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1.
Science ; 367(6474): 147-148, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919210
2.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(1): 50-55, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Higher rates of neonatal morbidity and mortality at term combined with earlier spontaneous delivery have led to the hypothesis that babies born to South Asian born (SA-born) women may mature earlier and/or their placental function decreases earlier than babies born to Australian and New Zealand born (Aus/NZ-born) women. Whether babies born to SA-born women do better in the preterm period, however, has yet to be evaluated. In this study we investigated respiratory outcomes, indicative of functional maturity, of preterm babies born to SA-born women compared with those of Aus/NZ-born women to explore this hypothesis further. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at Monash Health. PATIENTS: Data were collected from neonatal and birth records of moderate-late preterm (32-36 weeks) infants born between 2012 and 2015 to SA-born and Aus/NZ-born women. OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of nursery admissions and neonatal respiratory outcomes were compared. RESULTS: Babies born to Aus/NZ-born women were more likely to be admitted to a nursery (80%) compared with SA-born babies (72%, p=0.004). Babies born to SA-born mothers experienced significantly less hyaline membrane disease (7.8%), required less resuscitation at birth (28.6%) and were less likely to require ventilation (20%) than babies born to Aus/NZ-born mothers (18%, 42.2%, 34.6%; p<0.001). There was no difference in the duration of ventilation or length of stay in hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-late preterm babies born to SA-born women appear to have earlier functional maturity, as indicated by respiratory outcomes, than Aus/NZ-born babies. Our findings support the hypothesis of earlier fetal maturation in SA-born women.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Doença da Membrana Hialina/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro , Ressuscitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ásia Sudeste/etnologia , Austrália , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Mães , Nova Zelândia , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Insect Sci ; 27(1): 143-158, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873880

RESUMO

Accurate species-level identifications underpin many aspects of basic and applied biology; however, identifications can be hampered by a lack of discriminating morphological characters, taxonomic expertise or time. Molecular approaches, such as DNA "barcoding" of the cytochrome c oxidase (COI) gene, are argued to overcome these issues. However, nuclear encoding of mitochondrial genes (numts) and poor amplification success of suboptimally preserved specimens can lead to erroneous identifications. One insect group for which these molecular and morphological problems are significant are the dacine fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacini). We addressed these issues associated with COI barcoding in the dacines by first assessing several "universal" COI primers against public mitochondrial genome and numt sequences for dacine taxa. We then modified a set of four primers that more closely matched true dacine COI sequence and amplified two overlapping portions of the COI barcode region. Our new primers were tested alongside universal primers on a selection of dacine species, including both fresh preserved and decades-old dry specimens. Additionally, Bactrocera tryoni mitochondrial and nuclear genomes were compared to identify putative numts. Four numt clades were identified, three of which were amplified using existing universal primers. In contrast, our new primers preferentially amplified the "true" mitochondrial COI barcode in all dacine species tested. The new primers also successfully amplified partial barcodes from dry specimens for which full length barcodes were unobtainable. Thus we recommend these new primers be incorporated into the suites of primers used by diagnosticians and quarantine labs for the accurate identification of dacine species.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Primers do DNA/análise , Tephritidae/classificação , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Austrália , Sequência de Bases , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , Proteínas de Insetos/análise , Masculino , Ilhas do Pacífico , Filogenia , Tephritidae/genética
4.
Zootaxa ; 4612(3): zootaxa.4612.3.8, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717057

RESUMO

Two new species the spider family Anapidae are described from Southeast Asia: Conculus sagadaensis n. sp. from Philippines and Conculus yaoi n. sp. from Indonesia, both described after male specimens. Conculus is reported from Southeast Asia for the first time. Diagnoses and illustrations are provided for two new species. The types are deposited in the Natural History Museum of Sichuan University (NHMSU) in Chengdu, China.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , China , Indonésia , Masculino , Filipinas
5.
Zootaxa ; 4612(2): zootaxa.4612.2.10, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717072

RESUMO

Penia Laporte, 1838 is the most species-rich genus in the click-beetle tribe Dimini. Penia is distributed in the Himalayas, East and South East Asia. In this paper, we describe P. mantillerii sp. nov. from northern Vietnam. This species is easily recognizable due to its elongate body and large window-like elytral punctures. The most morphologically similar species to P. mantillerii sp. nov. are P. costipennis Fleutiaux, 1936 and P. sucinea Schimmel, 2001, which also occur in northern Vietnam. Male pregenital segments and genitalia are figured for the first time for P. sucinea. An identification key to the Penia species from Vietnam and surroundings is provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Masculino , Vietnã
6.
Zootaxa ; 4609(1): zootaxa.4609.1.1, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717117

RESUMO

Siargao Island is located on the southeastern part of the Philippines. We have very little knowledge on the Orthoptera from this island which is covered with forest over limestone, open vegetation, and mangrove, despite being designated as one of the terrestrial Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) in the Philippines. We conducted surveys in 2018 to search for orthopterans. In total, thirty-seven species from 34 genera were found. Seventeen species are recorded in Siargao Island for the first time, representing 45.9% of all collected species, thus, validating that orthopterans in the island are indeed overlooked. Out of the 37 species, 21 of these are endemic to the Philippines and 9 are endemic to Siargao Island, hence suggesting that species on the island can be biologically significant..                We also observed that a huge proportion of the species in Siargao Island are fully winged and capable of flight, but most species are small sized. We also provide taxonomic notes and illustrations, including descriptions of the male Segestidea punctipennis Bolívar, 1903 and female Eumecopoda reducta Hebard, 1922 for the first time. We inferred that species from Siargao Island are closely associated with Sundaland and for within Philippines, Mindanao and Luzon.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Biodiversidade , Feminino , Ilhas , Masculino , Filipinas
7.
Zootaxa ; 4640(1): zootaxa.4640.1.1, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712454

RESUMO

Compared to other archipelagos of the Pacific, the New Caledonian Odonata fauna is rich and diverse with 56 valid species or subspecies (23 endemics, 41%) from eight families (four Zygoptera: Argiolestidae, Coenagrionidae, Isostictidae, Lestidae, and four Anisoptera: Aeshnidae, Corduliidae, Synthemistidae, Libellulidae) and 31 genera (including four endemics, 13%). In Zygoptera, we record 19 species including 12 endemics (63%), and among Anisoptera, we record 37 species or subspecies, including 11 endemics (30%). We removed five species from the list that had been erroneously recorded as occurring in New Caledonia: Tramea carolina (Linnaeus, 1763), Austroargiolestes icteromelas (Selys-Longchamps, 1862), Ischnura torresiana Tillyard, 1913, Xiphiagrion cyanomelas Selys-Longchamps, 1876 and Hemicordulia oceanica Selys-Longchamps, 1871. The occurrence of Tramea limbata (Desjardins, 1835) appears also doubtful, but we were unable to clarify to which taxon this record referred hence we excluded it from our update. From a biogeographic perspective, the New Caledonian fauna has mostly Australian affinities with some connections with southeast Asia and the Pacific region. We provide for each species, whenever information was available, a distribution map with a brief review of its known ecology, behaviour and phenology. We also evaluated each species' conservation status, in light of known threats (range restriction, scarcity and human activity including altered water flow). We consider seventeen species (30%) endangered. The most immediate threats concern water pollution including alteration to the flow of water courses caused by mining, deforestation and fires. Invasive species, such as alien fish, may be predators of concern for odonata larva, although this has not yet been proven in New Caledonia.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Odonatos , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Austrália , Ecossistema , Nova Caledônia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4671(3): zootaxa.4671.3.11, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716050

RESUMO

The genus Amerila Walker, 1855 is widely distributed from Africa to Australia with the maximum diversity in Africa (Häuser 1993, Häuser Boppré 1997). Three species in this genus are recorded from Indochina (Dubatolov de Vos 2010), including A. astreus (Drury, 1773) and A. omissa (Rothschild, 1910). These two are common and widely distributed, and their external morphology is well studied (Holloway 1988, Cerný Pinratana 2009, Bucsek 2012) and their genitalia are illustrated in the book of Dr. J.D. Holloway (1988). However the third one, A. abdominalis (Rothschild, 1933) is a rather poorly known species. The morphology of this species is known only from its original description (Rothschild 1933). There are no published images of genitalia of this species, and its female morphology is unknown. The image of a male of A. abdominalis was published by Bucsek (2012). Here, we give the detailed description of the morphology of A. abdominalis, including the male and female genitalia.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Feminino , Genitália , Masculino
9.
J Insect Sci ; 19(6)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703123

RESUMO

Distribution shifts are a common response in butterflies to a warming climate. Hong Kong has documented records of several new butterfly species in recent decades, comprising a high proportion of tropical species, some of which have successfully established. In this study, we examined possible drivers for the establishment of Euripus nyctelius Doubleday (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) by studying its thermal physiology and modeling current climate and future distributions projected by species distribution modeling (SDM). We found that E. nyctelius adults have a significantly higher critical thermal minimum than its local temperate relative, Hestina assimilis Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), suggesting a possible physiological constraint that may have been lifted with recent warming. SDMs provide further evidence that a shifting climate envelope may have improved the climate suitability for E. nyctelius in Hong Kong and South China-however, we cannot rule out the role of other drivers potentially influencing or driving range expansion, habitat change in particular. Conclusive attribution of warming-driven impacts for most tropical species is difficult or not possible due to a lack of historical or long-term data. Tropical insects will require a significant advancement in efforts to monitor species and populations across countries if we are to conclusively document climate-driven shifts in species distributions and manage the consequences of such species redistribution. Nevertheless, the warming climate and subsequent increased climatic suitability for tropical species in poleward areas, as shown here, is likely to result in future species redistribution events in subtropical and temperate ecosystems.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Borboletas , Mudança Climática , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Extremo Oriente , Temperatura Ambiente
10.
Zootaxa ; 4619(2): zootaxa.4619.2.9, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716308

RESUMO

Orthoptera from Sandakan, Sabah are relatively understudied compared to some other parts of Borneo, and lack of information of species there can impede our understanding of the origins and biodiversity of orthopterans in Borneo and, in general, Southeast Asia. Based on a recent orthopteran survey in Sandakan, one new species of Lebinthus Stål is described: Lebinthus sandakan sp. nov. The male calling song of this new species is also presented. The calling song of Cardiodactylus borneoe Robillard Gorochov, 2014 is also described for the first time.


Assuntos
Gryllidae , Ortópteros , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Bornéu , Malásia , Masculino , Simpatria
11.
Zootaxa ; 4613(2): zootaxa.4613.2.6, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716415

RESUMO

The genus Xylaplothrips is re-diagnosed, 11 species are listed as appropriately included in this genus of which three are new combinations from Haplothrips (X. acaciae; X. collyerae; X. gahniae). A further six species are listed as incertae sedis within Xylaplothrips and a key is provided to the four species of this genus known from Australia including X. anarsius sp.n. The genus Mesandrothrips is recalled from synonymy with Xylaplothrips, and a list is provided of 20 appropriately included species of which 14 are new combinations from Xylaplothrips (M. caliginosus; M. clavipes; M. darci; M. dubius; M. emineus; M. flavitibia; M. flavus; M. inquilinus; M. montanus; M. pictipes; M. pusillus; M. reedi; M. subterraneus; M. tener), and one is a new combination from Haplothrips (M. inquinatus). A key is provided to 10 species of this genus known from Australia, including three species transferred from Haplothrips, together with M. austrosteensia sp.n., M. googongi sp.n., M. kurandae sp.n., M. lamingtoni sp.n. and M. oleariae sp.n. The type species, M. inquilinus, is widespread across Southeast Asia as an invader of thrips galls, and Haplothrips darci Girault based on a single female from Queensland is considered closely related.


Assuntos
Tisanópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Austrália , Feminino , Queensland
12.
Zootaxa ; 4657(2): zootaxa.4657.2.12, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716793

RESUMO

The wolf spider genus Artoria Thorell, 1877 is a common group in Australasia, currently including 41 species from Australia, three from New Zealand and four from Pacific islands (Framenau Baehr 2018; Word Spider Catalog 2019). This does not, however, comprise the whole distribution of the genus. The type species, A. parvula Thorell, 1877 has been recorded from China, Philippines, Indonesia (Sulawesi) and Australia (Northern Territory). An endemic species, A. ligulacea (Qu, Peng Yin, 2009) was described from Yunnan, China. This indicates that there must be some undescribed species from Southeast Asian countries. A recent collecting expedition to Malaysia confirms this hypothesis. Two species of Artoria were found, the type species, A. parvula from East and West Malaysia and a new species, A. weiwei sp. nov. from East Malaysia. In this study, we illustrate the former and describe for the first time the latter species.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Australásia , China , Indonésia , Malásia , Nova Zelândia , Northern Territory , Ilhas do Pacífico , Filipinas
13.
Zootaxa ; 4657(1): zootaxa.4657.1.13, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716807

RESUMO

To date, 26 species of Theloderma have been described and all are distributed throughout Southeast Asia from Assam in northeastern India to Myanmar, Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, and the islands of the Greater Sundas: Sumatra and Borneo (Frost 2019). The tadpoles of only 12 species have been described and published: T. asperum (Boulenger); T. auratum Poyarkov, Kropachev, Gogoleva Orlov; T. bicolor (Bourret); T. corticale (Boulenger); T. gordoni Taylor; T. horridum (Boulenger); T. leave (Smith); T. moloch (Annandale); T. nebulosum Rowley, Le, Hoang, Dau Cao; T. palliatum Rowley, Le, Hoang, Dau Cao; T. stellatum Taylor; T. vietnamense Poyarkov, Orlov, Moiseeva, Pawangkhanant, Ruangsuwan, Vassilieva, Galoyan, Nguyen Gogoleva (Boulenger 1903; Annandale 1912; Wassersug et al. 1981; Inger et al. 1999; Leong Lim 2003; Inthara et al. 2005; Rowley et al. 2011; Gawor et al. 2012; Orlov et al. 2012; Poyarkov et al. 2015; Kropachev et al. 2018).


Assuntos
Anuros , Fibras Musgosas Hipocampais , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Bornéu , Índia , Indochina , Indonésia , Larva , Malásia , Mianmar , Filogenia , Vietnã
14.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 436-438, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612684

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of reported malaria cases in Leshan City, so as to provide insights into malaria control. METHODS: The data pertaining to malaria cases and epidemiological individual information in Leshan City from 2012 to 2018 were captured from the National Notifiable Communicable Disease Reporting System and the Information System for Parasitic Diseases Control and Prevention, and a descriptive epidemiological analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 34 malaria cases were reported in Leshan City from 2012 to 2018, and all cases were confirmed as imported malaria cases by Sichuan provincial malaria diagnosis reference laboratory. Of all 34 cases, there were 14 vivax malaria cases, 18 falciparum malaria cases, a malariae malaria case and an ovale malaria case. The sites where malaria parasite infections occurred mainly included African areas (accounting for 58.82%) and Southeastern Asian areas (accounting for 29.41%), and the malaria cases were mainly reported in January, February, June and July, which accounted for 65.63% of all cases. The cases included 33 men and a woman, and had ages of 21 to 59 years. The cases'occupations mainly involved overseas peasants, technical workers and businessmen. The duration from onset of malaria to diagnosis ranged from 0 to 31 days, and the percentage of definitive diagnosis was 85.29% at initial diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: There are no local malaria cases in Leshan City; however, imported malaria cases are reported. The monitoring, management and health education of overseas returners should be further strengthened and malaria training should be improved to enhance the diagnostic and treatment capability in professionals, so as to consolidate malaria control achievements.


Assuntos
Malária , Adulto , África , Ásia Sudeste , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1164: 11-34, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576537

RESUMO

Of the ~129,079 new cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and 72,987 associated deaths estimated for 2018, the majority will be geographically localized to South East Asia, and likely to show an upward trend annually. It is thought that disparities in dietary habits, lifestyle, and exposures to harmful environmental factors are likely the root cause of NPC incidence rates to differ geographically. Genetic differences due to ethnicity and the Epstein Barr virus (EBV) are likely contributing factors. Pertinently, NPC is associated with poor prognosis which is largely attributed to lack of awareness of the salient symptoms of NPC. These include nose hemorrhage and headaches and coupled with detection and the limited therapeutic options. Treatment options include radiotherapy or chemotherapy or combination of both. Surgical excision is generally the last option considered for advanced and metastatic disease, given the close proximity of nasopharynx to brain stem cell area, major blood vessels, and nerves. To improve outcome of NPC patients, novel cellular and in vivo systems are needed to allow an understanding of the underling molecular events causal for NPC pathogenesis and for identifying novel therapeutic targets and effective therapies. While challenges and gaps in current NPC research are noted, some advances in targeted therapies and immunotherapies targeting EBV NPCs are discussed in this chapter, which may offer improvements in outcome of NPC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/complicações , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/complicações , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Fatores de Risco
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 477, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) is an important worldwide invasive species and can be a locally important vector of chikungunya, dengue and, potentially, Zika. This species is native to Southeast Asia where populations thrive in both temperate and tropical climates. A better understanding of the population structure of Ae. albopictus in Lao PDR is very important in order to support the implementation of strategies for diseases prevention and vector control. In the present study, we investigated the genetic variability of Ae. albopictus across a north-south transect in Lao PDR. METHODS: We used variability in a 1337-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1), to assess the population structure of Ae. albopictus in Lao PDR. For context, we also examined variability at the same genetic locus in samples of Ae. albopictus from Thailand, China, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, Italy and the USA. RESULTS: We observed very high levels of genetic polymorphism with 46 novel haplotypes in Ae. albopictus from 9 localities in Lao PDR and Thailand populations. Significant differences were observed between the Luangnamtha population and other locations in Lao PDR. However, we found no evidence of isolation by distance. There was overall little genetic structure indicating ongoing and frequent gene flow among populations or a recent population expansion. Indeed, the neutrality test supported population expansion in Laotian Ae. albopictus and mismatch distribution analyses showed a lack of low frequency alleles, a pattern often seen in bottlenecked populations. When samples from Lao PDR were analyzed together with samples from Thailand, China, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, Italy and the USA, phylogenetic network and Bayesian cluster analysis showed that most populations from tropical/subtropical regions are more genetically related to each other, than populations from temperate regions. Similarly, most populations from temperate regions are more genetically related to each other, than those from tropical/subtropical regions. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes albopictus in Lao PDR are genetically related to populations from tropical/subtropical regions (i.e. Thailand, Singapore, and California and Texas in the USA). The extensive gene flow among locations in Lao PDR indicates that local control is undermined by repeated introductions from untreated sites.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Aedes/classificação , Aedes/genética , Aedes/virologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Teorema de Bayes , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA/química , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Extremo Oriente , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Itália , Laos , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Clima Tropical , Estados Unidos
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4299, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541099

RESUMO

Agriculture has been implicated as a potential driver of human infectious diseases. However, the generality of disease-agriculture relationships has not been systematically assessed, hindering efforts to incorporate human health considerations into land-use and development policies. Here we perform a meta-analysis with 34 eligible studies and show that people who live or work in agricultural land in Southeast Asia are on average 1.74 (CI 1.47-2.07) times as likely to be infected with a pathogen than those unexposed. Effect sizes are greatest for exposure to oil palm, rubber, and non-poultry based livestock farming and for hookworm (OR 2.42, CI 1.56-3.75), malaria (OR 2.00, CI 1.46-2.73), scrub typhus (OR 2.37, CI 1.41-3.96) and spotted fever group diseases (OR 3.91, CI 2.61-5.85). In contrast, no change in infection risk is detected for faecal-oral route diseases. Although responses vary by land-use and disease types, results suggest that agricultural land-uses exacerbate many infectious diseases in Southeast Asia.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113106, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541826

RESUMO

Satellite observations for regional air quality assessment rely on comprehensive spatial coverage, and daily monitoring with reliable, cloud-free data quality. We investigated spatiotemporal variation and data quality of two global satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products derived from MODIS and VIIRS imagery. AOD is considered an essential atmospheric parameter strongly related to ground Particulate Matter (PM) in Southeast Asia (SEA). We analyze seasonal variation, urban/rural area influence, and biomass burning effects on atmospheric pollution. Validation indicated a strong relationship between AERONET ground AOD and both MODIS AOD (R2 = 0.81) and VIIRS AOD (R2 = 0.68). The monthly variation of satellite AOD and AERONET AOD reflects two seasonal trends of air quality separately for mainland countries including Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Taiwan, Hong Kong, and for maritime countries consisting of Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, and Timor Leste. The mainland SEA has a pattern of monthly AOD variation in which AODs peak in March/April, decreasing during wet season from May-September, and increasing to the second peak in October. However, in maritime SEA, AOD concentration peaks in October. The three countries with the highest annual satellite AODs are Singapore, Hong Kong, and Vietnam. High urban population proportions in Singapore (40.7%) and Hong Kong (21.6%) were associated with high AOD concentrations as expected. AOD values in SEA urban areas were a factor of 1.4 higher than in rural areas, with respective averages of 0.477 and 0.336. The AOD values varied proportionately to the frequency of biomass burning in which both active fires and AOD peak in March/April and September/October. Peak AOD in September/October in some countries could be related to pollutant transport of Indonesia forest fires. This study analyzed satellite aerosol product quality in relation to AERONET in SEA countries and highlighted framework of air quality assessment over a large, complicated region.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ásia Sudeste , Biomassa , Fogo , Estações do Ano , Astronave , Urbanização , Incêndios Florestais
19.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(4): 341-357, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533401

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba, one of free-living amoebae (FLA), remains a high risk of direct contact with this protozoan parasite which is ubiquitous in nature and man-made environment. This pathogenic FLA can cause sight-threatening amoebic keratitis (AK) and fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) though these cases may not commonly be reported in our clinical settings. Acanthamoeba has been detected from different environmental sources namely; soil, water, hot-spring, swimming pool, air-conditioner, or contact lens storage cases. The identification of Acanthamoeba is based on morphological appearance and molecular techniques using PCR and DNA sequencing for clinico-epidemiological purposes. Recent treatments have long been ineffective against Acanthamoeba cyst, novel anti-Acanthamoeba agents have therefore been extensively investigated. There are efforts to utilize synthetic chemicals, lead compounds from medicinal plant extracts, and animal products to combat Acanthamoeba infection. Applied nanotechnology, an advanced technology, has shown to enhance the anti-Acanthamoeba activity in the encapsulated nanoparticles leading to new therapeutic options. This review attempts to provide an overview of the available data and studies on the occurrence of pathogenic Acanthamoeba among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) members with the aim of identifying some potential contributing factors such as distribution, demographic profile of the patients, possible source of the parasite, mode of transmission and treatment. Further, this review attempts to provide future direction for prevention and control of the Acanthamoeba infection.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba , Amebíase/epidemiologia , Acanthamoeba/classificação , Acanthamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Acanthamoeba/fisiologia , Amebíase/diagnóstico , Amebíase/terapia , Amebíase/transmissão , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Água/parasitologia
20.
Adv Parasitol ; 105: 111-124, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530392

RESUMO

Poverty magnifies limitations resulting from traditional biases and environmental risks in endemic areas. Any approach towards disease control needs to recognise that socially embedded vulnerabilities can be as powerful as externally imposed infections. Important for RNAS was networking across borders, not just on schistosomiasis but on the whole spectrum of endemic helminthiases, and this bore fruit in the form of the expansion of RNAS into the 'Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis and other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS+)', which focuses on technical standardization, supporting the growth of research capacity and the further development of networking. Administration is lean and largely virtual with the focus on connecting members via the Internet, providing databases and administrative back-up. The strategy emphasizes ways and means to alleviate the spectre of disease and poverty from the endemic areas through boosting research on target diseases and supporting collaboration between basic and operational research on the one hand and control/elimination activities on the other. RNAS+ also benefits from continuing input from outside research institutions in areas outside Southeast Asia. This paper is aiming to identify the priority actions to close the gap between researcher and policy makers.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa/tendências , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional
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