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3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e050676, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408056

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: South Asian countries are ageing and experiencing a rapid increase in proportion of the older population. Income support programmes are of central importance for the older adults as they may help to mitigate the poverty risks associated with ageing and losing the ability to generate income from labour. Evidence related to the income support programmes can help in understanding whether the programmes have been impactful. This scoping review will map the evidence (and gaps) related to income support programmes and create a base to identify the feasibility of future primary research and/or the scope of systematic reviews in the areas where evidence is available. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Joanna Briggs Institute scoping review methodology will be followed. Eligibility criteria for the scoping review will be based on the 'PCC' or the 'Population-Concept-Context' concept. Advanced search for the relevant articles will be conducted in MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, Scopus, Campbell Collaboration, 3ie International Initiative for Impact Evaluation and Web of Science. Additional resources search will be conducted in important organisational websites. Findings of the scoping review will be summarised using descriptive information (frequencies and percentages) for the available evidence on concept (ie, income support programmes), population characteristics and other study variables. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The review is based on data from available literature, hence an ethical approval is not necessary. With this review, we attempt to provide recommendations to the research community and the policymakers about the currently available evidence and the research required for income support of older adults in South Asia, so that resources can be directed towards addressing the same. We plan to disseminate the findings through presentation in international conference and publication in a peer-reviewed journal. REVIEW REGISTRATION: Not registered.


Assuntos
Pobreza , Projetos de Pesquisa , Idoso , Ásia , Humanos , Renda , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
7.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(10): 1400-1406, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362659

RESUMO

This guideline contains updated recommendations on the management and prevention of CAUTIs by the Urological Association of Asia and the Asian Association of Urinary Tract Infection and Sexually Transmitted Infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter , Infecção Hospitalar , Infecções Urinárias , Ásia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Cateteres , Humanos , Cateterismo Urinário/efeitos adversos , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4780, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362899

RESUMO

Globally, bird migration is occurring earlier in the year, consistent with climate-related changes in breeding resources. Although often attributed to phenotypic plasticity, there is no clear demonstration of long-term population advancement in avian migration through individual plasticity. Using direct observations of bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica) departing New Zealand on a 16,000-km journey to Alaska, we show that migration advanced by six days during 2008-2020, and that within-individual advancement was sufficient to explain this population-level change. However, in individuals tracked for the entire migration (50 total tracks of 36 individuals), earlier departure did not lead to earlier arrival or breeding in Alaska, due to prolonged stopovers in Asia. Moreover, changes in breeding-site phenology varied across Alaska, but were not reflected in within-population differences in advancement of migratory departure. We demonstrate that plastic responses can drive population-level changes in timing of long-distance migration, but also that behavioral and environmental constraints en route may yet limit adaptive responses to global change.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Migração Animal/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Charadriiformes/fisiologia , Alaska , Animais , Ásia , Cruzamento , Mudança Climática , Feminino , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Estações do Ano
9.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372606

RESUMO

As demonstrated with the novel coronavirus pandemic, rapid and accurate diagnosis is key to determine the clinical characteristic of a disease and to improve vaccine development. Once the infected person is identified, hematological findings may be used to predict disease outcome and offer the correct treatment. Rapid and accurate diagnosis and clinical parameters are pivotal to track infections during clinical trials and set protection status. This is also applicable for re-emerging diseases like dengue fever, which causes outbreaks in Asia and Latin America every 4 to 5 years. Some areas in the US are also endemic for the transmission of dengue virus (DENV), the causal agent of dengue fever. However, significant number of DENV infections in rural areas are diagnosed solely by clinical and hematological findings because of the lack of availability of ELISA or PCR-based tests or the infrastructure to implement them in the near future. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are a less sensitive, yet they represent a timely way of detecting DENV infections. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between hematological findings and the probability for an NS1-based DENV RDT to detect the DENV NS1 antigen. We also aimed to describe the hematological parameters that are associated with the diagnosis through each test.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Ásia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pandemias , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 24(9): 1106-1111, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375036

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a major health burden in Asia Pacific affecting the quality of life of patients and consuming healthcare resources. According to recent estimates from the World Health Organization-International League Against Rheumatism-Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases, prevalence is around 0.3%-0.5%. Management guidelines have helped to improve treatment across this diverse region. To gain better insight into current real-world management applications in view of these guidelines, virtual meetings were conducted in mid-2020 to explore perspectives of rheumatologists and patients, as well as discuss the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on RA management. Patients and rheumatologists from Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, India, Pakistan, and Taiwan were included, representing a diverse mix of healthcare systems, wealth, ethnicity and culture. Despite many countries having prospered in recent years, similar challenges in RA diagnosis and treatment were identified. The daily impact and patient experience of RA were also similar across countries, marked by "silent" pain and disability, and universal misunderstanding of the disease. Late diagnosis and treatment, and barriers to access to appropriate treatment, remain problematic. The experience shared by Taiwan offers a glimmer of hope, however, wherein patient advocacy groups have succeeded in being included in policy-making decisions and securing access to advanced treatment. Real-world solutions that pay heed to the unique local needs and diversity of Asia Pacific are required to improve RA management, which will take time. In the interim, help can be sought from the trained, non-rheumatologist community to reduce some of the disease burden.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19 , Manejo da Dor/tendências , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Glob Health ; 11: 14001, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386217

RESUMO

Background: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is an evidence-based intervention with large protective effects on neonatal mortality and morbidity, especially among small babies. Despite the available evidence, KMC adoption, implementation and scale-up has lagged. The purpose of this paper is to inform current and future KMC implementation by identifying achievements and challenges in countries that are in the process of scaling up KMC. Methods: We collected and analyzed information to track the status of facility-based KMC in countries identified by the KMC Acceleration Partnership. We assessed the status of the scale-up in six priority countries (Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria and Rwanda in Africa, and Bangladesh and India in Asia) for three periods: 2014 and prior, 2015-2017 and 2017-2019 across six strategic areas: national policy, country implementation, research, knowledge management, monitoring and evaluation and advocacy. We collected information through in-depth interviews with key participants, quantitative data extraction from the Demographic Health Survey and secondary data extraction from policies, briefs, program reports and other documents. Results: Progress in terms of national policy and advocacy appeared to occur quite quickly and evenly across the six priority countries, despite being at different stages during the first assessment. In the areas of country implementation support and research, progress occurred more slowly and results were more variable across countries. It was noted that the number of health facilities offering KMC services increased in all six priority countries, but coverage of KMC was difficult to estimate, demonstrating the ongoing challenges in the area of monitoring and evaluation despite progress made in integrating KMC indicators into national health information systems in five countries. Among the six priority countries - Malawi and Bangladesh had fully achieved at least four the first time six conditions were introduced. Conclusions: We documented notable achievements in the dimensions of policy and country implementation across the six countries, which were likely driven by government engagement to prioritize newborn care services and the promotion of KMC as a core intervention for small babies. We noted challenges in critical areas such as ambulatory KMC, follow-up, and monitoring and evaluation. Addressing these gaps while securing funding to allocate human resources adequately, promoting acceptance of KMC for demand creation and facilitating the use of data for decision making will be vital to ensure effective coverage at scale.


Assuntos
Método Canguru , Ásia , Criança , Etiópia , Humanos , Índia , Mortalidade Infantil
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 671988, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336768

RESUMO

Background: Over 250 million children in low- and middle-income countries are at risk of not achieving their fullest developmental potential due to co-occurring risks such as poor nutrition and inadequate learning opportunities. Early intervention programs integrating the aspects of nurturing care, that is, good health, adequate nutrition, safety and security, responsive caregiving, and learning opportunities, may ameliorate against the negative impact of these adverse conditions. Methods: This meta-analytic review updates the evidence base of parenting interventions comprising stimulation and responsive caregiving components on developmental outcomes for children under age 2 years in low- and middle-income countries. It also describes and assesses the moderation effects of population characteristics and implementation features on the intervention effectiveness. Studies were identified based on previous systematic reviews and an updated literature search in eight databases and the gray literature up to December 2020. A random-effect model was used to explore the pooled effect sizes accounted for by the intervention for developmental outcome of cognition, language, motor, and social-emotional capacities. Exploratory moderation analyses were also conducted. Results: Twenty-one randomized controlled trials representing over 10,400 children from 12 low- and middle-income countries and regions across three continents (Africa, Latin America, and Asia) were identified. The interventions showed overall small-to-moderate effects on children's cognitive development (ES = 0.44; 95% CI = [0.30, 0.57]); language development (ES = 0.33; 95% CI = [0.18, 0.49]); and motor skills (ES = 0.21; 95% CI = [0.10, 0.32]). The overall effect on social-emotional development was non-significant (ES = 0.17; 95% CI = [-0.01, 0.34]). Effect sizes (ES) varied significantly across the studies. Parenting programs that targeted vulnerable groups, including rural communities and caregivers with lower education levels, had more significant effects on children's development. Group sessions (vs. individual visits) and high program dose (≥12 sessions) were also associated with stronger effects on child development. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of the workforce and training on programmatic outcomes. Conclusion: The findings indicate that parenting interventions that encourage nurturing care are effective in improving the early development of children, especially among vulnerable populations. We discuss opportunities to strengthen the implementation of research-based parenting interventions in such contexts.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Poder Familiar , África , Ásia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 766, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic threatens to overwhelm the capacity of a vulnerable healthcare system in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt). We aimed to evaluate the availability of personal protective equipment (PPE) and the level of preparedness among HCWs in the oPt. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a validated online questionnaire distributed through convenient sampling between March 30, 2020 and April 12, 2020. Outcomes were availability of PPE, healthcare workers (HCWs) preparedness in oPt for COVID-19 pandemic, and regional and hospital differences in oPt in terms of availability of PPE and HCWs preparedness. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were used in this study. RESULTS: Of 138 respondents, only 38 HCWs (27.5%) always had access to facemasks and 15 (10.9%) always had access to isolation gowns. Most HCWs did not find eye protection (n = 128, 92.8%), N95 respirators (n = 132, 95.7%), and face shields (n = 127, 92%) always available. Compared to HCWs in West Bank, those in the Gaza Strip were significantly less likely to have access to alcohol sanitizers (p = 0.03) and gloves (p < 0.001). On average, governmental hospitals were significantly less likely to have all appropriate PPE than non-governmental institutions (p = 0.001). Only 16 (11.6%) surveyed felt confident in dealing with a potential COVID-19 case, 57 (41.3%) having received any COVID-19-related training, and 57 (41.3%) not having a local hospital protocol. CONCLUSION: HCWs in oPt appear to be underprepared and severely lacking adequate PPE provision. The lack of PPE provision will exacerbate spread of COVID-19 and deepen the crisis, whilst putting HCWs at risk.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Árabes , Ásia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 39 Suppl 131(4): 124-133, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The multi-systemic, heterogenous nature of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) presents challenges in designing clinical studies that can demonstrate a treatment effect on overall disease burden. We describe the design of the first Phase 3 study in dcSSc patients where the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Combined Response Index in diffuse cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis (CRISS) score was chosen prospectively as the primary outcome. The CRISS measures key clinical disease parameters and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). METHODS: RESOLVE-1 is a Phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of dcSSc patients evaluating the efficacy and safety of lenabasum. Patients ≥18 years of age with dc-SSc and disease duration ≤6 years were eligible. Patients could continue stable background therapy for dcSSc, including stable immunosuppressive therapies. They were randomised to lenabasum 5 or 20 mg twice daily or placebo. The primary efficacy outcome was the mean change from baseline to 52 weeks in the ACR CRISS score. RESULTS: The study enrolled 365 patients over 1.5 years at 77 sites in 13 countries in North America, Europe, Israel, and Asia-Pacific, with the last patient first visit on May 1, 2019. CONCLUSIONS: RESOLVE-1 is the first Phase 3 interventional study to date in dcSSc to prospectively use the ACR CRISS as the primary efficacy outcome. Eligibility criteria allowed background therapy as might occur in clinical practice. This approach also facilitated timely patient enrolment. RESOLVE-1 provides a novel study design that may be used for future Phase 3 dcSSc studies to assess the holistic efficacy of therapy.


Assuntos
Esclerodermia Difusa , Adolescente , Adulto , Ásia , Método Duplo-Cego , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Israel , Esclerodermia Difusa/diagnóstico , Esclerodermia Difusa/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Int J Hematol ; 114(3): 355-362, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302593

RESUMO

Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are a group of T-cell lymphomas with low incidence. Due to their indolent characteristics, treatment strategies have not yet been established for advanced CTCLs. In this study, relative incidence of CTCLs in Asia was estimated and the therapeutic outcomes presented based on various treatments currently used in clinics for advanced CTCLs. As part of a prospective registry study of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) conducted across Asia, including Korea, China, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia, subgroup analysis was performed for patients with CTCLs. Among 486 patients with PTCL, 37 with CTCL (7.6%) were identified between April 2016 and February 2019. Primary cutaneous ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, 35.1%) was the most common subtype. With a median follow-up period of 32.1 months, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 53.5 months (95% CI 0.0-122.5), and overall survival was not reached. 14 patients (48.2%) underwent subsequent treatment after the first relapse, but the response rate was 20% with a PFS of 2.2 months (95% CI 0.3-4.0). Six patients received autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT). However, auto-SCT did not result in better outcomes. Additional studies are needed on standard care treatment of advanced or refractory and relapsed CTCLs.


Assuntos
Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Terapia Combinada , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/diagnóstico , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/etiologia , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/terapia , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/epidemiologia , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/etiologia , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 691757, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277472

RESUMO

Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) infection can induce serious organ damage and cause schistosomiasis japonica which is mainly prevalent in Asia and currently one of the most seriously neglected tropical diseases. Treatment of schistosomiasis largely depends on the drug praziquantel (PZQ). However, PZQ exhibits low killing efficacy on juvenile worms and the potential emergence of its drug resistance is a continual concern. Protein kinases (PKs) are enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of proteins and can participate in many signaling pathways in vivo. Recent studies confirmed the essential roles of PKs in the growth and development of S. japonicum, as well as in schistosome-host interactions, and researches have screened drug targets about PKs from S. japonicum (SjPKs), which provide new opportunities of developing new treatments on schistosomiasis. The aim of this review is to present the current progress on SjPKs from classification, different functions and their potential to become drug targets compared with other schistosomes. The efficiency of related protein kinase inhibitors on schistosomes is highlighted. Finally, the current challenges and problems in the study of SjPKs are proposed, which can provide future guidance for developing anti-schistosomiasis drugs and vaccines.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Schistosoma japonicum , Esquistossomose , Animais , Ásia , Proteínas Quinases
18.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(25): 3925-3939, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has shown to be effective in management of colorectal neoplasm in the Asian countries, while its implementation in Western countries where endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is preferred is still debatable. AIM: To compare the surgical, histological, and oncological outcomes between ESD and EMR in the treatment of colorectal polyps, with subgroup analysis comparing the efficacy of ESD and EMR between Japan and the rest of the world. METHODS: Embase and Medline databases were searched from inception to October 2020 in accordance with PRISMA guidelines for studies comparing en bloc, complete resection, margin involvement, resection time, need for additional surgery, complications, and recurrence rate of ESD with EMR. RESULTS: Of 281344 colorectal polyps from 21 studies were included. When compared to EMR, the pooled analysis revealed ESD was associated with higher en bloc and complete resection rate, and lower lateral margin involvement and recurrence. ESD led to increased procedural time, need for additional surgery, and perforation risk. No significant difference in bleeding risk was found between the two groups. Meta-regression analysis suggested only right colonic polyps correlated with an increased perforation risk in ESD. Confounders including polyp size and invasion depth did not significantly influence the en bloc and complete resection rate, bleeding risk and recurrence. In subgroup analysis, Japan performed better than the rest of the world in both ESD and EMR with perforation risk of 4% and 0.0002%, respectively, as compared to perforation risk of 8% and 1%, respectively, in reports coming from rest of the world. CONCLUSION: ESD resulted in better resection outcomes and lower recurrence compared to EMR. With appropriate training, ESD is preferred over EMR as the first-line therapy for resection of colorectal polyps, without restricting to lesions greater than 20 mm and those with high suspicion of submucosal invasion.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa , Ásia , Pólipos do Colo/cirurgia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucosa Intestinal/cirurgia , Japão , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281035

RESUMO

Universities are providing short-term overseas study programs for healthcare students to increase their cultural competence (i.e., capacity to work effectively in cross-cultural situations). However, there is limited empirical research evaluating the effects of these programs using well-controlled research designs. In the present research study, undergraduate healthcare students in an Australian university were selected as participants. Group 1 (n = 32) participated in a short-term overseas study program in Asia (i.e., China, Vietnam, Singapore, and Taiwan), whereas Group 2 (n = 46) stayed in Australia to continue their university education as usual. All participants completed a self-developed demographic questionnaire, Cultural Intelligence Scale, and Multicultural Personality Questionnaire. Cultural competence was surveyed pre- and post-short-term overseas programs. After controlling for prior overseas experiences and the open-mindedness trait, an ANCOVA indicated that Group 1 had a significantly higher scores than Group 2 in cultural knowledge (p < 0.05), but not in cultural awareness, attitude, or skills. It is suggested that short-term overseas study programs may increase healthcare students' cultural knowledge, a component of competence, and that more needs to be accomplished to improve other areas of cultural competence.


Assuntos
Cognição , Competência Cultural , Ásia , Austrália , China , Humanos , Singapura , Taiwan , Vietnã
20.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 263: 216-222, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237485

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The first ever report of vaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (vNOTES) for benign gynaecological was reported in 2012. There has been an exponential uptake of the number of surgeons performing such procedures worldwide with no official guidance to ensure the safe implementation of this technique into gynaecological practice due its recency. The objective of this study is to report an international consensus-based statement to help guide a basis for adopting vNOTES into clinical practice. STUDY DESIGN: The consensus-based statement was developed amongst 39 international experts using the Delphi methodology over three successive rounds. Consensus was pre-defined as an agreement of 80% or more by the experts. Consensus sought over eight key concepts pertaining to vNOTES including patient selection, perioperative management, surgical technique, instruments, anatomy, training, registries and trials and definition of the surgical technique. Recommendations from an expert anaesthetist and urogynaecologist were also sought to give a broader perspective with respect to the implementation of vNOTES. RESULTS: Fifty nine international surgeons were invited to participate and 39 (66%) agreed to participate based on being involved in a minimum of 20 vNOTES procedures. They were from 13 countries across 5 continents (Europe, North America, South America, Australia and Asia). Participation was 100% on all three rounds. Overall, consensus was reached in 50 of the 56 questions (89%) with the remaining 6 questions where consensus was not reached pertaining to the domain of patient selection. CONCLUSION: An international expert based vNOTES statement is presented here to help guide adoption of vNOTES based on the experience of early adopters. Consensus was achieved on most components of this consensus statement. Given the recency of this technique, until high-level evidence becomes available, this statement provides an appropriate guidance to the safe implementation of vNOTES into gynaecological practice.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural , Ásia , Austrália , Consenso , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos
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