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1.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 213, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dispersal is essential for terrestrial organisms living in disjunct habitats and constitutes a significant challenge for the evolution of wingless taxa. Springtails (Collembola), the sister-group of all insects (with Diplura), are reported since the Lower Devonian and are thought to have originally been subterranean. The order Symphypleona is reported since the early Cretaceous with genera distributed on every continent. This distribution implies an ability to disperse over oceans, however symphypleonan Collembola have never been reported in marine water contrary to other springtail orders. Despite being highly widespread, modern springtails are rarely reported in any kind of biotic association. Interestingly, the fossil record has provided occasional occurrences of Symphypleona attached by the antennae onto the bodies of larger arthropods. RESULTS: Here, we document the case of a ~ 16 Ma old fossil association: a winged termite and ant displaying not some, but 25 springtails attached or in close proximity to the body. The collembola exhibit rare features for fossils, reflecting their courtship and phoretic behaviours. By observing the modes of attachment of springtails on different arthropods, the sex representation and ratios in springtail antennal anatomies in new and previously reported cases, we infer a likely mechanism for dispersal in Symphypleona. By revealing hidden evidence of modern springtail associations with other invertebrates such as ants and termites, new compelling assemblages of fossil springtails, and the drastic increase of eusocial insects' abundance during the Cenozoic (ants/termites comprising more than a third of insects in Miocene amber), we stress that attachment on winged castes of ants and termites may have been a mechanism for the worldwide dispersal of this significant springtail lineage. Moreover, by comparing the general constraints applying to the other wingless soil-dwelling arthropods known to disperse through phoresy, we suggest biases in the collection and observation of phoretic Symphypleona related to their reflexive detachment and infer that this behaviour continues today. CONCLUSIONS: The specific case of tree resin entrapment represents the (so far) only condition uncovering the phoretic dispersal mechanism of springtails - one of the oldest terrestrial arthropod lineages living today.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/anatomia & histologia , Artrópodes/fisiologia , Fósseis , Âmbar , Animais , Formigas , Artrópodes/classificação , Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Isópteros , Masculino , Solo
2.
Zootaxa ; 4609(3): zootaxa.4609.3.13, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717103

RESUMO

In this paper, we describe a new genus and species of soldier beetles from Burmese amber, Elektrokleinia picta gen. et. sp. nov., characterized by triangular shape of the head behind the eyes, by the elytra not covering two urites and the last urite being concave at its apex. Additionally, this new specimen shows remarkable color preservation (black-blue) on the elytra, rarely present in amber or seen on fossil soldier beetles. This coloration with metallic nuances is here considered an aposematic character.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Besouros , Animais , Cor , Olho , Fósseis
3.
Zootaxa ; 4609(1): zootaxa.4609.1.12, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717128

RESUMO

Notaepytus quisqueya sp. nov. (Erotylidae: Erotylinae: Tritomini), is described here from Dominican amber and is the second amber fossil description for the family from the West Indies (Hispaniola). An emended key and a checklist to all known species of Notaepytus are presented.


Assuntos
Besouros , Âmbar , Animais , República Dominicana , Fósseis , Índias Ocidentais
4.
Zootaxa ; 4691(1): zootaxa.4691.1.10, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719419

RESUMO

Sycoracinae is a subfamily of Psychodidae, currently with 45 extant species (Curler Jacobson 2012; Santos et al. 2013) classified in three genera: Sycorax Haliday in Curtis; Parasycorax Duckhouse and Aposycorax Duckhouse (Duckhouse 1972; Young 1979). Sycorax comprises a majority of this diversity with 40 extant species, 15 of which are recorded from the Neotropical region (Curler Jacobson 2012; Santos et al. 2013). Four fossil species of Sycorax have also been described (Curler Jacobson 2012), including one from middle Miocene Amazonian amber (Petrulevicius et al. 2011). In contrast, Parasycorax includes only four extant species; three from South America and one from the Philippines (Santos et al. 2009) and a fossil species from Cretaceous Burmese amber (Stebner et al. 2015). Here we describe a new species of Parasycorax and provide an updated key to males of all extant and fossil species of the genus. In addition, Sycorax bravoi Santos, Ferreira Falqueto and Sycorax espiritosantensis Santos Bravo are recorded for Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil.


Assuntos
Psychodidae , Âmbar , Animais , Brasil , Fósseis , Masculino , Filipinas
5.
Zootaxa ; 4688(4): zootaxa.4688.4.5, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719428

RESUMO

Four new fossil species of haematophagous biting midges of the genus Culicoides Latreille, from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber are described and illustrated: C. bojarskii Szadziewski Dominiak sp. nov., C. burmiticus Szadziewski Dominiak sp. nov., C. ellenbergeri Szadziewski Dominiak sp. nov. and C. myanmaricus Szadziewski Dominiak sp. nov. These extinct species are assigned to the new subgenus, Groganomyia Szadziewski Dominiak subgen. nov. which also includes an extant species that inhabits European mountains, Culicoides cameroni Campbell Pelham-Clinton, 1960, the type species. These very old (99 Ma) haematophagous biting midges of the extant genus Culicoides from Burmese amber supports the hypothesis that most groups of modern biting midges evolved during the mid-Cretaceous greenhouse climate.


Assuntos
Ceratopogonidae , Âmbar , Animais , Fósseis
6.
Zootaxa ; 4688(1): zootaxa.4688.1.2, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719457

RESUMO

Prolachlanius resinatus (Hagen) is re-described, based on five specimens from late Eocene Baltic amber (including the neotype designated herein) and the first recorded specimen from contemporaneous Rovno amber (Klesov locality). This is the most common species of Hemerobiidae in Baltic amber. The forewing venation of Prolachlanius is most similar to that of Sympherobius, and, therefore, its assignment to Sympherobiinae is confirmed. The genus differs from other Sympherobiinae by the distal branch of RP being not deeply forked, and the presence of crossvein 4r-m in the forewing. The male genitalia of Prolachlanius are sufficiently dissimilar from those of other Sympherobiinae to distinguish it as a separate genus, particularly by the structure of the ectoprocts, and the 8th and 9th sternites. The extremely short eighth sternite of Prolachlanius is especially noteworthy.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Fósseis , Animais , Países Bálticos , Holometábolos , Masculino
7.
Zootaxa ; 4686(3): zootaxa.4686.3.9, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719484

RESUMO

A new genus and species of pygmy grasshopper (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) is described from Eocene Baltic amber. Danatettix hoffeinsorum gen. et sp. nov. is assigned to the subfamily Batrachideinae based on antennae with more than 19 antennomeres, sulcate mesofemora, and rectangular paranota. This species is readily distinguished from other batrachideines by a markedly produced vertex, pronotum with divergent internal and external lateral carinae, and highly setiferous female lateral basivalvular sclerite with scabrose integument. The morphology of Danatettix suggests placement within the here defined Tettigidea genus group (comprising Eutettigidea Hancock, 1914, Paurotarsus Hancock, 1900, and Tettigidea Scudder, 1862) and suggests that the latter had diverged from the new Scaria genus group (comprising Eotetrix Gorochov, 2012, Rehnidium Grant, 1956 and Scaria Bolívar, 1887) by the Early Eocene.


Assuntos
Besouros , Gafanhotos , Ortópteros , Âmbar , Animais , Países Bálticos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fósseis
8.
Zootaxa ; 4686(1): zootaxa.4686.1.9, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719505

RESUMO

The thysanopteran genus Chiridurothrips Okajima is known from a single extant species, C. hisakoae Okajima, collected in Japan (ThripsWiki 2019). Occurring on dead leaves and branches of evergreen trees in the subtropical Ryukyu Islands, this species remains known from only five females (Okajima 1981, 2006; also pers. comm. 2018). Within Phlaeothripidae, Chiridurothrips is associated with the tribe Plectrothripini. Species of this sub-group feed on fungal hyphae or the break-down products of fungal attack on decaying plant material (Mound Ng 2018). They are found mainly under the bark of trees or on dead branches, and they do not seem to inhabit leaf-litter (Okajima 1981). At present, Plectrothripini comprises 60 extant species in 13 genera, with no fossils recorded. Of these species 32 are placed in the genus Plectrothrips Hood, ten in Streptothrips Priesner, and six in Chirothripoides Bagnall, whereas both Menothrips Hood and Mastigothrips Priesner each include only two species. The remaining eight species are all placed in separate monobasic genera (ThripsWiki 2019). Concerning this strongly asymmetric classification, Mound and Ng (2018) suggest that Plectrothripini might be particularly old, with the large number of monobasic genera each representing a relict lineage. An alternative possibility, however, might be an unusual instability in the genes controlling morphogenetic processes, and thus resulting in striking autapomorphies on which each one of these genera is diagnosed (Mound Ng 2018). Species associated with Plectrothripini share the following character states (Okajima 1981; Mound Tree 2017): antennae 8-segmented, segment II with the campaniform sensillum situated in the basal half, III-IV with stout sense cones, VIII slender with narrow base; head with posterior ocelli close to compound eyes; pronotum commonly with sclerotized plate eroded or reduced, prosternal basantra week or absent; legs with fore tarsal tooth large; mid and hind tibiae commonly with apical spur-like setae; macropterae with fore wings parallel-sided, usually with duplicated cilia; pelta broad at base, abdominal tergite II eroded laterally; abdominal sternites often with reticulate glandular areas. Regarding the fore wings, it seems worth mentioning that in some members of Plectrothripini the subbasal wing vein is reduced and thus the three subbasal wing setae are lacking (see Plectrothrips tenuis Okajima, Chiridurothrips [c.f. fig. 2], Chirothripoides, Lonchothrips Hood; Bhatti 1998; Okajima 1981). This short vein that is present in (almost all) other macropterous Phlaeothripidae has been interpreted as a plesiomorphic feature that resulted from the reduction of a former well-developed longitudinal first vein of ancestral Tubulifera, the Rohrthripidae (Ulitzka 2018, 2019).


Assuntos
Âmbar , Tisanópteros , Animais , República Dominicana , Feminino , Fósseis , Japão
9.
Zootaxa ; 4638(4): zootaxa.4638.4.9, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712464

RESUMO

The first fossil Catopocerinae: Archaeocerus uenoi n. gen. n. sp. (Coleoptera Leiodidae) is described and figured. It comes from the upper Cretaceous (Albian/Cenomanian) amber deposit of the Hukawng valley, in northern Myanmar. Archaeocerus has developed eyes and flight wings, contrast to all the other genera of the subfamily which are anophthalm and apterous.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Besouros , Animais , Fósseis , Mianmar
10.
Zootaxa ; 4629(4): zootaxa.4629.4.6, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712503

RESUMO

The very abundant representatives of the genus Malthodes Kiesenwetter, 1852 from the Eocene amber forests show a remarkable diversity of body forms, especially regarding the last abdominal segments, both tergites and sternites. These structures are important during the mating. In the present work, we describe a new species, Malthodes gedanicus sp. nov. characterized by the last sternite elongated and apically divided into two long and flat squarish lobes with three tips of which the central is longest, and by the last tergite elongated and spatuliform apically. The phylogenetic relationships based only on the shape of the last abdominal segments remain unclear and the new species is very vaguely similar to M. trifurcatus Kiesenwetter, 1852.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Besouros , Animais , Países Bálticos , Fósseis , Filogenia
11.
Zootaxa ; 4576(3): zootaxa.4576.3.6, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715751

RESUMO

Two new Throscidae genera from Baltic amber are described: Tyrannosthroscus n..gen. (type species Tyrannothroscus rex n.sp.) and Pseudothroscus n. gen. (type species Pseudothroscus balticus n. sp.). Four species are described from Baltic amber: Tyrannothroscus rex n. sp., Pseudothroscus balticus n. sp., Potergus superbus n. sp. and Trixagus parvulus n. sp. Pactopus burmensis n. sp. is described from Burmese amber. A phylogenetic analysis of the known throscid genera is performed. Aulonothroscus Horn and Trixagus Kugelann are shown to be sister-groups, the sister-group of this clade is the genus Pactopus Horn and the sister group of these three genera is the genus Potergus Bonvouloir. The oldest previously known throscids were species belonging to the genera Rhomboaspis Kirejtshuk Kovalev and Potergosoma Kirejtshuk Kovalev, both from Lebanese Amber, 125-135 Mya. The present analysis shows that the extinct Baltic amber genera Jaira Muona and Pseudothroscus belong to clades at least as old as the Lebanese fossils. The Burmese amber fossil Pactopus burmensis, 99 Mya, is considerably older than any of the previously known species belonging to the four extant genera: Pactopus, Potergus, Aulonothroscus or Trixagus. At least three throscid lineages are now known to have gone extinct. Both the Pactopus and Potergus lineages are more than 99 milion years old, whereas the Aulonothroscus and Trixagus lineages extend at least to the Baltic amber, 50 million years ago. The presence of Jaira in Baltic amber shows that that lineage persisted at least 80 million years before going to extinction.


Assuntos
Besouros , Fósseis , Âmbar , Animais , Países Bálticos , Filogenia
12.
Zootaxa ; 4576(3): zootaxa.4576.3.9, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715754

RESUMO

Succinoraphidia radioni sp. nov. (Raphidiidae) is described from the late Eocene Rovno amber, Ukraine. The genus also includes two species from contemporaneous Baltic amber, i.e., S. exhibens Aspöck Aspöck, 2004 and S. baltica (Carpenter, 1957), comb. nov. The venation of Succinoraphidia is analysed. It possesses several plesiomorphic character states at the family level, and the monotypic subfamily Succinoraphidinae represents a basal group within the family or possibly even a potential stem group of Raphidiidae. All diagnostic character states of Succinoraphidia (except the structure of the pterostigma) are found in a few Cretaceous species of the paraphyletic Mesoraphidiidae, but some of these are not found in the extant Raphidiidae.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Fósseis , Animais , Países Bálticos , Holometábolos , Ucrânia
13.
Zootaxa ; 4576(2): zootaxa.4576.2.9, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715767

RESUMO

A new insect species (†Bittacopsocus megacephalus Beutel, Prokop, Müller et Pohl gen. et sp. nov.) is described, based on a single small male (ca. 2.5 mm) embedded in mid Cretaceous Burmese amber. The species shows some resemblance with the mecopteran family Bittacidae, mainly due to strongly elongated and thin legs. However, the structural affinities are apparently due to convergency. Different features, but especially the mouthparts and the pattern of wing venation, indicate that the species belongs to the extinct order †Permopsocida (?Archipsyllidae). However, it differs markedly from all species previously described in this extinct group. The very thin and strongly elongated legs are probably autapomorphic. A very unusual feature is the antenna with only seven segments and extremely elongated flagellomeres. The two pairs of wings are unusually narrow. M and CuA are basally fused. Proximal rows of spines, two series of closed cells, and a distinctly increased number of terminal branches of M are present in the forewings, in contrast to other archipsyllid genera. It is conceivable that Bittacopsocus megacephalus used its long legs to rest suspended in the vegetation like Bittacus. The head structures tentatively suggest predatory behavior but the feeding habits are unclarified yet.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Fósseis , Animais , Holometábolos , Insetos , Masculino , Asas de Animais
14.
Zootaxa ; 4571(2): zootaxa.4571.2.6, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715819

RESUMO

A new species of the insect order Zoraptera, Zorotypus hukawngi sp. n., is described and figured based on one not well-preserved specimen in mid-Cretaceous amber from the Hukawng Valley in northern Myanmar. Compared to known extinct zorapterans, the new species is readily distinguished by characters of the mesonotum, wings, and the spination of the metafemur and metatibia.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Fósseis , Animais , Insetos , Mianmar , Asas de Animais
15.
Zootaxa ; 4571(2): zootaxa.4571.2.7, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715820

RESUMO

Serangium is a tropical genus of minute ladybird beetles, which has been recently discovered in Baltic amber. Discovery of the third species, S. kalandyki sp. nov., demonstrates the surprising diversity of this group in the palaeoenvironment of Eocene 'amber forests'. The new species, together with two previously described, form a well defined morphological group which suggests they all belong to a single lineage. An updated key to the fossil species of Serangium is presented. The diversity of the genus and its ecological affinities are discussed.


Assuntos
Besouros , Hemípteros , Âmbar , Animais , Países Bálticos , Fósseis
16.
Zootaxa ; 4567(3): zootaxa.4567.3.6, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715886

RESUMO

The dipteran family Bolitophilidae, with the single extant genus Bolitophila, is a small family of mycophagous flies. In marked contrast to related families such as Sciaridae and Mycetophilidae, the family has a poor fossil record with no definite species assigned to the genus. In addition, the position of the extinct Cretaceous subfamily Mangasinae Kovalev, 1986 (described in Bolitophillidae) has been controversial and it has been suggested that species in this clade may belong to other sciaroid families. This situation is made worse by misplacement of the type specimen. We herein describe two new species of Bolitophila, Bolitophila warreni sp. nov. from the 46-million-year-old Kishenehn Formation in Montana, USA and Bolitophila rohdendorfi sp. nov. from Baltic amber. Bolitophila pulveris Lewis, 1969 is reassigned to Sciaroidea incertae sedis. The subfamily Mangasinae is reviewed and its position within the Bolitophilidae confirmed. Two new species of Mangas, M. kovalevi sp. nov. and M. brevisubcosta sp. nov., both from the Lower Cretaceous of Khasurty in Western Transbaikalia, are described.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Âmbar , Animais , Países Bálticos , Fósseis , Montana
17.
Zootaxa ; 4683(4): zootaxa.4683.4.2, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715908

RESUMO

Statira baltica sp. nov. is described from Eocene Baltic amber found in the Baltic Sea coast, Yantarny settlement, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. This is the second described fossil member of the genus Statira Lepeletier et Audinet-Serville, 1828 and the tribe Lagriini Latreille, 1825, and the first from outside the New World.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Besouros , Animais , Países Bálticos , Fósseis , Federação Russa
18.
Zootaxa ; 4674(4): zootaxa.4674.4.7, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715997

RESUMO

The male of Cretaconiopteryx grandis Liu Lu, 2017, which is the only representative species of the extinct dustywing subfamily Cretaconiopteryginae, is described for the first time from the Upper Cretaceous Burmese amber. The male genitalia, well preserved in the examined specimen, show a number of plesiomorphic characters, which support the sister group relationship between Coniopterygidae and the rest of extant lacewing families.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Holometábolos , Âmbar , Animais , Masculino , Mianmar
19.
Zootaxa ; 4585(2): zootaxa.4585.2.8, 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716173

RESUMO

A new genus and species of Cydnidae, Punctacorona triplosticha gen. et sp. nov. (Heteroptera: Pentatomomorpha) is described and illustrated from Myanmar amber. This new genus is established based on its forewing anterior margin angulated, clavus narrow, with three rows of distinct punctures, metapleuron neighboring to posterior margin of evaporatorium carinate. A comparison between the new species and the Chilamnestocoris mixtus Lis et al. 2018 from Myanmar is provided.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Heterópteros , Âmbar , Animais , Fósseis , Mianmar
20.
Zootaxa ; 4585(1): zootaxa.4585.1.2, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716180

RESUMO

Rohrthripidae is a family of fossil thrips in the thysanopteran suborder Tubulifera. It includes a single genus, Rohrthrips, of which two species are previously known. Despite typical tubuliferan features, these thrips also show some terebrantian character states, particularly in the wings and antennae, and these are here interpreted as plesiomorphic. Five new species of these ancestral thrips are described from Burmese Cenomanian amber: Rohrthrips breviceps sp. n., Rohrthrips jiewenae sp. n., Rohrthrips maryae sp. n., Rohrthrips patrickmuelleri sp. n. and Rohrthrips schizovenatus sp. n.. Structures on the wings support the conclusion that the wings of Tubulifera are homologous with those of Terebrantia. Syninclusions in the amber fragments provide evidence of the diet and habitats of these ancestral thrips.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Tisanópteros , Animais , Ecossistema , Fósseis , Asas de Animais
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