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1.
Kyobu Geka ; 73(11): 905-909, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130711

RESUMO

A 48-year-old woman developed paralysis of the left upper limb and dysarthria. Two days later, she was admitted to a local hospital due to no improvement of symptoms. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed acute hemorrhagic cerebral infarction in the left nucleus basalis. Echocardiography demonstrated a large left atrial mass in the left atrium, shuttling between the left atrium and the left ventricle and moderate mitral regurgitation. Then, she was transferred to our hospital for surgery. Five days after the initial symptoms, resection of the left atrial mass was performed under total cardiopulmonary bypass. First, heparin sodium, and then nafamostat mesilate were used as intraoperative anticoagulation treatment. The left mitral mass was removed via an atrial septal incision and the defect was repaired using a bovine pericardium. The mitral valve was intact and there was no regurgitation. The mass was immunohistologically diagnosed as myxoma. Postoperative brain computed tomography scans demonstrated no exacerbation of the cerebral infarction. She was discharged 13 days after surgery without neurological symptoms.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Neoplasias Cardíacas , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Mixoma , Animais , Bovinos , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Cerebral/etiologia , Infarto Cerebral/cirurgia , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Átrios do Coração/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cardíacas/complicações , Neoplasias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cardíacas/cirurgia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Mixoma/complicações , Mixoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Mixoma/cirurgia
2.
Kardiologiia ; 60(9): 149-152, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131485

RESUMO

The left three-atrial heart (LTH) is a rare congenital abnormality where the left auricle (LA) is divided into two chambers with an additional membrane. This article describes for the first time a clinical case of congenital heart defect with four atrial chambers. A 41-old man was hospitalized for newly diagnosed paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. On transthoracic echocardiogram (EchoCG), LA was considerably enlarged and divided into two equal interconnected parts with a membrane. Additional examination with contrast-enhanced EchoCG and computed tomography revealed two membranes dividing the LA into three chambers. Prediction for the patient was beneficial since there were no other developmental abnormalities of the heart, and the LA transmembrane pressure gradient (PG) was small. Data of literature on the incidence and prognosis of LTH are provided.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ablação por Cateter , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
3.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(11): 74-76, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187045

RESUMO

Leiyomyosarcoma of vascular origin is rarely seen occurring in the Inferior Vena Cava. We report a rare case of a young male with giant retroperitoneal leiyomyosarcoma which extended into the right atrium.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Leiomiossarcoma , Neoplasias Vasculares , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Leiomiossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Veia Cava Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Kardiologiia ; 60(9): 22-29, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131471

RESUMO

Aim To study the relationship between the serum level of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) and clinical and functional characteristics and severity of left atrial (LA) fibrosis in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF).Material and methods The study included 87 patients with nonvalvular AF (62 patients with paroxysmal AF and 25 patients with persistent AF) aged 27 to 72 years (mean age, 56.9±9.2 years, 32 women). 85 % of these patients had arterial hypertension (AH), 33 % had AH and ischemic heart disease, and 12.6 % had isolated AF and were hospitalized for primary catheter ablation. General clinical evaluation, echocardiography, laboratory tests including measurement of GDF-15 and NT-proBNP concentrations in blood were performed. As a surrogate substrate of LA fibrosis during the electroanatomical voltage mapping, the area of low-voltage (<0.5 mV) zones in LA was calculated, including the total LA fibrosis area (Sf, cm2) and a percentage of fibrosis of the total LA area (Sf%).Results Median concentration of GDF-15 was 767.5 [590.0; 951.0] pg /ml. The GDF-15 level positively correlated with age, presence and severity of AH and chronic heart failure, body mass index, and degree of obesity, CHA2DS2 VASc score, level of NT-proBNP, and LA fibrosis area (Sf and Sf%) and negatively correlated with the indexes of left ventricular diastolic function, e' septal and e' lateral. The area of fibrosis increased with increasing GDF-15 concentrations divided into quartiles; Sf% exceeded 20 % at GDF-15 levels higher than median. After a comparative analysis of patients with Sf% ≤20 % and >20 %, statistically significantly different variables were included into a stepwise logistic regression analysis. Two independent predictors of LA fibrosis >20% were identified: a concentration of GDF-15 higher than median (odd ratio (OR), 3.318, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.184-9.298) and LA volume index (OR, 1.079, 95 % CI: 1.014-1.147). According to results of the ROC analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.762 (p=0.000), the model specificity was 72.3 %, sensitivity was 72.4 %, and the prediction accuracy was 72.4 %.Conclusion Blood levels of GDF-15 were associated with the presence and severity of major risk factors for AF and the area of LA fibrosis. In this study, a level of GDF-15 above the median and the LA volume index were independent predictors of LA fibrosis > 20% of the LA area.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial , Fibrilação Atrial , Ablação por Cateter , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento , Adulto , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/patologia , Feminino , Fibrose , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 414-417, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018016

RESUMO

Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and a precursor to many fatal cardiac conditions. Catheter ablation, which is a minimally invasive treatment, is associated with limited success rates in patients with persistent AF. Rotors are believed to maintain AF and core of rotors are considered to be robust targets for ablation. Recently, multiscale entropy (MSE) was proposed to identify the core of rotors in ex-vivo rabbit hearts. However, MSE technique is sensitive to intrinsic parameters, such as scale factor and template dimension, that may lead to an imprecise estimation of entropy measures. The purpose of this research is optimize MSE approach to improve its accuracy and sensitivity in rotor core identification using simulated EGMs from human atrial model. Specifically, we have identified the optimal time scale factor (τopt) and optimal template dimension (Τopt) that are needed for efficient rotor core identification. The τopt was identified to be 10, using a convergence graph, and the Τopt (~20 ms) remained the same at different sampling rates, indicating that optimized MSE will be efficient in identifying core of the rotor irrespective of the signal acquisition system.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ablação por Cateter , Animais , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Entropia , Átrios do Coração , Humanos , Coelhos
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1178-1181, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018197

RESUMO

To date, regional atrial strains have not been imaged in vivo, despite their potential to provide useful clinical information. To address this gap, we present a novel CINE MRI protocol capable of imaging the entire left atrium at an isotropic 2-mm resolution in one single breath-hold. As proof of principle, we acquired data in 10 healthy volunteers and 2 cardiovascular patients using this technique. We also demonstrated how regional atrial strains can be estimated from this data following a manual segmentation of the left atrium using automatic image tracking techniques. The estimated principal strains vary smoothly across the left atrium and have a similar magnitude to estimates reported in the literature.


Assuntos
Átrios do Coração , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Suspensão da Respiração , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos
9.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1198-1202, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018202

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with dramatic increases in mortality and morbidity. Atrial cine MR images are increasingly used in the management of this condition, but there are few specific tools to aid in the segmentation of such data. Some characteristics of atrial cine MR (thick slices, variable number of slices in a volume) preclude the direct use of traditional segmentation tools. When combined with scarcity of labelled data and similarity of the intensity and texture of the left atrium (LA) to other cardiac structures, the segmentation of the LA in CINE MRI becomes a difficult task. To deal with these challenges, we propose a semi-automatic method to segment the left atrium (LA) in MR images, which requires an initial user click per volume. The manually given location information is used to generate a chamber location map to roughly locate the LA, which is then used as an input to a deep network with slightly over 0.5 million parameters. A tracking method is introduced to pass the location information across a volume and to remove unwanted structures in segmentation maps. According to the results of our experiments conducted in an in-house MRI dataset, the proposed method outperforms the U-Net [1] with a margin of 20 mm on Hausdorff distance and 0.17 on Dice score, with limited manual interaction.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética
10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1207-1210, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018204

RESUMO

Accurate segmentation of pulmonary vein (PV) and left atrium (LA) is essential for the preoperative evaluation and planning of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC), which is a rare but mortal congenital heart disease of children. However, manual segmentation is time-consuming and insipid. To free radiologists from the repetitive work, we propose an automatic deep learning method to segment PV and LA from Low-Dose CT images. In the method, attention mechanism is incorporated into the widely used V-Net and a novel grouped attention module is applied to enforce the segmentation performance of the V-Net. We evaluate our method on 68 3D Low-Dose CT images scanned from patients with TAPVC. The experiment result shows that our method outperforms the popular 3D-UNet and V-Net, with mean dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 0.795 and 0.834 for the PV and LA respectively.Clinical relevance-We proposed a CNNs-based method for the automatic segmentation of PV and LA with good accuracy, which can be used for the preoperative evaluation and planning of TAPVC. Our method can improve the efficiency and reduce the workloads of radiologists (400 milliseconds vs. 2-3 hours per-case).


Assuntos
Veias Pulmonares , Síndrome de Cimitarra , Atenção , Criança , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Veias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2303-2306, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018468

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence on the role of the autonomic nervous system in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. Interventions targeting autonomic modulation of atrial electrical activity have been shown to reduce the incidence of atrial arrhythmias. Additionally, recent investigations have proved that pharmacological therapies inhibiting small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels are able to lessen cholinergic effects in the atria.In this study we use computational modeling and simulation to test individual and combined effects of SK channel block and adrenergic stimulation in counteracting detrimental effects induced by the parasympathetic neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) on human atrial electrophysiology. Cell and tissue models are built that incorporate descriptions of SK channels as well as of isoproterenol (Iso)- and ACh-mediated regulation of the atrial action potential (AP). Three different cellular AP models, representing a range of physiological AP shapes, are considered and both homogeneous and heterogeneous ACh distributions in atrial tissue are simulated.At the cellular level, SK channel block is demonstrated to partially revert shortening of AP duration (APD) mediated by ACh at various doses, whereas 1 µM Iso has a variable response depending on the AP shape. The combination of SK block and Iso is in all cases able to take APD back to baseline levels, recovering between 82% and 120% of the APD shortening induced by 0.1 µM ACh. At the tissue level, SK block and Iso alone or in combination do not exert remarkable effects on conduction velocity, but the combination of the two is able to notably prolong the ACh-mediated APD shortening, thus increasing the wavelength for reentry.In conclusion, the results from this study support the combination of SK channel block and adrenergic stimulation as a potential option to counteract parasympathetically-mediated proarrhythmic effects in the human atria.


Assuntos
Acetilcolina , Fibrilação Atrial , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Adrenérgicos , Átrios do Coração , Humanos , Isoproterenol/farmacologia
12.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2315-2318, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018471

RESUMO

Dialysis is prescribed to renal failure patients as a long-term chronic treatment. Whereas dialysis therapeutically normalizes serum electrolytes and removes small toxin molecules, it fails to alleviate fibroblast induced structural fibrosis, and unresponsive uremia. The simultaneous presence of altered electrolytes and fibrosis or uremia is thought to be pro-arrhythmogenic. This study explored potential arrhythmogenesis under pre-dialysis (high electrolyte levels) and post-dialysis (low physiological electrolyte levels) in the presence of fibrosis and uremia in human atrial and ventricular model cardiomyocytes.Two validated human cardiomyocyte models were used in this study that permitted simulation of cardiac atrial and ventricular detailed electrophysiology. Pathological conditions simulating active fibrosis and uremia were implemented in both models. Pre- and post-dialysis conditions were simulated using high and low electrolyte levels respectively. Arrythmogenesis was quantified by computing restitution curves that permitted identification of action potential duration and calcium transient alternans instabilities.In comparison to control conditions, fibrosis abbreviated action potential durations while uremia prolonged the same. Under pre-dialysis conditions, an elevation of serum electrolyte levels caused action potential durations to be abbreviated under both fibrosis and uremia. Alternans instability was observed in the ventricular cardiomyocyte model. Under post-dialysis conditions, lower levels of serum electrolytes promoted an abbreviated action potential duration under fibrosis but caused a large increase of the control and uremic action potential durations. Alternans instabilities were observed in the atrial cardiomyocyte model under post-dialysis conditions at physiological heart rates. The calcium transient restitution showed similar alternans instabilities.Co-existing conditions such as fibrosis and uremia in the presence of unphysiological electrolyte levels promote arrhythmogenesis and may require additional treatment to improve dialysis outcomes.Clinical Relevance. Knowledge of model response to clinically relevant conditions permits use of in silico modeling to better understand and dissect underlying arrhythmia mechanisms.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Miócitos Cardíacos , Potenciais de Ação , Átrios do Coração , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos
13.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2565-2568, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018530

RESUMO

In this study, we developed and analyzed different patient-specific 3D anatomical models of the left atrium including left atrial Appendage, in order to investigate the local hemodynamics. Particularly, we focused on the left atrial appendage and its impact on thrombus formation due to wall shear stress alterations. A 3D semi-automated reconstruction approach was carried out to segment and reconstruct the left atrium from CT scans. Six different patients were studied applying their patient-specific clinical data. Three different velocity profiles simulated for each patient case, representing one normal and two abnormal conditions. Simulations varied significantly according to different appendage morphologies. Our scope is to describe the hemodynamic behavior at the left atrium and the left atrial appendage according to different blood velocities based on their anatomic variety (chicken wing 0.14 m/s, windsock 0.10, cactus 0.08, and cauliflower 0.04). Wall shear stress results were demonstrated and correlated with the velocities and the thrombus formation inside the appendage cavity.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial , Fibrilação Atrial , Trombose , Apêndice Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2594-2597, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018537

RESUMO

Detection of Atrial fibrillation (AF) from premature atrial contraction (PAC) and premature ventricular contraction (PVC) is challenging as frequent occurrences of these ectopic beats can mimic the typical irregular patterns of AF. In this paper, we present a preliminary study of using density Poincare plot based machine learning method to detect AF from PAC/PVCs using electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. First, we propose creation of this new density Poincare plot which is derived from the difference of the heart rate. Next, from this density Poincare plot, template correlation and discrete wavelet transform are used to extract suitable image-based features, which is followed by infinite latent feature selection algorithm to rank the features. Finally, classification of AF vs PAC/PVC is performed using K-Nearest Neighbor, discriminant analysis and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Our method is developed and validated using a subset of Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC) III database containing 8 AF and 8 PAC/PVC subjects. Both 10-fold and leave-one-subject-out cross validations are performed to show the robustness of our proposed method. During the 10-fold cross-validation, SVM achieved the best performance with 99.49% sensitivity, 94.51% specificity and 97.29% accuracy with the extracted features while for the leave-one-subject-out, the highest overall accuracy is 90.91%. Moreover, when compared with two state-of-the-art methods, the proposed algorithm achieves superior AF vs. PAC/PVC discrimination performance.Clinical Relevance-This preliminary study shows that with the help of density Poincare plot, AF can be separated from PAC/PVC with better accuracy.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Complexos Ventriculares Prematuros , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Complexos Atriais Prematuros/diagnóstico , Átrios do Coração , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Complexos Ventriculares Prematuros/diagnóstico
15.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2602-2605, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018539

RESUMO

Rhythm regularity of the heart depends on how electrical impulses spread through the cardiac conduction system. Any abnormal activities in the electrical impulses can lead to serious cardiac disorders or sudden death. It is important to understand the electrical activities of the human heart in both healthy and diseased conditions to determine the cause of cardiac disorders and explore the best therapeutic designs. Mathematical models calibrated with clinical and/or in-vitro data are popularly used to study cardiac function and investigate treatment effects. Most of the current human heart models are highly integrated and couple over a hundred equations across different organizational scales of ion channel, cell, and muscle. The model complex poses a significant computational challenge on cardiac simulation. This study developed a metamodel to replace the time-consuming simulation model. Specifically, Gaussian Process (GP) is used to reconstruct the spatiotemporal variations of the cell membrane potential in left atrium. Four different covariance functions were used to infer the potential distributions. The GP model provides an accurate estimation of the spatiotemporal propagation of electrical waves with a small set of data and shows great advantage in computations as compared to traditional models.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Radiação , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Átrios do Coração , Humanos , Distribuição Normal
16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2606-2609, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018540

RESUMO

Over the last few years, the use of cardiac mapping for effective diagnosis and treatment of arrhythmias has increased significantly. In the clinical environment, electroanatomical mapping (EAM) is performed during the electrophysiological procedures using proprietary systems such as CARTO, EnSite Precision, RHYTHMIA, etc. These systems generate the 3D model of patient-specific atria with the electrical activity (i.e., intracardiac electrograms (iEGMs)) displayed on it, for further identification of the sources of arrhythmia and for guiding cardiac ablation therapy. Recently, several novel techniques were developed to perform iEGMs analysis to more accurately identify the arrhythmogenic sites. However, there is a difficulty in incorporating the results of iEGMs analysis back to EAM systems due to their proprietary constraints. This created a hurdle in the further development of novel techniques to help navigate patient-specific clinical ablation therapy. Thus, we developed an open source software, VIEgram1, that allows researchers to visualize the results of the various iEGMs analysis on a patient-specific 3D atria model. It eliminates the dependency of the academic environment on the proprietary EAM systems, thereby making the process of retrospective mapping extremely convenient and time efficient. Here, we demonstrate the features of VIEgram such as visual inspection of iEGMs, flexibility in implementing custom iEGMs analysis techniques and interpolation schemes, and spatial analysis.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Átrios do Coração , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Angiol Sosud Khir ; 26(3): 158-161, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063762

RESUMO

Elderly and aged patients appear to have a significantly increased risk from a cardiosurgical intervention combining three-valve reconstruction and prosthetic repair of the ascending portion of the aorta. Triple-valve pathology in pronounced mitral insufficiency is often accompanied by concomitant dilatation of the left atrium, i. e., atriomegaly. With the aim to eliminate the syndrome of compression of surrounding tissues and normalize intracardiac haemodynamics, reduction of the left atrium should become an inherent procedure for atriomegaly in patients with multiple-valve pathology.


Assuntos
Aorta , Átrios do Coração , Idoso , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/cirurgia , Dilatação Patológica , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008086, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966275

RESUMO

Clinical evidence suggests a link between fibrosis in the left atrium (LA) and atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained arrhythmia. Image-derived fibrosis is increasingly used for patient stratification and therapy guidance. However, locations of re-entrant drivers (RDs) sustaining AF are unknown and therapy success rates remain suboptimal. This study used image-derived LA models to explore the dynamics of RD stabilization in fibrotic regions and generate maps of RD locations. LA models with patient-specific geometry and fibrosis distribution were derived from late gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of 6 AF patients. In each model, RDs were initiated at multiple locations, and their trajectories were tracked and overlaid on the LA fibrosis distributions to identify the most likely regions where the RDs stabilized. The simulations showed that the RD dynamics were strongly influenced by the amount and spatial distribution of fibrosis. In patients with fibrosis burden greater than 25%, RDs anchored to specific locations near large fibrotic patches. In patients with fibrosis burden below 25%, RDs either moved near small fibrotic patches or anchored to anatomical features. The patient-specific maps of RD locations showed that areas that harboured the RDs were much smaller than the entire fibrotic areas, indicating potential targets for ablation therapy. Ablating the predicted locations and connecting them to the existing pulmonary vein ablation lesions was the most effective in-silico ablation strategy.


Assuntos
Fibrose , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Biológicos
19.
Kyobu Geka ; 73(8): 623-626, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879294

RESUMO

A state in which thrombus is found in both right and left atria with thrombus penetrating the foramen ovale is called as impending paradoxical embolism (IPE). A 42-year-old man was found to have poor oxygenation and shock when his body was turned prone after induction of anesthesia. We inserted percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS), and his blood pressure was maintained. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed right heart pressure overload and left atrial thrombus. Computed tomography (CT) showed thrombosis in both main pulmonary arteries. The patient was judged to require emergency surgery. Bilateral pulmonary artery thrombus and thrombus between the right and left atria was removed under hypothermia using a heart-lung machine. Postoperatively, thrombus was detected in the bilateral posterior tibial vein and peroneal vein. He had a good postoperative course. There were few reports of IPE with pulmonary embolism that developed during operation.


Assuntos
Embolia Paradoxal , Embolia Pulmonar , Trombose , Adulto , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926915, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Recent studies demonstrated evidence of coagulation dysfunction in hospitalized patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to excessive inflammation, hypoxia, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and stasis. Effective anticoagulation therapy may play a dominant role in the management of severe COVID-19 cases. CASE REPORT A 73-year-old man with a 6-day history of fever up to 38.5°C, dyspnea, cough, and fatigue was diagnosed with COVID-19. He had a past medical history significant for hypertension and coronary artery bypass grafting. Two days after hospital admission, the patient developed acute respiratory failure, requiring intubation, mechanical ventilation, and transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU). He received treatment including antibiotics, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, vasopressors, prone positioning, and anticoagulation with enoxaparin at a prophylactic dose. After a 15-day ICU stay, the patient was hemodynamically stable but still hypoxemic; a transthoracic echocardiogram at that time, followed by a transesophageal echocardiogram for better evaluation, revealed the presence of a right atrium thrombus without signs of acute right ventricular dilatation and impaired systolic function. Since the patient was hemodynamically stable, we decided to treat him with conventional anticoagulation under close monitoring for signs of hemodynamic deterioration; thus, the prophylactic dose of enoxaparin was replaced by therapeutic dosing, which was a key component of the patient's successful outcome. Over the next few days he showed significant clinical improvement. The follow-up transesophageal echocardiogram 3 weeks after effective therapeutic anticoagulation revealed no signs of right heart thrombus. CONCLUSIONS The presented COVID-19 case, one of the first reported cases with evidence of right heart thrombus by transesophageal echocardiography, highlights the central role of diagnostic imaging strategies and the importance of adequate anticoagulation therapy in the management of severe COVID-19 cases in the ICU.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Trombose/terapia , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Seguimentos , Grécia , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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