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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 972, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563978

RESUMO

Among the many questions unanswered for the COVID-19 pandemic are the origin of SARS-CoV-2 and the potential role of intermediate animal host(s) in the early animal-to-human transmission. The discovery of RaTG13 bat coronavirus in China suggested a high probability of a bat origin. Here we report molecular and serological evidence of SARS-CoV-2 related coronaviruses (SC2r-CoVs) actively circulating in bats in Southeast Asia. Whole genome sequences were obtained from five independent bats (Rhinolophus acuminatus) in a Thai cave yielding a single isolate (named RacCS203) which is most related to the RmYN02 isolate found in Rhinolophus malayanus in Yunnan, China. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were also detected in bats of the same colony and in a pangolin at a wildlife checkpoint in Southern Thailand. Antisera raised against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of RmYN02 was able to cross-neutralize SARS-CoV-2 despite the fact that the RBD of RacCS203 or RmYN02 failed to bind ACE2. Although the origin of the virus remains unresolved, our study extended the geographic distribution of genetically diverse SC2r-CoVs from Japan and China to Thailand over a 4800-km range. Cross-border surveillance is urgently needed to find the immediate progenitor virus of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , /fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Ásia Sudeste , Quirópteros/sangue , Geografia , Testes de Neutralização , Filogenia , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/química , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503828

RESUMO

While COVID-19 infection and mortality rates are soaring in Western countries, Southeast Asian countries have successfully avoided the second wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic despite high population density. We provide a biochemical hypothesis for the connection between low COVID-19 incidence, mortality rates, and high visceral adiposity in Southeast Asian populations. The SARS-CoV-2 virus uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a gateway into the human body. Although the highest expression levels of ACE2 are found in people's visceral adipose tissue in Southeast Asia, this does not necessarily make them vulnerable to COVID-19. Hypothetically, high levels of visceral adiposity cause systemic inflammation, thus decreasing the ACE2 amount on the surface of both visceral adipocytes and alveolar epithelial type 2 cells in the lungs. Extra weight gained during the pandemic is expected to increase visceral adipose tissue in Southeast Asians, further decreasing the ACE2 pool. In contrast, weight gain can increase local inflammation in fat depots in Western people, leading to worse COVID-related outcomes. Because of the biological mechanisms associated with fat accumulation, inflammation, and their differential expression in Southeast Asian and Western populations, the second wave of the pandemic may be more severe in Western countries, while Southeast Asians may benefit from their higher visceral fat depots.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Pandemias , Adiposidade , Ásia Sudeste , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 74, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients are more likely to develop and die of bloodstream infection (BSI) than noncancer patients. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is associated with immense mortality and economic burden worldwide, is not covered by the recommended initial antibiotic therapy for cancer patients with BSI. This systemic review was performed to estimate the global methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence among bacteremia in patients with malignancy, and further study the predictors and mortality of cancer patients with MRSA bacteremia. METHODS: The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for studies published from Jan. 2000 to Mar. 2020 that provided primary data on the prevalence, predictors, or mortality of MRSA bacteremia in cancer patients. A random-effects model meta-analysis was performed to estimate the pooled prevalence of MRSA with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of MRSA was 3% (95% CI 2-5%) among all bloodstream infections (BSIs) and 44% (95% CI 32-57%) among S. aureus bacteremia in cancer patients. Based on geographical stratification, the pooled prevalence was 5% in Africa (95% CI 1-14%), 1% in Americas (95% CI 1-2%), 2% in Europe (95% CI 1-4%), 4% in Western Pacific (95% CI 2-7%), 8% in South-east Asia (95% CI 4-14%) and 0% in Eastern Mediterranean (95% CI 0-3%). No significant temporal change in MRSA rates was detected in this analysis (R2 = 0.06; P = 0.24). Predictors for MRSA BSIs among cancer patients were identified by comparison with their methicillin-susceptible counterparts, and they were mainly related to healthcare-associated infections and immunosuppression. Finally, the 60-day mortality in adult cancer patients with MRSA BSIs was reported to be 12%, and the 6-month overall mortality was 43.2%, with community-onset infection, secondary BSI, and vancomycin MIC≥2 g/mL being the risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Although the prevalence of MRSA BSIs among cancer patients is relatively low, it did not decline over time as MRSA BSIs in the general hospital population and the high mortality rate was related to MRSA BSIs in patients with malignancy.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , América/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Criança , Comorbidade , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/microbiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
4.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 313-324, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The investigation of molecular mechanisms and evolution of resistance to insecticides is an ongoing challenge, as researchers must provide guidance to manage the resistance to achieve sustainable production in agriculture. Predicting, monitoring, and managing insecticide resistance requires information on the origins, selection, and spread of resistance genes. The resistance of Plutella xylostella (L.) against diamide insecticides is becoming an increasingly severe problem in east and southeast Asia. In this study, the evolution of resistance was investigated using a resistance allele [ryanodine receptor (RyR); G4946E mutation] and its flanking regions, as well as mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI). RESULTS: The sequences of the flanking region of the G4946E and mtCOI suggested that the G4946E mutation has a key role in resistance. Furthermore, the G4946E mutation has multiple origins, and congenic resistant mutations have spread across east and southeast Asia, despite substantial geographical barriers. In addition, the susceptibility of field populations partially recovered during winter, based on the observed decrease in the G4946E (resistant allele) frequency. Finally, the resistance level indexed by the frequency of the E4946 allele was significantly lower in non-overwintering regions than in overwintering regions. CONCLUSION: The information of the present study is useful to monitor resistance using molecular markers and to develop strategies to delay the evolution of diamide resistance.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Mariposas , Alelos , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Diamida , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mariposas/genética
5.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 2, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Through a combination of strong routine immunization (RI), strategic supplemental immunization activities (SIA) and robust surveillance, numerous countries have been able to approach or achieve measles elimination. The fragility of these achievements has been shown, however, by the resurgence of measles since 2016. We describe trends in routine measles vaccine coverage at national and district level, SIA performance and demographic changes in the three regions with the highest measles burden. FINDINGS: WHO-UNICEF estimates of immunization coverage show that global coverage of the first dose of measles vaccine has stabilized at 85% from 2015 to 19. In 2000, 17 countries in the WHO African and Eastern Mediterranean regions had measles vaccine coverage below 50%, and although all increased coverage by 2019, at a median of 60%, it remained far below levels needed for elimination. Geospatial estimates show many low coverage districts across Africa and much of the Eastern Mediterranean and southeast Asian regions. A large proportion of children unvaccinated for MCV live in conflict-affected areas with remote rural areas and some urban areas also at risk. Countries with low RI coverage use SIAs frequently, yet the ideal timing and target age range for SIAs vary within countries, and the impact of SIAs has often been mitigated by delays or disruptions. SIAs have not been sufficient to achieve or sustain measles elimination in the countries with weakest routine systems. Demographic changes also affect measles transmission, and their variation between and within countries should be incorporated into strategic planning. CONCLUSIONS: Rebuilding services after the COVID-19 pandemic provides a need and an opportunity to increase community engagement in planning and monitoring services. A broader suite of interventions is needed beyond SIAs. Improved methods for tracking coverage at the individual and community level are needed together with enhanced surveillance. Decision-making needs to be decentralized to develop locally-driven, sustainable strategies for measles control and elimination.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Programas de Imunização , Imunização Secundária , Sarampo , Regionalização/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , África/epidemiologia , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , /prevenção & controle , Criança , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Imunização Secundária/métodos , Imunização Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo/uso terapêutico , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25454, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound global impact on governments, health care systems, economies, and populations around the world. Within the East Asia and Pacific region, some countries have mitigated the spread of the novel coronavirus effectively and largely avoided severe negative consequences, while others still struggle with containment. As the second wave reaches East Asia and the Pacific, it becomes more evident that additional SARS-CoV-2 surveillance is needed to track recent shifts, rates of increase, and persistence associated with the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to provide advanced surveillance metrics for COVID-19 transmission that account for speed, acceleration, jerk, persistence, and weekly shifts, to better understand country risk for explosive growth and those countries who are managing the pandemic successfully. Existing surveillance coupled with our dynamic metrics of transmission will inform health policy to control the COVID-19 pandemic until an effective vaccine is developed. We provide novel indicators to measure disease transmission. METHODS: Using a longitudinal trend analysis study design, we extracted 330 days of COVID-19 data from public health registries. We used an empirical difference equation to measure the daily number of cases in East Asia and the Pacific as a function of the prior number of cases, the level of testing, and weekly shift variables based on a dynamic panel model that was estimated using the generalized method of moments approach by implementing the Arellano-Bond estimator in R. RESULTS: The standard surveillance metrics for Indonesia, the Philippines, and Myanmar were concerning as they had the largest new caseloads at 4301, 2588, and 1387, respectively. When looking at the acceleration of new COVID-19 infections, we found that French Polynesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines had rates at 3.17, 0.22, and 0.06 per 100,000. These three countries also ranked highest in terms of jerk at 15.45, 0.10, and 0.04, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Two of the most populous countries in East Asia and the Pacific, Indonesia and the Philippines, have alarming surveillance metrics. These two countries rank highest in new infections in the region. The highest rates of speed, acceleration, and positive upwards jerk belong to French Polynesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, and may result in explosive growth. While all countries in East Asia and the Pacific need to be cautious about reopening their countries since outbreaks are likely to occur in the second wave of COVID-19, the country of greatest concern is the Philippines. Based on standard and enhanced surveillance, the Philippines has not gained control of the COVID-19 epidemic, which is particularly troubling because the country ranks 4th in population in the region. Without extreme and rigid social distancing, quarantines, hygiene, and masking to reverse trends, the Philippines will remain on the global top 5 list of worst COVID-19 outbreaks resulting in high morbidity and mortality. The second wave will only exacerbate existing conditions and increase COVID-19 transmissions.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Australásia/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Malásia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Polinésia/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Sistema de Registros
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 51, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in HIV infected individuals is a serious threat to global efforts to combat tuberculosis. Inconsistent findings on the association between HIV infection and MDR-TB were present in many studies. We aimed to review existing data on the relationship between HIV infection and MDR-TB systematically to assess the contribution of HIV on MDR-TB worldwide. We also investigated the patterns of MDR-TB by age, country-wise income, study designs, and global regions. METHODS: We utilized PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect databases to select eligible studies for meta-analysis that were published between January 12,010, and July 30, 2020. The random-effects model was used to obtain the pooled odds ratio of the crude association between HIV and MDR-TB with a 95% confidence interval. We investigated the potential publication-bias by checking funnel plot asymmetry and using the Egger's test. Moreover, we assessed the heterogeneity using the I2 statistic. Sensitivity analysis was performed based on sample size and adjustment factors. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO-CRD42019132752. RESULTS: We identified 1603 studies through a database search, and after subsequent eliminations we selected 54 studies including 430,534 TB patients. The pooled odds of MDR-TB was 1.42 times higher in HIV-positive patients than HIV-negative patients (OR=1.42,CI=1.17-1.71, I2=75.8%). Subgroup analysis revealed that the estimated pooled odds for South-East Asian countries was 1.86, which is the highest in WHO regions (OR=1.86,CI=1.30-2.67, I2=0.00%), followed by Europe and Africa. The effect estimate was found to be higher for primary MDR-TB (OR=2.76,CI=1.70-4.46, I2=0.00%). There was also a trend towards increased odds of MDR-TB for HIV patients older than 40 years (OR=1.56,CI=1.17-2.06). The association was found to be significant in high-burden TB countries (OR=1.75, CI=1.39-2.19) and in high-income countries (OR=1.55, CI=1.06-2.27). CONCLUSION: Such findings indicate that HIV infection raises the risk of MDR-TB, and after contrasting it with the results of the earlier pooled study, it appeared to be an upward risk trend. Moreover, we found that the risk is the highest in the South-East Asian region. A balanced allocation of resources is needed to halt both primary and secondary MDR-TB, particularly in HIV infected people with 40 years of age and older.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/complicações , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Risco , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
8.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 1): 111524, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126187

RESUMO

Human-induced changes in land and water resources adversely affect global hydrological regimes. Hydrological alteration of the natural flow regime is considered to have a significant damaging and widespread impact on river ecosystems and livelihoods. Therefore, understanding the hydrological alteration of rivers and the potential driving factors affecting such alterations are crucial to effective water resources management. This study analyses the impact of changes in land use, climate, and hydropower development on the hydrological regime of the Srepok River Basin in the Lower Mekong Region. The Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) in Southeast Asia is known for its agriculture, forests, fisheries, wildlife, and diverse natural ecosystems. Historical land use and climate change are quantified (utilising European Space Agency land cover and observed meteorological data) and correlated with the hydrological indicators using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) software. Moreover, pre and post impacts on the hydrological regime by hydropower development are quantified using the Range of Variability Approach (RAV) in IHA software. The results reveal that land use, rainfall, and temperature affect different aspects of the hydrological regime, with corroborating evidence to support variation among the most correlated IHA and environmental flow component (EFC) parameters with the three drivers. The highest and lowest correlations among the IHA and EFC parameters under each driver are against land use (0.85, -0.83), rainfall (0.78, -0.54), and minimum and max temperatures (0.42, -0.47). Among the parameters, the fall rate has the most significant effect on hydrological alteration of all drivers. Hydropower development in the basin mostly affects the fall rate and reversal. Identifying the connection between these multiple drivers and hydrological alteration could help decision-makers to design more efficient and sustainable water management policies.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Ásia Sudeste , Hidrologia , Movimentos da Água
9.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 1): 111536, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126188

RESUMO

Land use change has generally been considered a cause and consequence of environmental change. Here, we interpreted the land cover in northern Southeast Asia (including parts of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and China) year by year from 2000 to 2018 with the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. The results show that the areas of old growth forest, young growth forest and annual crops have changed dramatically in the study area. The average frequency of land use change was determined to be 5.4 times (that is, the land use changed every 3.4 years) by comparing the land use types in each year throughout the entire study period, and the frequency of land use change showed a significant agglomeration effect. In addition, there was a substantial difference between the land use change determined with an annual approach and that determined with the commonly used time-stage approach; time-stage land use change studies may overlook gradual change processes in land use change, which highlights the necessary of determining a suitable time period for studying land use change at the local scale. The results show that understanding land use volatility and agglomeration has become important to deepen the understanding of land use change and to help formulate land use policy.


Assuntos
Ásia Sudeste , China , Tailândia , Vietnã , Volatilização
10.
N Z Med J ; 133(1527): 51-70, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332328

RESUMO

AIM: To update data previously published on the health profile of the refugees resettling in New Zealand, and to draw attention to the change in health profile over time, with a decline of infectious disease/deficiencies, and a rise of non-communicable diseases, a worldwide phenomenon. METHOD: Comparative data was extracted from (1) written annual reports prepared by medical officers at the Mangere Refugee Resettlement Centre (1978-1991), (2) a Microsoft ACCESS patient management system between 1995 and 1999 and (3) a MEDTECH patient management system between 2010 and 2014. RESULTS: Over the period 1979-2014, the rate of infectious diseases has declined markedly in resettling refugees, and the rate of non-communicable diseases has increased. For example, the incidence of tuberculosis has decreased from 4% to 0.2%, gut parasites from more than 40% to, in some intakes, 15% and iron deficiency from 22% to 10%, while the diabetes rate has gone from 0.1% to 2.7%. CONCLUSION: While management of unfamiliar infectious diseases and deficiencies (especially vitamin D) still remains an important part of the management of refugee health, their management usually involves limited time and expense, and their burden is much less than before. However, refugees now resettling in New Zealand and the rest of the world often present with familiar non-communicable diseases that require long-term management.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/etnologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ásia Sudeste/etnologia , Butão/etnologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/etnologia , Comportamento Contraceptivo/etnologia , Comportamento Contraceptivo/tendências , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/etnologia , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/etnologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Enteropatias Parasitárias/etnologia , Iraque/etnologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etnologia , Uso de Tabaco/etnologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/etnologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327455

RESUMO

Haze, due to biomass burning, is a recurring problem in Southeast Asia (SEA). Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) remains an important public health concern. In this paper, we examined the long-term seasonality of PM2.5 and PM10 in Singapore. To study the association between forest fires in SEA and air quality in Singapore, we built two machine learning models, including the random forest (RF) model and the vector autoregressive (VAR) model, using a benchmark air quality dataset containing daily PM2.5 and PM10 from 2009 to 2018. Furthermore, we incorporated weather parameters as independent variables. We observed two annual peaks, one in the middle of the year and one at the end of the year for both PM2.5 and PM10. Singapore was more affected by fires from Kalimantan compared to fires from other SEA countries. VAR models performed better than RF with Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) values being 0.8% and 6.1% lower for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. The situation in Singapore can be reasonably anticipated with predictive models that incorporate information on forest fires and weather variations. Public communication of anticipated air quality at the national level benefits those at higher risk of experiencing poorer health due to poorer air quality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fogo , Modelos Estatísticos , Material Particulado , Incêndios Florestais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ásia Sudeste , Material Particulado/análise , Singapura , Incêndios Florestais/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008900, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382697

RESUMO

Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite, has been in the limelight since a large focus of human P. knowlesi infection was reported from Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) in 2004. Although this infection is transmitted across Southeast Asia, the largest number of cases has been reported from Malaysia. The increasing number of knowlesi malaria cases has been attributed to the use of molecular tools for detection, but environmental changes including deforestation likely play a major role by increasing human exposure to vector mosquitoes, which coexist with the macaque host. In addition, with the reduction in human malaria transmission in Southeast Asia, it is possible that human populations are at a greater risk of P. knowlesi infection due to diminishing cross-species immunity. Furthermore, the possibility of increasing exposure of humans to other simian Plasmodium parasites such as Plasmodium cynomolgi and Plasmodium inui should not be ignored. We here review the current status of these parasites in humans, macaques, and mosquitoes to support necessary reorientation of malaria control and elimination in the affected areas.


Assuntos
Malária/veterinária , Plasmodium knowlesi , Animais , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Humanos , Macaca , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores
15.
Malar J ; 19(1): 411, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198747

RESUMO

The global COVID-19 pandemic has been affecting the maintenance of various disease control programmes, including malaria. In some malaria-endemic countries, funding and personnel reallocations were executed from malaria control programmes to support COVID-19 response efforts, resulting mainly in interruptions of disease control activities and reduced capabilities of health system. While it is principal to drive national budget rearrangements during the pandemic, the long-standing malaria control programmes should not be left behind in order to sustain the achievements from the previous years. With different levels of intensity, many countries have been struggling to improve the health system resilience and to mitigate the unavoidable stagnation of malaria control programmes. Current opinion emphasized the impacts of budget reprioritization on malaria-related resources during COVID-19 pandemic in malaria endemic countries in Africa and Southeast Asia, and feasible attempts that can be taken to lessen these impacts.


Assuntos
Orçamentos/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Doenças Endêmicas/economia , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Malária/economia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , África , Ásia Sudeste , Orçamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/economia , Controle de Mosquitos/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23161, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the accuracy of screening tests for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Southeast Asian pregnant women. METHODS: We searched PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, Google Scholar, and Google for relevant articles published in English up to November 2018 using search terms related to GDM, screening tests for GDM and diagnostic performance. The studies were independently screened and selected by both authors. The methodological quality of the included studies was independently assessed by quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies 2. A hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) model was created to estimate the HSROC curve. The summary sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio were calculated in a meta-analysis using bivariate random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 19 studies were included in which the 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and 75 g OGTT were the two common reference standards for diagnosis of GDM. Most points of diagnostic performance in the HSROC 50 g GCT curve compared with the 100 g OGTT reference standard were clustered in the upper left-hand quadrant. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the 50 g GCT were 79% (95% confidence interval [CI] 64%-89%) and 74% (95% CI 59%-85%), respectively. For the 75 g OGTT reference standard, the non-fasting 2-hour plasma glucose showed quite similar sensitivity the 50 g GCT compared with the 100 g OGTT reference standard. The pooled sensitivities and specificities of the fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c were 81% (95% CI 76%-86%) and 70% (95% CI 67%-72%), and 80% (95% CI 66%-90%) and 69% (95% CI 58%-78%), respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the 50 g GCT using the threshold of 140 mg/dL is a good screening test for identifying GDM at 24 to 28 weeks' gestational age for both high-risk and universal screening strategies in Southeast Asian countries. The non-fasting 2-hour PG, fasting plasma glucose or hemoglobin A1c are alternative choices for screening.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Precisão da Medição Dimensional , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Gravidez
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111168, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181914

RESUMO

Climate Change solutions include CO2 extraction from atmosphere and water with burial by living habitats in sediment/soil. Nowhere on the planet are blue carbon plants which carry out massive carbon extraction and permanent burial more intensely concentrated than in SE Asia. For the first time we make a national and total inventory of data to date for "blue carbon" buried from mangroves and seagrass and delineate the constraints. For an area across Southeast Asia of approximately 12,000,000 km2, supporting mangrove forests (5,116,032 ha) and seagrass meadows (6,744,529 ha), we analyzed the region's current blue carbon stocks. This estimate was achieved by integrating the sum of estuarine in situ carbon stock measurements with the extent of mangroves and seagrass across each nation, then summed for the region. We found that mangroves ecosystems regionally supported the greater amount of organic carbon (3095.19Tg Corg in 1st meter) over that of seagrass (1683.97 Tg Corg in 1st meter), with corresponding stock densities ranging from 15 to 2205 Mg ha-1 and 31.3 to 2450 Mg ha-1 respectively, a likely underestimate for entire carbon including sediment depths. The largest carbon stocks are found within Indonesia, followed by the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand, Tropical China, Viet-Nam, and Cambodia. Compared to the blue carbon hotspot of tropical/subtropical Gulf of Mexico's total carbon stock (480.48 Tg Corg), Southeast Asia's greater mangrove-seagrass stock density appears a more intense Blue Carbon hotspot (4778.66 Tg Corg). All regional Southeast Asian nation states should assist in superior preservation and habitat restoration plus similar measures in the USA & Mexico for the Gulf of Mexico, as apparently these form two of the largest tropical carbon sinks within coastal waters. We hypothesize it is SE Asia's regionally unique oceanic-geologic conditions, placed squarely within the tropics, which are largely responsible for this blue carbon hotspot, that is, consistently high ambient light levels and year-long warm temperatures, together with consistently strong inflow of dissolved carbon dioxide and upwelling of nutrients across the shallow geological plates.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Ecossistema , Ásia Sudeste , China , Golfo do México , Indonésia , Malásia , Papua Nova Guiné , Filipinas , Tailândia , Vietnã , Áreas Alagadas
18.
Zootaxa ; 4830(2): zootaxa.4830.2.9, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056158

RESUMO

Variation in colour and structure is re-considered amongst 19 species of Liothrips collected from leaf-galls on Piper vines in Asia. Gynaikothrips crassipes Karny, Liothrips aemulans Priesner, and Liothrips baccati Priesner are considered new synonyms of Liothrips chavicae (Zimmermann). Gynaikothrips karnyi Bagnall is considered a new synonym of Liothrips mirabilis (Schmutz). Gynaikothrips kuwanai Moulton and Liothrips reynvaanae Priesner are considered new synonyms of Liothrips pallipes (Karny). Doubts are expressed about the significance of several further described species, and an identification key is provided to nine putative species. Despite the number of Liothrips species described from Piper, there is little evidence of thrips radiation on this plant genus, and the two most common species of the genus on Piper are probably not closely related.


Assuntos
Piper , Tisanópteros , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Austrália
19.
Zootaxa ; 4767(3): zootaxa.4767.3.6, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056558

RESUMO

Three new, beautifully patterned species of the genus Nemophora Hoffmannsegg are described from Myanmar (N. alba sp. nov.), Indonesia (N. decoratella sp. nov.) and Borneo (N. bruneiella sp. nov.). Nemophora alba differs from all known Nemophora species by white colour of the body, including head, thorax, abdomen, legs, and larger part of wings. Nemophora bruneiella and N. decoratella share two possible synapomorphies, which distinguish them from other Nemophora species: forewing with four to five compact small dark brown spots along dorsum, and basal field of forewing with silver-white triangular spot adjacent to internal border of fascia. The taxonomic affinities of the described species with the other members of the genus Nemophora remain unknown.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ásia Sudeste
20.
BMJ ; 371: m3960, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060107
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