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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 889, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563999

RESUMO

A key uncertainty in quantifying dead wood carbon (C) stocks-which comprise ~8% of total forest C pools globally-is a lack of accurate dead wood C fractions (CFs) that are employed to convert dead woody biomass into C. Most C estimation protocols utilize a default dead wood CF of 50%, but live tree studies suggest this value is an over-estimate. Here, we compile and analyze a global database of dead wood CFs in trees, showing that dead wood CFs average 48.5% across forests, deviating significantly from 50%, and varying systematically among biomes, taxonomic divisions, tissue types, and decay classes. Utilizing data-driven dead wood CFs in tropical forests alone may correct systematic overestimates in dead wood C stocks of ~3.0 Pg C: an estimate approaching nearly the entire dead wood C pool in the temperate forest biome. We provide for the first time, robust empirical dead wood CFs to inform global forest C estimation.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Madeira/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Clima , Florestas , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Estruturas Vegetais/classificação , Árvores/química , Árvores/classificação , Madeira/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 349: 129156, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581431

RESUMO

This study focused on the identification (by LC-PDA-qTof-ESI-MS) and quantification (by UPLC-PDA) of isoprenoids of the fruit tree leaves (FTL) of commonly consumed fruits: apple, pears, quince, apricot, peach, plums, sweet and sour cherry. The FTL were collected at 2 time points: after tree blooming and after fruit collection. In FTL 7 carotenoids and 16 chlorophylls were identified, but the number of labeled chlorophyll compounds depended on the species. FTL of apple, sour cherry and apricot were identified as the best sources of chlorophylls (mean 404.8, 388.7 and 364.5 mg/100 g dw, respectively) and sweet and sour cherry leaves as the best sources of carotenoids (831.4 and 1162.0 mg/100 g dw, respectively). A lower content of chlorophylls and carotenoids, but not significantly, was detected in leaves after autumn collection of fruits compared to leaves collected after blooming. Fruit tree leaves are good material for isolation of chlorophylls and carotenoids for application in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals or in the food industry, e.g. production of beverages or puree.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Clorofila/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Frutas/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Árvores/química , Malus/química , Rosaceae/química , Terpenos/análise
3.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467697

RESUMO

Lacquer sap has been used by humans from antiquitywhen it was treated as a luxury item because of its desirable physical properties. In modern times, although access barriers are lower, lacquer is still considered to be rare and valuable. Thus, low quality, inexpensive Vietnamese and Myanmarese lacquers and cashew nutshell liquid are frequently added to the costly Toxicodendron vernicifluum lacquer sap from Korea, China, and Japan. However, these blended lacquers can diminish the quality of artisan works. The Toxicodendron vernicifluum lacquer saps mixed with other natural lacquers were characterized using time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). ToF-SIMS provided the chemical structure of the lacquer monomer, copolymerized dimers, trimers, etc. HPLC provided quantitative analysis of the components of a randomly mixed lacquer. These techniques can be used to control the quality of commercial lacquer sap for the Asian lacquer industry and the traditional conservation of ancient objects.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/análise , Laca/análise , Toxicodendron/química , Árvores/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário/métodos
4.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 431, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339821

RESUMO

The majority of the area contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident is covered with forests. We developed a dataset for radiocaesium (137Cs) in trees, soil, and mushrooms measured at numerous forest sites. The 137Cs activity concentration and inventory data reported in scientific journal papers written in English and Japanese, governmental reports, and governmental monitoring data on the web were collated. The ancillary information describing the forest stands were also collated, and further environmental information (e.g. climate) was derived from the other databases using longitude and latitude coordinates of the sampling locations. The database contains 8593, 4105, and 3189 entries of activity concentration data for trees, soil, and mushrooms, and 471 and 3521 entries of inventory data for trees and soil, respectively, which were collected from 2011 to 2017, and covers the entire Fukushima prefecture. The data can be used to document and understand the spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocaesium in the affected region and to aid the development and validation of models of radiocaesium dynamics in contaminated forests.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Agaricales/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Japão , Solo/química , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Árvores/química
6.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232623, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421746

RESUMO

The loss of biodiversity during the Anthropocene is a constant topic of discussion, especially in the top biodiversity hotspots, such as Madagascar. In this regard, the study of preserved organisms through time, like those included in "Madagascar copal", is of relevance. "Madagascar copal" originated from the leguminous tree Hymenaea verrucosa, which produced and produces resin abundantly. In the last 20 years, interest has focused on the scientific study of its biological inclusions, mainly arthropods, described in dozens of publications. The age and origin of the deposits of "Madagascar copal" have not yet been resolved. Our objectives are to determine its age and geographical origin, and thus increase its scientific value as a source of biological/palaeobiological information. Although Hymenaea was established in Madagascar during the Miocene, we did not find geological deposits of copal or amber in the island. It is plausible that the evolution of those deposits was negatively conditioned by the type of soil, by the climate, and by the development of soil/litter microorganisms, which inhibit preservation of the resin pieces in the litter and subsoil over 300 years. Our results indicate that "Madagascar copal" is a Recent resin, up to a few hundred years old, that originated from Hymenaea trees growing in the lowland coastal forests, one of the most endangered ecosystems in the world. The included and preserved biota is representative of that ecosystem today and during historical times. Inclusions in this Recent resin do not have the palaeontological significance that has been mistakenly attributed to them, but they do have relevant implications for studies regarding Anthropocene biodiversity loss in this hottest hotspot.


Assuntos
Âmbar/história , Fósseis/história , Hymenaea/química , Árvores/química , Âmbar/química , Biodiversidade , História Antiga , Madagáscar
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312150

RESUMO

This study focuses on the water-soluble ion concentrations in the washing solution of leaves of different roadside tree species at three sites in Iran to estimate the ionic composition of the dry deposition of ambient air particulates. All considered water-soluble ion concentrations were significantly higher next to the roads with high traffic density compared to the reference site with low traffic density. The PCA results showed that Ca2+, Mg2+, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] originated mainly from traffic activities and geological sources, and Na+, Cl-, K+ and F- from sea salts. In addition to sea salt, K+ and F- were also originated from anthropogenic sources i.e. industrial activities, biomass burning and fluorite mining. Moreover, the concentration of the water-soluble ions depended on species and site. C. lawsoniana had significantly higher ion concentrations in its leaf washing solution compared to L. japonicum and P. brutia which indicates C. lawsoniana is the most suitable species for accumulating of atmospheric dry deposition. From our results, it can be concluded that sites with similar traffic density can have different particle loads and water-soluble ion species, and that concentrations in leaf-washing solutions depend on site conditions and species-specific leaf surface characteristics.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Árvores/química , Água/química , Biomassa , Poeira/análise , Indústrias , Íons , Irã (Geográfico) , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solubilidade , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6614, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313049

RESUMO

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident caused serious radiocesium (137Cs) contamination of forest ecosystems over a wide area. The removal of the forest floor litter layer has been considered a potential method for forest decontamination; however, its effectiveness remains largely unknown. We conducted a pilot-scale decontamination study in a deciduous broadleaved forest in Fukushima. The entire forest was decontaminated by removing the litter layer in July 2014, approximately 3.3 years after the accident, with the exception of two untreated plots. For three years after decontamination, we quantified 137Cs contamination levels in the litter and topsoil layers and in the tree leaves, in the untreated and decontaminated areas. The decreased inventories of litter materials and the litter-associated 137Cs in the decontaminated areas were observed only in the first year after decontamination. Generally, no decontamination effects were observed on the 137Cs transfer in tree leaves. The primary reason for this was the rapid shift in the main reservoir of 137Cs from litter layers to the underlying mineral soil, which differs from the observations in post-Chernobyl studies of European forest ecosystems. The results suggest that litter-removal decontamination can only be successful if it is implemented more quickly (within 1-2 years after the accident) for Japanese forest ecosystems.


Assuntos
Descontaminação , Florestas , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Folhas de Planta/química , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Geografia , Japão , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Árvores/química
9.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(1): 29-35, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208576

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Contamination of soil by mercury poses several risks to human health through consumption of fruits and vegetables. In Slovakia, a high concentration of mercury is found in the soil of the Central Spis region. The objective of the study is to measure the mercury concentrations in the parts of selected plant species and trees growing within 100 meters of a former ore processing facility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 24 samples of plants, 20 samples of parts of needle-leaved trees and 9 samples of parts of broad-leaved trees were collected from soils with a high concentration of mercury. The concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in different parts of the plants: leaves - 18 species, roots - 15 species, stems - 11 species, flowers - 7 species), and different parts of trees (crust - 8 species, branches - 8 species, needles - 5 species, cones - 5 species, leaves - 3 species). RESULTS: The concentrations of mercury in the soils taken at a depth of 0.25 m exceeded the maximum allowed levels more than 50-times. Potatoes, parsley and carrots from these soils exceeded the maximum allowed mercury levels 6-times, 5-times and twice, respectively. The average concentrations of mercury in the roots of 2-year onions exceeded the limit more than 50-times. The flowers of cornflower contain 18.20 mg*kg -1 , leaves of dandelion 10.61 mg*kg -1 and roots of plantain 6.80 mg*kg -1 of mercury. Regarding trees, the highest concentrations were found in the branches of juniper and leaves of aspen - more than 1 mg*kg -1. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic monitoring of mercury is still very important, since it was found that the end of ore processing does not solve the issue of contamination in the Central Spis region. Therefore, the consumption of fruits and vegetables from the areas of former ore processing facilities is not recommended.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/análise , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metalurgia , Eslováquia , Árvores/química , Verduras/química
10.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229467, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097449

RESUMO

Glycans are multi-branched sugars that are displayed from lipids and proteins. Through their diverse polysaccharide structures they can potentiate a myriad of cellular signaling pathways involved in development, growth, immuno-communication and survival. Not surprisingly, disruption of glycan synthesis is fundamental to various human diseases; including cancer, where aberrant glycosylation drives malignancy. Here, we report the discovery of a novel mannose-binding lectin, ML6, which selectively recognizes and binds to these irregular tumor-specific glycans to elicit potent and rapid cancer cell death. This lectin was engineered from gene models identified in a tropical rainforest tree root transcriptome and is unusual in its six canonical mannose binding domains (QxDxNxVxY), each with a unique amino acid sequence. Remarkably, ML6 displays antitumor activity that is >105 times more potent than standard chemotherapeutics, while being almost completely inactive towards non-transformed, healthy cells. This activity, in combination with results from glycan binding studies, suggests ML6 differentiates healthy and malignant cells by exploiting divergent glycosylation pathways that yield naïve and incomplete cell surface glycans in tumors. Thus, ML6 and other high-valence lectins may serve as novel biochemical tools to elucidate the glycomic signature of different human tumors and aid in the rational design of carbohydrate-directed therapies. Further, understanding how nature evolves proteins, like ML6, to combat the changing defenses of competing microorganisms may allow for fundamental advances in the way we approach combinatorial therapies to fight therapeutic resistance in cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Transcriptoma , Árvores/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Descoberta de Drogas , Glicosilação , Humanos , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/química , Modelos Moleculares , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Floresta Úmida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 718: 137310, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088481

RESUMO

Air pollution in the urban environment is widely recognized as one of the most harmful threats for human health. International organizations such as the United Nations and the European Commission are highlighting the potential role of nature in mitigating air pollution and are now funding the implementation of Nature-Based Solutions, especially at the city level. Over the past few decades, the attention of the scientific community has grown around the role of urban forest in air pollution mitigation. Nevertheless, the understanding on Particulate Matter (PM) retention mechanisms by tree leaves is still limited. In this study, twelve tree species were sampled within an urban park of an industrial city. Two techniques were used for leaf analysis: Vacuum/Filtration and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, in order to obtain a quali-quantitative analysis of the different PM size fractions. Results showed that deposited PM loads vary significantly among species. Different leaf traits, including micro and macromorphological characteristics, were observed, measured and ranked, with the final aim to relate them with PM load. Even if no significant correlation between each single leaf characteristic and PM deposition was observed (p > 0.05), multivariate analysis revealed relationships between clusters of leaf traits and deposited PM. Thus, by assigning a score to each trait, an Accumulation index (Ai) was calculated, which was significantly related to the leaf deposited PM load (p ≤ 0.05).


Assuntos
Árvores/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Itália , Material Particulado , Folhas de Planta
12.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228539, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053614

RESUMO

Functional traits have emerged as a key to understand species responses to environmental conditions. The concerted expression of multiple traits gives rise to the phenotype of each individual, which is the one interacting with the environment and evolving. However, patterns of trait covariation and how they vary in response to environmental conditions remain poorly understood, particularly at the intraspecific scale. Here, we have measured traits at different scales and in different organs, and analysed their covariation in a large number of conspecifics distributed in two contrasting environments. We expected significant correlations among traits, not only within clusters of traits as found in global, multispecies studies, but also among clusters, with more relationships within clusters, due to genetic constraints, and among clusters due to more coordinated phenotypes than community level, multispecies studies. We surveyed 100 Pinus sylvestris trees in a Mediterranean mountainous area distributed in two contrasting elevations. We measured 13 functional traits, in three clusters (leaf, stem and whole-plant traits), and analysed their variation and coordination. We found significant coordination among traits belonging to different clusters that reveals coordinated phenotypes. However, we found fewer correlations within trait clusters than initially expected. Trait correlation structures (number, intensity and type of correlations among traits) differed among individuals at different elevations. We observed more correlations within trait clusters at low elevation compared to those at high elevation. Moreover, the higher number of correlations among different trait clusters and the lower trait variation at the higher elevation suggests that variability decreases under more stressful conditions. Altogether, our results reveal that traits at intraspecific scale are coordinated in a broad network and not only within clusters of traits but also that this trait covariation is significantly affected by environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Altitude , Ecossistema , Pinus sylvestris/anatomia & histologia , Pinus sylvestris/química , Pinus sylvestris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variação Biológica Individual , Tamanho do Órgão , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espanha , Árvores/anatomia & histologia , Árvores/química , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 637, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005808

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) limitation of aboveground plant production is usually assumed to occur in tropical regions but rarely elsewhere. Here we report that such P limitation is more widespread and much stronger than previously estimated. In our global meta-analysis, almost half (46.2%) of 652 P-addition field experiments reveal a significant P limitation on aboveground plant production. Globally, P additions increase aboveground plant production by 34.9% in natural terrestrial ecosystems, which is 7.0-15.9% higher than previously suggested. In croplands, by contrast, P additions increase aboveground plant production by only 13.9%, probably because of historical fertilizations. The magnitude of P limitation also differs among climate zones and regions, and is driven by climate, ecosystem properties, and fertilization regimes. In addition to confirming that P limitation is widespread in tropical regions, our study demonstrates that P limitation often occurs in other regions. This suggests that previous studies have underestimated the importance of altered P supply on aboveground plant production in natural terrestrial ecosystems.


Assuntos
Fósforo/análise , Plantas/metabolismo , Clima , Ecossistema , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Plantas/química , Solo/química , Árvores/química , Árvores/metabolismo
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 29, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913315

RESUMO

Most of the area contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident is covered by forest. In this paper, we updated model predictions of temporal changes in the 137Cs dynamics using the latest observation data and newly provided maps of the predicted 137Cs activity concentration for wood, which is the most commercially important part of the tree body. Overall, the previous prediction and latest observation data were in very good agreement. However, further validation revealed that the migration from the soil surface organic layer to the mineral soil was overestimated for evergreen needleleaf forests. The new prediction of the 137Cs inventory showed that although the 137Cs distribution within forests differed among forest types in the first 5 years, the difference diminished in the later phase. Besides, the prediction of the wood 137Cs activity concentrations reproduced the different trends of the 137Cs activity concentrations for cedar, oak, and pine trees. Our simulation suggests that the changes of the wood 137Cs activity concentration over time will slow down after 5-10 years. Although the model uncertainty should be considered and monitoring and model updating must continue, the study provides helpful information on the 137Cs dynamics within forest ecosystems and the changes in wood contamination.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Ecossistema , Florestas , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Japão , Solo/química , Árvores/química
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(6): 5825-5844, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853855

RESUMO

Particulate matter in European cities, especially in urban areas, is mainly from urban road traffic and constitutes a great threat to the health of inhabitants. Therefore, understanding of the role of common urban roadside plant plays for particulate matter (PM) reduction would have important meaning for the mitigation of urban air pollution. The leaf surface PM capturing capacity of 12 representative urban plants (five shrubs and seven trees) alongside one main street in Hanover Germany was explored in this study. Significant differences for the amount of captured PM (both PM10 and PM2.5) on the leaf surface were found between plant species. Leaves of Taxus baccata, Berberis thunbergii, Pinus nigra, and Quercus robur showed the highest capturing capacity, while leaves of Prunus laurocerasus and Carpinus betulus showed the lowest value. Leaf shape is an important factor which affects the capturing capacity of the tested plant species. Needle-leaved pants were relatively more effective than broad-leaved species. Besides, species with small leaf surface area (0-10 cm2) showed a notably higher capacity than species with large leaf surface area (over 100 cm2). Additionally, by the observation of leaf surface characteristics, plant species with rough and hairy leaf surface tended to be more effective than species with smooth leaf surface. More PM was found distributed on the upper leaf surface close to the midrib rather than on the surface area away from it. At last, no significant correlation was found between the leaf surface contact angle and its PM capturing capacity for the 12 tested plant species in September. In summary, leaf traits including leaf form, leaf shape, leaf surface area, leaf surface hydrophilicity and leaf surface characteristics all have notable effects on the PM capturing capacity of the roadside plant species. This study provides a scientific basis for roadside plants as an eco-friendly solution for the reduction of urban traffic-related PM and stresses the importance of leaf traits as criteria for the plant selection.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Folhas de Planta/química , Árvores/química , Cidades , Alemanha , Material Particulado
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 527-539, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitrogen is a key component of crop production and is commonly related to increases in yield and fruit size. The N fertilization rates used for low-chill peach cultivars were adapted from other peach production regions, where environmental and soil conditions are different. The growth and production as well as the effect on fruit physical and compositional attributes of two low-chill peach cultivars - 'TropicBeauty' (TB) and 'UFSharp' (UFS) - with five different N fertilization rates (0 (N0), 45 (N1), 90 (N2), 179 (N3) and 269 (N4) kg ha-1 applied each year from 2011 to 2017) were examined. RESULTS: Peach trees under higher N rates had higher pruning weights compared to the lower N0 or N1 rates. Yield was only affected in 2017 for the two cultivars tested. Physical attributes were inconsistently affected by N. Fruit from the higher N rates had lower a* value (more green) than fruit from the trees under low or zero N. While fruit firmness was not affected by N, fruit from trees under zero/low N had higher total soluble solids in some years. CONCLUSION: Considering that N is recycled in the trees, being retained and reused each season to resume growth, it is important to address peach orchard fertilization based on peach tree N status. The results of this experiment show that an increase in N beyond what is required for tree maintenance does not increase yield. In addition, reducing N does not strongly affect fruit quality, although the color and soluble solids results suggest that lower N rates may advance fruit maturation. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Cinética , Nitrogênio/química , Prunus persica/química , Prunus persica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Árvores/química , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/metabolismo
17.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124528, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425869

RESUMO

A dendrochemical study of cottonwood trees (Populus deltoides) was conducted across a childhood cancer cluster in eastern Sandusky County (Ohio, USA). The justification for this study was that no satisfactory explanation has yet been put forward, despite extensive local surveys of aerosols, groundwater, and soil. Concentrations of eight trace metals were measured by ICP-MS in microwave-digested 5-year sections of increment cores, collected during 2012 and 2013. To determine whether the onset of the first cancer cases could be connected to an emergence of any of these contaminants, cores spanning the period 1970-2009 were taken from 51 trees of similar age, inside the cluster and in a control area to the west. The abundance of metals in cottonwood tree annual rings served as a proxy for their long-term, low-level accumulation from the same sources whereby exposure of the children may have occurred. A spatial analysis of cumulative metal burdens (lifetime accumulation in the tree) was performed to search for significant 'hotspots', employing a scan statistic with a mask of variable radius and center. For Cd, Cr, and Ni, circular hotspots were found that nearly coincide with the cancer cluster and are similar in size. No hotspots were found for Co, Cu, and Pb, while As and V were largely below method detection limits. Whereas our results do not implicate exposure to metals as a causative factor, we conclude that, after 1970, cottonwood trees have accumulated more Cd, Cr, and Ni, inside the childhood cancer cluster than elsewhere in Sandusky County.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Populus/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Criança , Humanos , Ohio/epidemiologia , Solo/química , Análise Espacial , Inquéritos e Questionários , Árvores/química
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(35): 35945-35956, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709484

RESUMO

The aim of the research was to assess the possibility to use deciduous tree bark in the biomonitoring of urban areas. The tree bark taken from various deciduous tree species growing in the Opole Province (south-western Poland) was used for the research. The bark was collected from tree trunks in the period of June 2-26, 2017. Concentrations of the heavy metals were determined in the barks by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). On the basis of the research, it was determined that type of tree, distance from pollution source, elevation off the ground and the side of trunk from which bark was sampled all influence the research results. A comparison of the values of coefficient of variation CV demonstrated that the bark Quercus robur and Betula pendula is more heterogeneous, e.g. for Fe CVQuercus robur is 48.0 % and CVBetula pendula = 42.3 %, compared to Fagus sylvatica (CVFe = 22.6%). In order to limit the influence of environmental factors (e.g. air movement caused by vehicles and pedestrians) on the samples pollution level with analytes, it seems that the optimum level for collecting the samples is 1.5-2.0 m. It was demonstrated that deciduous tree bark can be used as bioindicator in assessing the pollution of atmospheric aerosol by heavy metals, due to its occurrence in urban areas. However, it is important to validate all stages of the analysis procedure that uses deciduous tree bark.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Casca de Planta/química , Betula , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Polônia , Árvores/química
19.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731511

RESUMO

Despite the development of a range of anti-cancer agents, cancer diagnoses are still increasing in number, remaining a leading cause of death. Anticancer drug treatment is particularly important for leukemia. We screened Turkish plants and found the unique antileukemic activity of twig components in Turkish Caucasian beech, selectively inducing apoptosis in leukemia cells. This effect is unique among some kinds of beeches, presumably related to oxidative stress. This study would lead to effective use of discarded material, i.e., twig of beech, and a new anti-leukemic drug based on large tree.


Assuntos
Fagus/química , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Árvores/química
20.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0223800, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682614

RESUMO

Periodontitis is an immuno-inflammatory disease, which can lead to tooth loss. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Platymiscium floribundum Vog., a Brazilian tree which has been used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent, in a pre-clinical trial of periodontitis in rats. Periodontitis was induced by placing a sterilized nylon (3.0) thread ligature around the cervix of the second left upper molar of the rats, which received (per os) P. floribundum extract (0.1, 1 or 10 mg/kg) or vehicle 1h before periodontitis-challenge and once daily during 11 days. Treatment with P. floribundum (10mg/kg) decreased alveolar bone loss, MPO activity nitrite/nitrate levels, oxidative stress, TNF-α, IL1-ß, IL-8/CINC-1, and PGE2 gingival levels, and transcription of TNF-α, IL1-ß, COX-2, iNOS, RANK, and RANKL genes, while elevated both BALP serum levels and IL-10 gingival levels. The animals did not show signs of toxicity throughout the experimental course. These findings show that P. floribundum has anti-inflammatory and anti-resorptive properties in a pre-clinical trial of periodontitis, representing an interesting biotechnological tool.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Árvores/química , Animais , Feminino , Gengiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengiva/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Periodontite/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
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