the functional properties of anthocyanins. In this study, four dominant subtropical forest species (i.e., Schima superba, Castanopsis fissa, Acmena acuminatissima, Cryptocarya concinna) were taken as materials. To obtain the correct nucleotide sequences of anthocyanin-related enzymes, the nucleotide sequences of CHS, DFR and ANS in each dominant species were obtained by sequencing and comparison. Then, to select the most stable reference genes for leaves at different developmental stages and different light conditions, the expression levels of six reference genes, including 18S, Actin, GAPDH, TUB, EF1 and UBQ, were studied by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR), and reference gene stability was analyzed by GeNorm and NormFinder software. The results showed that the expression level of Actin was the most stable in S. superba, A. acuminatissima and C. concinna, and the expression level of GAPDH was the most stable in C. fissa. Finally, the expression levels of the anthocyanin synthesis genes CHS, DFR and ANS were analyzed and found to be consistent with the accumulation trend of anthocyanins in leaves. This study has important theoretical and practical significance for future research into the expression of anthocyanin synthesis-related enzyme genes in the dominant tree species in subtropical forests and reveals that anthocyanin has a photoprotective effect for young leaves in high-light environments.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Árvores/genética , Aciltransferases/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Florestas , Genes de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Padrões de Referência , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência , Árvores/enzimologia , Árvores/metabolismo
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 367, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adaptation to abiotic stresses is crucial for the survival of perennial plants in a natural environment. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we adopted a liquid culture system to investigate plant adaptation to repeated salt stress in Populus trees. RESULTS: We first evaluated phenotypic responses and found that plants exhibit better stress tolerance after pre-treatment of salt stress. Time-course RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was then performed to profile changes in gene expression over 12 h of salt treatments. Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) indicated that significant transcriptional reprogramming and adaptation to repeated salt treatment occurred. Clustering analysis identified two modules of co-expressed genes that were potentially critical for repeated salt stress adaptation, and one key module for salt stress response in general. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified pathways including hormone signaling, cell wall biosynthesis and modification, negative regulation of growth, and epigenetic regulation to be highly enriched in these gene modules. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates phenotypic and transcriptional adaptation of Populus trees to salt stress, revealing novel gene modules which are potentially critical for responding and adapting to salt stress.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Populus/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Transcrição Genética , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genoma de Planta , Fenótipo , Populus/fisiologia , RNA de Plantas , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma , Árvores/genética , Árvores/fisiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218747, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233563

RESUMO

A thorough understanding of the heritability, genetic correlations and additive and non-additive variance components of tree growth and wood properties is a requisite for effective tree breeding. This knowledge is essential to maximize genetic gain, that is, the amount of increase in trait performance achieved annually through directional selection. Understanding the genetic attributes of traits targeted by breeding is also important to sustain decade-long genetic progress, that is, the progress made by increasing the average genetic value of the offspring as compared to that of the parental generation. In this study, we report quantitative genetic parameters for fifteen growth, wood chemical and physical traits for the world-famous Eucalyptus urograndis hybrid (E. grandis × E. urophylla). These traits directly impact the optimal use of wood for cellulose pulp, paper, and energy production. A population of 1,000 trees sampled in a progeny trial was phenotyped directly or following the development and use of near-infrared spectroscopy calibration models. Trees were genotyped with 33,398 SNPs and 24,001 DArT-seq genome-wide markers and genomic realized relationship matrices (GRM) were used for parameter estimation with an individual-tree additive-dominant mixed model. Wood chemical properties and wood density showed stronger genetic control than growth, cellulose and fiber traits. Additive effects are the main drivers of genetic variation for all traits, but dominance plays an equally or more important role for growth, singularly in this hybrid. GRM´s with >10,000 markers provided stable relationships estimates and more accurate parameters than pedigrees by capturing the full genetic relationships among individuals and disentangling the non-additive from the additive genetic component. Low correlations between growth and wood properties indicate that simultaneous selection for wood traits can be applied with minor effects on genetic gain for growth. Conversely, moderate to strong correlations between wood density and chemical traits exist, likely due to their interdependency on cell wall structure such that responses to selection will be connected for these traits. Our results illustrate the advantage of using genome-wide marker data to inform tree breeding in general and have important consequences for operational breeding of eucalypt urograndis hybrids.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eucalyptus/genética , Brasil , Eucalyptus/química , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Hibridização Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Especificidade da Espécie , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Árvores/química , Árvores/genética , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Madeira/química , Madeira/genética , Madeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Cells ; 8(6)2019 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146469

RESUMO

: The accumulation of lignin in fruit has a significant negative impact on the quality of fruit-producing trees, and in particular the lignin formation stimulates the development of stone cells in pear fruit. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for lignin polymerization. However, knowledge of the RBOH family, a key enzyme in ROS metabolism, remains unknown in most fruit trees. In this study, a total of 40 RBOHs were identified from five fruit-producing trees (Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Citrus sinensis, Vitis vinifera, and Prunus mume), and 10 of these sequences came from Pyrus bretschneideri. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that all 10 PbRBOHs contained the NADPH_Ox domain and the six alpha-helical transmembrane domains (TM-I to TM-VI). Chromosome localization and interspecies phylogenetic tree analysis showed that 10 PbRBOHs irregularly distributed on 8 chromosomes and 3 PbRBOHs (PbRBOHA, PbRBOHB, and PbRBOHD) are closely related to known lignification-related RBOHs. Furthermore, hormone response pattern analysis showed that the transcription of PbRBOHs is regulated by SA, ABA and MeJA. Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and transcriptome sequencing analysis showed that PbRBOHA, PbRBOHB, and PbRBOHD accumulated high transcript abundance in pear fruit, and the transcriptional trends of PbRBOHA and PbRBOHD was consistent with the change of stone cell content during fruit development. In addition, subcellular localization revealed that PbRBOHA and PbRBOHD are distributed on the plasma membrane. Combining the changes of apoplastic superoxide (O2.-) content and spatio-temporal expression analysis, these results indicate that PbRBOHA and PbRBOHD, which are candidate genes, may play an important role in ROS metabolism during the lignification of pear stone cells. This study not only provided insight into the molecular characteristics of the RBOH family in fruit-producing trees, but also lays the foundation for studying the role of ROS in plant lignification.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Frutas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Lignina/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Pyrus/enzimologia , Pyrus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Sequência Conservada/genética , Éxons/genética , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Genoma , Íntrons/genética , NADPH Oxidases/química , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Pyrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sintenia/genética , Árvores/enzimologia , Árvores/genética
8.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(4): 4593-4597, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041674

RESUMO

Ten microsatellite markers were developed using next-generation sequencing data for Alibertia edulis (Rubiaceae), a widely distributed species typical of Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) vegetation. The markers were polymorphic in the two populations analyzed. The numbers of alleles, and observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities per polymorphic locus ranged from 2 to 11, 0.091 to 1.0, and 0.100 to 0.937 respectively. The SSR loci demonstrated moderate to high polymorphism values in both populations analyzed, with PIC values ranging from 0.26 to 0.91, and total allele numbers ranging from three to 16. The inbreeding coefficient values were generally higher in the Piauí population (ranging from - 0.593 to 0.762) than in the Mato Grosso population (ranging from - 1 to 0.575). The differences observed between those disjunct populations suggest they harbor different alleles, which has implications for Cerrado conservation strategies. Those loci will be useful for population studies of A. edulis.


Assuntos
Rubiaceae/genética , Alelos , Brasil , DNA de Plantas/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Pradaria , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Árvores/genética
9.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(4): 4605-4610, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041675

RESUMO

Microsatellite markers were developed for the tree peony Paeonia delavayi to investigate fine scale population genetics of this species. Using ddRAD-seq data from twenty individuals of P. delavayi, we identified 529 polymorphic microsatellite loci, of which 195 were suitable for designing microsatellite primers. Of the 120 microsatellite loci selected for validation, 20 were successfully amplified with clear peaks and displayed polymorphism. Three populations were genotyped using the 20 polymorphic microsatellites. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to thirteen. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0 to 0.941 and 0 to 0.834 respectively. The cross-species amplification test using five individuals from a population of P. ludlowii showed that 15 of the 20 polymorphic loci were successfully amplified, and four loci showed polymorphism. Among the 22 alleles occurring in P. ludlowii across fifteen loci, eight alleles across five loci were exclusive to P. ludlowii. The results demonstrate that ddRAD-seq is an efficient method for the development of microsatellite markers for non-model organisms with large genomes. The newly developed markers will be valuable tools to investigate the genetic diversity, genetic structure, and gene flow of P. delavayi from local to regional spatial scales.


Assuntos
Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Paeonia/genética , Alelos , Primers do DNA , DNA de Plantas/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Genótipo , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Árvores/genética
10.
Planta ; 250(3): 989-1003, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073657

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The African Orphan Crops Consortium (AOCC) successfully initiated the ambitious genome sequencing project of 101 African orphan crops/trees with 6 genomes sequenced, 6 near completion, and 20 currently in progress. Addressing stunting, malnutrition, and hidden hunger through nutritious, economic, and resilient agri-food system is one of the major agricultural challenges of this century. As sub-Saharan Africa harbors a large portion of the severely malnourished population, the African Orphan Crops Consortium (AOCC) was established in 2011 with an aim to reduce stunting and malnutrition by providing nutritional security through improving locally adapted nutritious, but neglected, under-researched or orphan African food crops. Foods from these indigenous or naturalized crops and trees are rich in minerals, vitamins, and antioxidant, and are an integral part of the dietary portfolio and cultural, social, and economic milieu of African farmers. Through stakeholder consultations supported by the African Union, 101 African orphan and under-researched crop species were prioritized to mainstream into African agri-food systems. The AOCC, through a network of international-regional-public-private partnerships and collaborations, is generating genomic resources of three types, i.e., reference genome sequence, transcriptome sequence, and re-sequencing 100 accessions/species, using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Furthermore, the University of California Davis African Plant Breeding Academy under the AOCC banner is training 150 lead African scientists to breed high yielding, nutritious, and climate-resilient (biotic and abiotic stress tolerant) crop varieties that meet African farmer and consumer needs. To date, one or more forms of sequence data have been produced for 60 crops. Reference genome sequences for six species have already been published, 6 are almost near completion, and 19 are in progress.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , África ao Sul do Saara , Produção Agrícola/organização & administração , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura Florestal , Genômica/métodos , Genômica/organização & administração , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Árvores/genética , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 660-670, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078857

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a biologically non-essential heavy metal that can cause toxic effects in plants, animals and humans already at low concentrations compared to other metals. After Cd concentrations in cacao beans of various provenances, particularly from Latin America, were found to exceed the new regulations enforced by the European Union in 2019, there is an urgent need to find measures to lower Cd accumulation in cacao beans to acceptable values. In this research, the long-term cacao cultivar trial CEDEC-JAS in northern Honduras was used to investigate differences between 11 cultivars in Cd uptake and translocation. Sampling of various plant parts, including rootstocks, scions, leaves and beans, from three replicate trees per cultivar and the soil around each tree was conducted at this site. Results indicate that concentrations of available soil Cd were more closely correlated with Cd concentrations of the rootstocks (R2 = 0.56), scions (R2 = 0.59) and leaves (R2 = 0.46) than with bean Cd concentrations (R2 = 0.26). In addition, Cd concentrations of rootstocks, scions and leaves showed close relationships to available soil Cd concentrations, with no significant differences between the cultivars. In contrast, bean Cd concentrations showed only weak correlations to available soil Cd and Cd concentrations in the vegetative plant parts, but significant variation among cultivars. Three cultivars, which were analysed in more detail, showed significant differences in Cd concentrations of mature beans, but not of immature beans. These results suggest that cultivar-related differences in bean Cd concentrations primarily result from differences in Cd loading during bean maturation, possibly due to cultivar-specific differences in the xylem-to-phloem transfer of Cd. The results show that selection of cultivars with low Cd transfer from vegetative parts into the beans has high potential to keep Cd accumulation in cacao beans at levels that are safe for consumption.


Assuntos
Cacau/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Árvores/metabolismo , Cacau/genética , Honduras , Espectrometria de Massas , Distribuição Tecidual , Árvores/genética
12.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(4): 3887-3897, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037546

RESUMO

In Mexico, Fusarium mexicanum has been reported causing mango malformation disease and big-leaf mahogany malformation disease. Our objective was to determine the genetic diversity of F. mexicanum isolates obtained from malformed big-leaf mahogany and mango trees, using an internal simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. A total of 61 isolates of F. mexicanum, 32 from mango and 29 from big-leaf mahogany, were initially genotyped using fourteen ISSR primers. Data from five primers that produced the highest number of polymorphic bands were selected for further analysis. The primers generated 49 polymorphic bands (85.96%) from a total of 57 fragments ranging in size from 250 to 2800 bp, with an average of 11.4 bands per primer. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that the variation within populations, isolates grouped by host and geographic origin, was significant (43%), followed by the variation between the big-leaf mahogany versus mango isolates (34%), while among populations the variation was the lowest (22%). The genetic fingerprints suggested that genetic variability of F. mexicanum populations are structured by the host of origin rather than the geographic region.


Assuntos
Fusariose/metabolismo , Fusarium/genética , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Fusariose/genética , Fusarium/metabolismo , Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Genótipo , Mangifera/microbiologia , Meliaceae/microbiologia , México , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Árvores/genética
14.
Mol Ecol ; 28(10): 2502-2516, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950536

RESUMO

Global climate is rapidly changing, and the ability for tree species to adapt is dependent on standing genomic variation; however, the distribution and abundance of functional and adaptive variants are poorly understood in natural systems. We test key hypotheses regarding the genetics of adaptive variation in a foundation tree: genomic variation is associated with climate, and genomic variation is more likely to be associated with temperature than precipitation or aridity. To test these hypotheses, we used 9,593 independent, genomic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 270 individuals sampled from Corymbia calophylla's entire distribution in south-western Western Australia, spanning orthogonal temperature and precipitation gradients. Environmental association analyses returned 537 unique SNPs putatively adaptive to climate. We identified SNPs associated with climatic variation (i.e., temperature [458], precipitation [75] and aridity [78]) across the landscape. Of these, 78 SNPs were nonsynonymous (NS), while 26 SNPs were found within gene regulatory regions. The NS and regulatory candidate SNPs associated with temperature explained more deviance (27.35%) than precipitation (5.93%) and aridity (4.77%), suggesting that temperature provides stronger adaptive signals than precipitation. Genes associated with adaptive variants include functions important in stress responses to temperature and precipitation. Patterns of allelic turnover of NS and regulatory SNPs show small patterns of change through climate space with the exception of an aldehyde dehydrogenase gene variant with 80% allelic turnover with temperature. Together, these findings provide evidence for the presence of adaptive variation to climate in a foundation species and provide critical information to guide adaptive management practices.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Genômica , Seleção Genética , Árvores/genética , Clima , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 146, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fig fruit are highly perishable at the tree-ripe (TR) stage. Commercial-ripe (CR) fruit, which are harvested before the TR stage for their postharvest transportability and shelf-life advantage, are inferior to TR fruit in size, color and sugar content. The succulent urn-shaped receptacle, serving as the protective structure and edible part of the fruit, determines fruit quality. Quantitative iTRAQ and RNA-Seq were performed to reveal the differential proteomic and transcriptomic traits of the receptacle at the two harvest stages. RESULTS: We identified 1226 proteins, of which 84 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) were recruited by criteria of abundance fold-change (FC) ≥1.3 and p < 0.05 in the TR/CR receptacle proteomic analysis. In addition, 2087 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened by ≥2-fold expression change: 1274 were upregulated and 813 were downregulated in the TR vs. CR transcriptomic analysis. Ficin was the most abundant soluble protein in the fig receptacle. Sucrose synthase, sucrose-phosphate synthase and hexokinase were all actively upregulated at both the protein and transcriptional levels. Endoglucanase, expansin, beta-galactosidase, pectin esterase and aquaporins were upregulated from the CR to TR stage at the protein level. In hormonal synthesis and signaling pathways, high protein and transcriptional levels of aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase were identified, together with a few diversely expressed ethylene-response factors, indicating the potential leading role of ethylene in the ripening process of fig receptacle, which has been recently reported as a non-climacteric tissue. CONCLUSIONS: We present the first delineation of intra- and inter-omic changes in the expression of specific proteins and genes of TR vs. CR fig receptacle, providing valuable candidates for further study of fruit-quality formation control and fig cultivar innovation to accommodate market demand.


Assuntos
Ficus/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteoma/metabolismo , Árvores/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Etilenos/biossíntese , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Marcação por Isótopo , Látex , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Metabolismo Secundário , Estresse Fisiológico , Açúcares/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
16.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 21(4): 695-705, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849217

RESUMO

Investigating spatial variation in the relative importance of sexual reproduction and clonal propagation is critical to obtain more accurate estimates of future effective population sizes and genetic diversity, as well as to identify ecological correlates of clonality. We combined a stratified sampling scheme with microsatellite genetic analyses to estimate variation in the proportion of sexual versus clonal recruits among saplings in five populations of the tree Pyrus bourgaeana. Using a likelihood framework, we identified clones among the genotypes analysed and examined variation among populations regarding the proportion of saplings coming from clonal propagation. We also examined the relationship between the relative abundance of clonal shoots across the studied populations and their herbivory levels. Our results revealed that one third of the saplings examined (N = 225 saplings) had a probability above 0.9 of being clones of nearby (<10 m) trees, with the ratio between clonal propagation and sexual recruitment varying up to eight-fold among populations. A small portion of these putative clonal shoots reached sexual maturity. Relative abundance of clonal shoots did not significantly relate to the herbivory by ungulates. Our results call into question optimistic expectations of previous studies reporting sufficient levels of recruitment under parental trees without animal seed dispersal services. Nevertheless, given that some of these clonal shoots reach sexual maturity, clonal propagation can ultimately facilitate the long-term persistence of populations during adverse periods (e.g. environmental stress, impoverished pollinator communities, seed dispersal limitation).


Assuntos
Pyrus/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Ecologia , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Pyrus/genética , Pyrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução , Árvores/genética , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
J Vis Exp ; (145)2019 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907871

RESUMO

Phytotron has been widely used to assess the effect of numerous parameters on the development of many species. However, less information is available on how to achieve fast profuse flowering in young fruit trees with this plant growth chamber. This study aimed to outline the design and performance of a fast clear methodology to force flowering in young mandarin trees (cv. Nova and cv. Clemenules) and to analyze the influence of induction intensity on inflorescence type. The combination of a short water stress period with simulated spring conditions (day 13 h, 22 °C, night 11 h, 12 °C) in the phytotron allowed flowers to be obtained only after 68-72 days from the time the experiment began. Low-temperature requirements were adequately replaced with water stress. Floral response was proportional to water stress (measured as the number of fallen leaves): the greater the induction, the larger the quantity of flowers. Floral induction intensity also influenced inflorescence type and dates for flowering. Details on artificial lighting (lumens), photoperiod, temperatures, plant size and age, induction strategy and days for each stage are provided. Obtaining flowers from fruit trees at any time, and also several times a year, can have many advantages for researchers. With the methodology proposed herein, three, or even four, flowering periods can be forced each year, and researchers should be able to decide when, and they will know, the duration of the entire process. The methodology can be useful for: flower production and in vitro pollen germination assays; experiments with pests that affect early fruit development stages; studies on fruit physiological alterations. All this can help plant breeders to shorten times to obtain male and female gametes to perform forced-crosses.


Assuntos
Citrus/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Árvores/fisiologia , Citrus/genética , Citrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura Baixa , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inflorescência/fisiologia , Árvores/genética , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Gene ; 694: 50-62, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716444

RESUMO

With the ongoing climate change, African rainforests are expected to experience severe drought events in the future. In Africa, the tropical genus Erythrophleum (Fabaceae) includes two forest sister timber tree species displaying contrasting geographical distributions. Erythrophleum ivorense is adapted to wet evergreen Guineo-Congolian forests, whereas E. suaveolens occurs in a wider range of climates, being found in moist dense forests but also in gallery forests under a relatively drier climate. This geographical distribution pattern suggests that the two species might cope differently to drought at the genomic level. Yet, the genetic basis of tolerance response to drought stress in both species is still uncharacterized. To bridge this gap, we performed an RNA-seq approach on seedlings from each species to monitor their transcriptional responses at different levels of drought stress (0, 2 and 6 weeks after stopping watering seedlings). Monitoring of wilting symptoms revealed that E. suaveolens displayed an earlier phenotypic response to drought stress than E. ivorense. At the transcriptomic level, results revealed 2020 (1204 down-regulated/816 up-regulated) and 1495 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to drought stress from a total of 67,432 and 66,605 contigs assembled in E. ivorense and E. suaveolens, respectively. After identifying 30,374 orthologs between species, we found that only 7 of them were DEGs shared between species, while 587 and 458 were differentially expressed only in E. ivorense or E. suaveolens, respectively. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the two species differ in terms of significantly regulated pathways as well as the number and expression profile of DEGs (Up/Down) associated with each pathway in the two stress stages. Our results suggested that the two studied species react differently to drought. E. suaveolens seems displaying a prompt response to drought at its early stage strengthened by the down-regulation of many DEGs encoding for signaling and metabolism-related pathways. A considerable up-regulation of these pathways was also found in E. ivorense at the late stage of drought, suggesting this species may be a late responder. Overall, our data may serve as basis for further understanding the genetic control of drought tolerance in tropical trees and favor the selection of crucial genes for genetically enhancing drought resistance.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Fabaceae/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , África , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Árvores/genética , Água
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 666: 652-661, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807955

RESUMO

The urban environment features poor air quality and harsher climate conditions that affect the life in the cities. Citizens are especially vulnerable to climate change, because heat island and impervious exacerbates extreme climate events. Urban trees are important tools for mitigation and adaptation of cities to climate change because they provide ecosystem services that increase while trees grow. Nonetheless, the growth of trees may be affected by the harsher conditions found in the urban environment. We assessed the impact of air pollution and climate on the spatial/temporal variability of tree growth in São Paulo, Brazil, one of the largest urban conglomerates in the world. For this purpose, we sampled 41 trees of the Tipuana tipu species in a region that includes industrial areas. We built a tree-ring chronology using standard dendrochronological methods. Spatial analyses show that trees grow faster in the warmer parts of the city and under higher concentrations of airborne P, whereas growth is reduced under higher concentrations of Al, Ba, Zn. Particulate matter (PM10) from the industrial cluster also reduce average growth rate of trees, up to 37% in all diameter classes. Similar results were obtained via temporal analyses, suggesting that the annual growth rate is positively associated with temperature, which explain 16% of interannual growth variability. Precipitation, on the other hand, has no association with tree growth. The average concentration of PM10 explains 41% of interannual growth variability, and higher concentrations during the driest months reduce growth rate. Despite heat island effect and water limitation in the soil of the city, this species takes advantage of warmer conditions and it is not limited by water availability as measured by precipitation. On the other hand, air pollution directly impacts the growth of these trees being a major limiting growth factor.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Mudança Climática , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/genética , Brasil , Cidades , Clima , Fabaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Árvores/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
New Phytol ; 222(3): 1352-1363, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636348

RESUMO

Intraspecific variability in ecological traits confers the ability of a species to adapt to an ever-changing environment. Fractions of biomass allocation in plants (BAFs) represent both ecological traits and direct expressions of investment strategies and so have important implications on plant fitness, particularly under current global change. We combined data on BAFs of trees in > 10 000 forest plots with their distributions in Europe. We aimed to test whether plant species with wider distributions have more or less variable intraspecific variance of the BAFs foliage-woody biomass and shoot-root ratios than species with limited distribution. Irrespective of corrections for tree age and phylogenetic relatedness, the standard deviation in BAFs was up to three times higher in species with the most extensive distributions than in those with the least extensive distribution due to a higher genetic diversity. Variance in BAFs also increased with latitude. We show that a combination of 36% tree genetic diversity and 64% environmental variability explains variance in BAFs and implies that changes in genetic diversity occur quickly. Genetic diversity should thus play a key role in regulating species responses to future climate change. Loss of habitat, even if transient, could induce a loss of genetic diversity and hinder species survival.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Geografia , Modelos Biológicos , Árvores/genética
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