Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 13.824
Filtrar
1.
Science ; 367(6479): 735-736, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054744
3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(9): 4957-4966, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073078

RESUMO

We analyzed the near-degenerate states of the firefly dioxetanone anion (FDO-) and its prototypes, especially in the biradical region, using multi-configurational approaches. The importance of utilizing full valence active spaces by means of density-matrix renormalization group self-consistent field (DMRG-SCF) calculations was described. Our results revealed that the neglect of some valence orbitals can affect the quantitative accuracy in later multi-reference calculations or the qualitative conclusion when optimizing conical intersections. Using all of the relevant valence orbitals of FDO-, we confirmed that there were two conical intersections, as reported in previous work, and that the intersecting states were changed when the active space was enlarged. Beyond these, we found that there were strong interactions between states in the biradical regions, in which the changes in entanglements can be used to visualize the interacting state evolution.


Assuntos
Vaga-Lumes/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 1 Anel/química , Animais , Ânions/química , Vaga-Lumes/metabolismo , Luminescência , Teoria Quântica , Tiazóis/química
4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(12): 1867-1870, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950942

RESUMO

Transient nanosheets were fabricated based on the ionic self-assembly of anionic polyoxometalates and cationic peptides appended with azobenzene side chains. The two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures are initiated through ultraviolet (UV) light-actuated trans-to-cis isomerization of azobenzene moieties.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Peptídeos/química , Compostos de Tungstênio/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Ânions/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Estereoisomerismo
5.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125233, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896207

RESUMO

Acid/base/oxidant pretreatment influenced subsequent quaternary ammonium epoxide compounds modified carbon (QAE-AC) and hence PFOA and nitrate removal. This work discerned that the most favorable QAE-AC protocol for PFOA removal was achieved when the wood carbon pretreated with HNO3 to adjust the carbon's slurry pH to 4.77, and tailored with the QUAB188. For nitrate removal, the most favorable when the carbon was pretreated with NaOH to raise the carbon's slurry pH to 9.34, and then loaded with the QUAB360. Based on experimentally results and molecular model, we found that pore volume, phenolic groups and the surface charge were the main factors affecting the PFOA removal, while the only factor affecting nitrate removal was surface charge. The QUAB's epoxide functionalities have cross-linked with phenolics along the activated carbon's graphene edge sites. QAE is preferentially reacted with the phenolic in the micropores and mesopores of carbon, and some QAE molecules form new "pore-like structures" outside the pores with the graphene planes or other QAE molecules. This pore-like structure hosted adsorption capacity by the quaternary ammonium. The favorable PFOA adsorption sites were in smaller mesopores via both hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic interaction; and nitrate sorption was occurring in the smaller micropores via anion exchange. Therefore, it can be considered that QAE-AC can simultaneously adsorb PFOA and nitrate in water.


Assuntos
Caprilatos/química , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Modelos Químicos , Nitratos/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Compostos de Amônio/química , Ânions , Carvão Vegetal/química , Compostos de Epóxi , Oxidantes , Água
6.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(3): 865-907, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957756

RESUMO

Supramolecular chemistry is a central topic in modern chemistry. It touches on many traditional disciplines, such as organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, materials chemistry, environmental chemistry, and biological chemistry. Supramolecular hosts, inter alia macrocyclic hosts, play critical roles in supramolecular chemistry. Calix[4]pyrroles, non-aromatic tetrapyrrolic macrocycles defined by sp3 hybridized meso bridges, have proved to be versatile receptors for neutral species, anions, and cations, as well as ion pairs. Compared to the parent system, octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole and its derivatives bearing simple appended functionalities, strapped calix[4]pyrroles typically display enhanced binding affinities and selectivities. In this review, we summarize advances in the design and synthesis of strapped calix[4]pyrroles, as well as their broad utility in molecular recognition, supramolecular extraction, separation technology, ion transport, and as agents capable of inhibiting cancer cell proliferation. Future challenges within this sub-field are also discussed.


Assuntos
Calixarenos/química , Calixarenos/metabolismo , Porfirinas/química , Porfirinas/metabolismo , Ânions/química , Apoptose , Cátions/química , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Cristalização , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Termodinâmica
7.
Cell Biochem Biophys ; 78(1): 15-22, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893350

RESUMO

Anions enter from the cytoplasm into the channel pore of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel not via a central pathway but via a single lateral portal or fenestration. High Cl- conductance is dependent on electrostatic attraction of cytoplasmic Cl- ions by four positively charged amino acid side-chains located within this portal. Here we use a mutagenic approach to investigate the functional effects of transplanting or supplementing these positive charges at nearby portal-lining sites. Using patch clamp recording, we find that the functionally important positive charges at K190 and R303 can be transplanted to four nearby sites (N186, L197, W356, and A367) with little loss of Cl- conductance. Introduction of additional positive charge at these sites had almost no effect on Cl- conductance, but did increase the sensitivity to channel block by intracellular suramin and Pt(NO2)42- anions. We suggest that it is the number of positive charges within the portal, rather than their exact location, that is the most important factor influencing Cl- conductance. The portal appears well optimized in terms of charge distribution to maximize Cl- conductance.


Assuntos
Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Animais , Ânions/química , Ânions/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Complexos de Coordenação/metabolismo , Cricetinae , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Humanos , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Platina/química , Eletricidade Estática , Suramina/química , Suramina/metabolismo
8.
Chemistry ; 26(4): 888-899, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696989

RESUMO

The anion-binding and transport properties of an extensive library of thiophene-based molecules are reported. Seventeen bis-urea positional isomers, with different binding conformations and lipophilicities, have been synthesized by appending α- or ß-thiophene or α-, ß-, or γ-benzo[b]thiophene moieties to an ortho-phenylenediamine central core, yielding six subsets of positional isomers. Through 1 H NMR, X-ray crystallography, molecular modelling, and anion efflux studies, it is demonstrated that the most active transporters adopt a pre-organized binding conformation capable of promoting the recognition of chloride, using urea and C-H binding groups in a cooperative fashion. Additional large unilamellar vesicle-based assays, carried out under electroneutral and electrogenic conditions, together with N-methyl-d-glucamine chloride assays, have indicated that anion efflux occurs mainly through an H+ /Cl- symport mechanism. On the other hand, the most efficient anion transporter displays cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines, while having no effects on a cystic fibrosis cell line.


Assuntos
Ânions/química , Cloretos/química , Tiofenos/química , Ureia/química , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Transporte de Íons , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
9.
Water Res ; 170: 115346, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801097

RESUMO

Ballasted flocculation is an efficient high-rate sedimentation process getting more attention as an advanced P removal technology for levels below 0.1 mg/L. The process is well-known yet only very few studies have investigated the interactions, within the matrix of wastewater, of coagulant, polymer and ballast, especially when it comes to polymer doses and types which are, in the industry, rather based on recommendations than scientific evidence. In this work, the impact of anionic and cationic polymers has been investigated on P removal and floc properties. Anionic polymers showed to be superior to cationic ones when it comes to P removal and doses even as low as 0.01 mg/L yield better results than coagulant alone. There appears to be a "best-case" floc size with which very good P removal (>90%) can be achieved and flocs of sufficient strength can be generated.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água , Ânions , Cátions , Floculação , Polímeros
10.
Water Res ; 170: 115310, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770648

RESUMO

Electrodeionization (EDI) is membrane-based desalination utilizing ion exchange membranes and ion exchange resins. By combining Electrodialysis and Ion exchanger, EDI can produce ultrapure water in a continuous-flow manner. Although its theoretical mechanisms are well documented, there is no experimental platform that can provide microscopic details inside of the system. In this paper, we present microscale EDI that can visualize in situ ion concentration, pH, and fluid flows. The platform was fabricated by filling ion exchange resins as a monolayer in a transparent polydimethylsiloxane channel between cation and anion exchange membranes. According to operating voltages (0-15V), distinct behaviors of ion concentration profile, pH shift, and fluid flows were observed in Ohmic, limiting, and overlimiting regimes. It is noteworthy that overlimiting regimes can be sub-categorized as water-splitting and electroconvection regimes. In the early stage (4-8V), water-splitting is dominant with pH change near the membranes and resins; under a higher voltage (8-15V), electroconvection starts to occur even water-splitting tries to suppress the development of the extended space charge layer and corresponding electroconvective instability. Accelerated ionic migration by electroconvection can improve current efficiency up to 80%. This is a clear departure from overlimiting dynamics in electrodialysis (with electroconvection only), ion exchanger (with no distinct regime), and even from that in previous EDI experiments (with water splitting only).


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Água , Ânions , Cátions , Troca Iônica
11.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(2): 499-506, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807805

RESUMO

Although a massive research has been devoted on the exploration of noble metal-based nanozyme, less progress has been made in the investigation of palladium (Pd) nanozyme and the interaction between ions and Pd nanozyme. In this study, a new type of Pd nanozyme was prepared by a facile one-pot approach by using carboxylated chitosan as the stabilizer. Owing to the synergistic effect of carboxylated chitosan stabilized Pd nanoparticles (CC-PdNPs) can effectively catalyze the H2O2-mediated oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine sulfate (TMB) accompanied by a blue color change (oxidized TMB), indicating the peroxidase-like activity of CC-PdNPs. Furthermore, the Michaelis-Menten constants and catalytic stability of CC-PdNPs render them suitable for environmental analysis and bio-detection. Here, we found that while introducing the iodine ions (I-) into the reaction medium, the peroxidase-like activity of CC-PdNPs has been rapidly and effectively inhibited through the formation of Pd-I bond; thus, the active sites of PdNPs can be blocked by I-. Based on this specific inhibition by I-, a facile colorimetric assay has been performed for the detection of I- with an extremely low limit of detection (0.19 nM). Furthermore, the practicality of the proposed sensor also has been demonstrated in tap water, and the satisfactory recoveries were obtained. Our study not only demonstrated a novel Pd-based nanozyme but also provided guidance for I- sensing for environmental analysis, food inspection, and bio-detection. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Quitosana/química , Colorimetria/instrumentação , Enzimas/química , Iodo/análise , Nanoestruturas/química , Paládio/química , Ânions , Limite de Detecção , Abastecimento de Água
12.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109939, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790872

RESUMO

Conventional flocculants bear environmental and health concerns which could be avoided by applying natural materials, particularly polysaccharide and glycoprotein-containing ones. In the present study, yeast cell wall (YCW), a natural polymer matrix, was used as natural flocculant. To prepare YCW, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultivated in bench scale fermenter. After characterization, YCW was employed as anionic flocculant in jar tests to remove turbidity from kaolin suspensions at different conditions where either alum or poly aluminum chloride (PAC) was coagulant. Generally, the lower coagulant consumption, higher turbidity removal or faster sedimentation was observed by using YCW as flocculant. The developed flocculant was more effective in the presence of PAC compared to alum. At best, by applying 300 mg/L YCW, the highest turbidity removals of 98 and 97% were achieved using 10 ppm PAC at pH 6.5 and 50 ppm alum at pH 7.5, respectively. The presence of the flocculant in the structure of the flocs was proved by FTIR analysis. The final pH of the treated suspensions was suitable for discharge purpose without the need for neutralization. The excess positive charge neutralization and bridging were the governing mechanism in coagulation-flocculation process. YCW with proper performance, GRAS designation and readily availability can be considered as natural alternative to chemical anionic flocculants where the process needs safe compounds.


Assuntos
Caulim , Purificação da Água , Ânions , Floculação , Polímeros , Suspensões
13.
Inorg Chem ; 59(1): 214-225, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814403

RESUMO

Formate dehydrogenase (FDH) enzymes are versatile catalysts for CO2 conversion. The FDH from Rhodobacter capsulatus contains a molybdenum cofactor with the dithiolene functions of two pyranopterin guanine dinucleotide molecules, a conserved cysteine, and a sulfido group bound at Mo(VI). In this study, we focused on metal oxidation state and coordination changes in response to exposure to O2, inhibitory anions, and redox agents using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Mo K-edge. Differences in the oxidative modification of the bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide (bis-MGD) cofactor relative to samples prepared aerobically without inhibitor, such as variations in the relative numbers of sulfido (Mo═S) and oxo (Mo═O) bonds, were observed in the presence of azide (N3-) or cyanate (OCN-). Azide provided best protection against O2, resulting in a quantitatively sulfurated cofactor with a displaced cysteine ligand and optimized formate oxidation activity. Replacement of the cysteine ligand by a formate (HCO2-) ligand at the molybdenum in active enzyme is compatible with our XAS data. Cyanide (CN-) inactivated the enzyme by replacing the sulfido ligand at Mo(VI) with an oxo ligand. Evidence that the sulfido group may become protonated upon molybdenum reduction was obtained. Our results emphasize the role of coordination flexibility at the molybdenum center during inhibitory and catalytic processes of FDH enzymes.


Assuntos
Coenzimas/química , Formiato Desidrogenases/química , Metaloproteínas/química , Pteridinas/química , Rhodobacter capsulatus/enzimologia , Ânions/química , Ânions/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Coenzimas/metabolismo , Formiato Desidrogenases/isolamento & purificação , Formiato Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Metaloproteínas/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Pteridinas/metabolismo , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
14.
Environ Technol ; 41(4): 440-449, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30010517

RESUMO

A lab-scale electrodialysis (ED) which consisted of 11 pieces of cation-exchange membranes and 10 pieces of anion-exchange membranes was used to treat concentrated brine of Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane. The effect of operating parameters such as applied voltage, flowrate, and operating mode was investigated to measure the performance of a lab-scale ED. Three different voltages (5, 10, and 15 V) and flowrates (20, 30, and 40 L/h) were applied in order to optimize the operating conditions of the ED system. The maximum TDS removal efficiencies were 85%, 97%, and 98% for 5, 10, and 15 V, respectively. It was concluded that the desalination efficiencies were almost the same at flowrates values of 20, 30 and 40 L/h. The TDS concentration of the treated brine in the concentrate compartment rises to the highest value of 25,400 mg/L with desalination rate of 92.5% after five cycle operation. Moreover, the desalinated brine can be used as fresh water.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Ânions , Filtração , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose
15.
N Z Vet J ; 68(1): 60-64, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433953

RESUMO

Aims: To compare urine urinary pH, blood pH and concentration of electrolytes in blood of healthy horses fed an anionic salt supplement to achieve diets with a dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) of -40 or 0 mEq/kg DM, with horses a fed a diet with a DCAD of 85 mEq/kg DM.Methods: Eight healthy horses received each of three diets in a randomised crossover design. Diets consisted of grass hay and concentrate feed, with a varying amount of an anionic supplement to achieve a DCAD of 85 (control), 0 or -40 mEq/kg DM. They were fed for 14 days each with a washout period of 7 days between. Urine pH was measured daily and blood samples were collected on Days 0, 7 and 14 of each study period for the measurement of pH and concentration of electrolytes.Results: Four horses voluntarily consumed the anionic supplement with their feed, but four horses required oral supplement administration via dose syringe. During the study period mean urine pH was lower in horses fed diets with a DCAD of 0 (6.91; SD 0.04) and -40 (6.83; SD 0.04) mEq/kg DM compared to the control diet (7.30; SD 0.04). Compared with horses fed the control diet, mean urine pH was lower in horses fed the 0 and -40 mEq/kg DM diets on Days 1-12 and 14 (p < 0.05) of the study period. On Day 13 it was only lower in horses fed the -40 mEq/kg DM diet (p < 0.01). Urine pH was similar for horses fed the 0 and -40 mEq/kg DM diets (p = 0.151). The DCAD of the diet had no effect on blood pH, ionised Ca or anion gap. Mean concentrations of bicarbonate in blood were affected by diet (p = 0.049); they were lower when horses were fed the 0 mEq/kg diet relative to the control diet on Day 14.Conclusions and clinical relevance: The anionic supplement reduced urine pH in horses fed diets with a DCAD of 0 or -40 mEq/kg DM compared with 85 mEq/kg DM. However as urinary pH did not fall below pH 6.5, the pH below which calcium carbonate uroliths do not form, this reduction in urine pH is unlikely to be clinically significant. The supplement was variably palatable and showed minimal promise as an effective urinary acidifier at the doses administered in this study.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ânions/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Eletrólitos/sangue , Cavalos/sangue , Urinálise/veterinária , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Ânions/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta/veterinária , Eletrólitos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Cavalos/urina , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Urina/química
16.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124656, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472345

RESUMO

A composite sorbent for the simultaneous removal of both Hg2+ and SeO32- from aqueous media was produced from the solvothermal synthesis of a zirconium metal organic framework, UiO-66, in the presence of activated carbon. The composite sorbent has a large surface area of 1051 m2 g-1 with crystalized porous structures and has strong thermal stability up to 600 °C. The contaminant uptake of the sorbent follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm with maximum sorption capacity of 205 mg g-1 and 168 mg g-1 for Hg2+ and SeO32-, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy results show that the Se regions overlap exclusively with Zr-rich regions suggesting that SeO32- adsorption depends entirely on the exposed UiO-66 surface. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra of Se 3d and Hg 4f showed the association of SeO32- and Hg2+ on the UiO-66 and carbon surfaces, respectively. The sorbent could facilitate the development of a single process for the simultaneous removal of cationic Hg and anionic Se as well as other similar ionic metals with opposite charges from aqueous media.


Assuntos
Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Metais/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Ânions , Cátions , Mercúrio/química , Mercúrio/isolamento & purificação , Óxidos de Selênio/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Zircônio/química
17.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124919, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726585

RESUMO

Ionic liquids (ILs) are regarded as green solvents and are frequently used in the chemical industry. However, ILs may impact plant growth if they are present in the soil environment. To compare toxicity of ILs with different anions in soil, three imidazolium-based ionic liquids (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) were used to assess impact on Vicia faba. Following 10 d of exposure to these three ILs from 0 to 2500 mg kg-1, shoot length, root length and dry weight of Vicia faba were determined. Pot trials revealed that ILs inhibited Vicia faba growth and according to EC50 values, [C6mim]BF4 was the most toxic one. In addition, physiological indicators of Vicia faba were determined following 10 d of exposure at selected IL concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100 and 500 mg kg-1). ILs led to the generation of reactive oxygen species and then caused oxidative damage, including lipid peroxidation, protein damage and DNA damage, which triggered an increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activity. The experimental results indicated that oxidative stress may be the primary underlying toxic mechanism for Vicia faba. Furthermore, based on the data of physiological experiment, integrated biomarker response (IBR) was calculated to compare the toxicity of the three ILs and toxic order was: [C6mim]NO3<[C6mim]Br<[C6mim]BF4.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos/toxicidade , Vicia faba/efeitos dos fármacos , Ânions/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Boratos/toxicidade , Brometos , Dano ao DNA , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Nitratos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solventes/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade , Vicia faba/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109836, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675504

RESUMO

Toxicity of 13 ionic liquids (ILs) corresponding to different families were studied by inhibition respiration assays (15 min) using activated sludge. Toxicity increased as increasing the number of carbons in the alkyl-chain of imidazolium-based ILs, with EC50 values from 4.19 to 0.17 for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Emim][Cl]) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim][Cl]), respectively. An increase in toxicity was observed for aromatic-based ILs (pyridinium- and imidazolium-based ILs) due to the hydrophobic character of the head groups in comparison with linear structures as phosphonium and ammonium cations. Among to the anions studied fixing [Emim]+ as cation, [HSO4]- and [NTf2]- presented low EC50 values (0.34 mM and 1.69 mM, respectively) while [Cl]- and [EtSO4]- were considered harmless anions due to the hydrophilic character of chloride and the organic nature of [EtSO4]-. ILs toxicity/inhibition was determined by adding a biodegradable compound and measuring the sludge response after being in contact with the ILs for at least 15 h. The exposure of sewage sludge to ILs for more than 15 min used in short inhibition assays caused more toxic effect on microorganisms, even for [Choline][NTf2], previously defined as practically harmless (EC50 = 2.79 mM). Biodegradability assays confirmed the biodegradable nature of choline cation, related with TOC conversion of 40%, only due to cation consumption. No oxygen consumption or even lysis of microbial cells was observed for Tetrabutylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and for 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogensulphate due to the presence of anions previously defined as hazardous ([NTf2]- and [HSO4]-), maintaining their recalcitrant character to sewage systems.


Assuntos
Imidazóis/toxicidade , Líquidos Iônicos/toxicidade , Esgotos/microbiologia , Ânions , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cátions , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Imidazóis/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Estrutura Molecular
19.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124735, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499306

RESUMO

A key challenge in adsorption process of toxic organic and inorganic species is the design and development of adsorbent materials bearing an abundance of accessible adsorption sites with high affinity to achieve both fast adsorption kinetics and elevated adsorption capacity for toxic contaminants. Herein, a novel anion-exchange adsorbent based on fibrous silica nanospheres KCC-1 was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal-assisted post-grafting modification of KCC-1 with 1-methyl-3- (triethoxysilylpropyl)imidazolium chloride for the first time. Silica fibers with micro-mesoporous structure display the proper combination of features to serve as a potential scaffold for decorating adsorption sites to create desired ion-exchange adsorbent. The obtained N-methylimidazolium-functionalized KCC-1 (MI-Cl-KCC-1) with fibrous nanosphere morphology showed a high surface area (∼241 m2 g-1) and high pore volume (0.81 m2 g-1). The adsorption behaviors of toxic hexavalent chromium from aqueous media by the MI-Cl-KCC-1 were systematically studied using the batch method. The adsorption rate was relatively fast, and MI-Cl-KCC-1 possesses a high capacity for the adsorption of Cr(VI). The maximum Cr(VI) adsorption was obtained at pH 3.0-4.0. Different non-linear isotherm equations were tested for choosing an appropriate adorption isotherm behavior, and the adsorption data for MI-Cl-KCC-1 were consistent with the Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 428 ±â€¯8 mg g-1.


Assuntos
Cromo/isolamento & purificação , Imidazóis/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Ânions , Cromo/química , Imidazóis/síntese química , Troca Iônica , Cinética , Micro-Ondas , Dióxido de Silício/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos
20.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124741, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518921

RESUMO

In many parts of the world, wastewater irrigation has become a common practice because of freshwater scarcity and to increase resource reuse efficiency. Wastewater irrigation has positive impacts on livelihoods and at the same time, it has adverse impacts related to environmental pollution. Hydrochemical processes and groundwater behaviour need to be analyzed for a thorough understanding of the geochemical evolution in the wastewater irrigated systems. The current study focuses on a micro-watershed in the peri-urban Hyderabad of India, where farmers practice intensive wastewater irrigation. To evaluate the major factors that control groundwater geochemical processes, we analyzed the chemical composition of the wastewater used for irrigation and groundwater samples on a monthly basis for one hydrological year. The groundwater samples were collected in three settings of the watershed: wastewater irrigated area, groundwater irrigated area and upstream peri-urban area. The collected groundwater and wastewater samples were analyzed for major anions, cations and nutrients. We systematically investigated the anthropogenic influences and hydrogeochemical processes such as cation exchange, precipitation and dissolution of minerals using saturated indices, and freshwater-wastewater mixtures at the aquifer interface. Saturation indices of halite, gypsum and fluorite are exhibiting mineral dissolution and calcite and dolomite display mineral precipitation. Overall, the results suggest that the groundwater geochemistry of the watershed is largely controlled by long-term wastewater irrigation, local rainfall patterns and water-rock interactions. The study results can provide the basis for local decision-makers to develop sustainable groundwater management strategies and to control the aquifer pollution influenced by wastewater irrigation.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Águas Residuárias , Ânions/análise , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Sulfato de Cálcio/química , Cátions/análise , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Doce/química , Água Subterrânea/análise , Hidrologia/métodos , Índia , Magnésio/química , Salinidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Qualidade da Água
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA