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1.
J Chromatogr A ; 1639: 461940, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548662

RESUMO

The development and validation of a method for the analysis of traces of 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) esters (19) and glycidyl esters (7) of fatty acids in vegetable oils, margarine, biscuits and croissants was performed. An extraction method based on the use of solvents (tert­butyl methyl ether (20% ethyl acetate, v/v)) was carried out and cleaning of the extract with a mixture of sorbents (Si-SAX, PSA and Z-sep+) was optimized for the elimination of fatty interferents. The analysis of the targeted compounds was carried out by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, using a triple quadrupole analyzer (UHPLC-MS/MS-QqQ). The validation of the method provided trueness values between 72 and 118% and precision lower than 20%. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.01 to 0.1 mg kg-1, which were below the current legal limits. Twenty samples of vegetable oils as well of 4 samples of margarine, biscuits and croissants were analyzed. Six out of the 24 samples (25%) exceeded the limits set by European legislation, and a maximum contamination of 3-MCPD esters at 2.52 mg kg-1 was obtained in a sample of corn oil (being 1-myristoyl-3-MCPD the compound detected at the highest concentration). A maximum concentration of glycidyl esters at 7.84 mg kg-1 was determined in a soybean oil sample (glycidyl linoleate as the main compound). Only one sample of olive oil exceeded the maximum allowable limit for 3-MCPD esters with a value of 1.72 mg kg-1, expressed as 3-MCPD.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ésteres/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , alfa-Cloridrina/análise , Compostos de Epóxi/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Margarina/análise , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Propanóis/análise , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Óleo de Soja/análise
2.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(1): 75-78, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence data for fatty acid esters of chloropropanol and glycidyl in edible vegetable oils purchased in China. METHODS: The 1309 samples of edible vegetable oil were collected and the data of chloropropanol and glycidyl were detected by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from 2015 to 2017. RESULTS: The detection rate of 3-monochloropropanediol esters in vegetable oils was 81. 83% with the mean level of 1. 21 mg/kg. The mean content of tea-seed oil was significantly higher than that of other varieties, followed by peanut oil(1. 36 mg/kg), rapeseed oil(1. 12 mg/kg). The sunflower seed oil has the lowest mean content(0. 54 mg/kg). The detection rate of 2-monochloropropanediol esters in vegetable oils was 82. 84% with the mean level of 0. 39 mg/kg. The content of peanut oil was significantly higher than that of other varieties, followed by blended oil(0. 30 mg/kg) and soybean oil(0. 25 mg/kg). There was no significant difference with rapeseed oil(0. 66 mg/kg). The exceeding rate of glycidyl ester was 19. 90% with the mean level of 0. 68 mg/kg. The average content of glycidyl ester in blended oil(0. 78 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that in peanut oil(0. 54 mg/kg). There was no significant difference among other varieties. CONCLUSION: The pollution of chloropropanol esters is common in edible vegetable oils in China. The contamination is different in kinds of edible oils.


Assuntos
Ésteres , Óleos Vegetais , China , Ésteres/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Verduras
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111624, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396144

RESUMO

Phthalate esters (PAEs), such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), are used extensively as additives and plasticizers, and have become ubiquitous in the environment. PAEs in the soil could have adverse effects on crop plants as well as humans via accumulations in food chain. Thus, it is important to explore strategies to reduce the bioavailability of phthalate esters. We investigated the effects of Fe-Mn oxide-modified biochar composite (FMBC) applications on the quality of wheat grown in DBP- and DEHP-polluted brown soil. The application of FMBC and biochar (BC) increased the wheat grain biomass by 9.71-223.01% and 5.40-120.15% in the DBP-polluted soil, and 10.52-186.21% and 4.50-99.53% in the DEHP-spiked soil in comparison to the controls. All FMBC treatments were better than the BC treatments, in terms of decreasing DBP and DEHP bioavailability for the wheat grains. The activities of the glutamine synthetase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase in the flag leaves at the filling stage and of granule-bound starch synthase, soluble starch synthase, and adenosine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase in the grains at maturity increased significantly with increases in either the BC or FMBC applications. This, in turn, increased the starch, protein, and amino acid content in the wheat grains. Compared with the BC treatment, the FMBC amendment induced only slight increases in the aforementioned factors. This study offers novel insights into potential strategies for decreasing PAEs bioavailability in soil, with potential positive implications for crop quality and environmental health improvements.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia , Dibutilftalato/análise , Dibutilftalato/metabolismo , Dietilexilftalato/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Poluição Ambiental , Ésteres/análise , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Óxidos/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triticum/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 340: 127900, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871359

RESUMO

The development of innovative and more cost-effective approaches of making beer throughout continuous fermentation process remains a challenging problem, which is worthy of serious exploration. The current work focuses on the application of a commercial brewing yeast (S. cerevisiae Nottingham Ale), entrapped into chitosan-calcium alginate double layer microcapsules, for the production of a Pale Ale beer. During the primary alcoholic fermentation, the consumption rate of fermentable brewing sugars and dissolved O2, estimated by the Gompertz equation, was halved in the beer obtained by encapsulated yeast in comparison with the free cell. The physical-chemical parameters of beer (i.e. pH, alcohol content, color and bitterness) were not remarkably affected by the different yeast-inoculating form. However, the volatile profiles identified by means of HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, significantly differed in terms of terpenes, esters and alcohols content, thus proving that the yeast-inoculating form may typify the odor and flavor descriptors of the green beer.


Assuntos
Cerveja/análise , Cerveja/microbiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Adulto , Álcoois/análise , Encapsulamento de Células , Ésteres/análise , Feminino , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Paladar
5.
Food Chem ; 339: 127855, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858384

RESUMO

A magnetic o-hydroxyazobenzene (M-HAzo) porous organic polymer was facilely prepared by a green azo coupling reaction in aqueous solution. The prepared M-HAzo was applied as a new adsorbent for the first time to pre-concentrate phthalate esters (PAEs) from plastic bottled juice, followed by their determination with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The effects of various parameters, i.e., the mass ratio of the Fe3O4@SiO2 to HAzo, extraction time, ionic strength, pH of the sample, desorption conditions were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the M-HAzo based method exhibited good performance in terms of linear range (0.3-50.0 µg L-1), detection limit (0.08-0.50 µg L-1), accuracy (recovery of 78.0-115.0%) and repeatability (relative standard deviation of 2.9-7.8%). This work provides a sensitive method for analysis of PAEs at trace levels in drinks, which is featured with high sensitivity, simple operation and environmentally-friendly merit and will have a promising potential in analysis of other organic pollutants.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ésteres/análise , Magnetismo , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Compostos Azo/química , Ésteres/isolamento & purificação , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Limite de Detecção , Polímeros/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Dióxido de Silício/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
6.
Food Chem ; 340: 127912, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916404

RESUMO

Palm-pressed mesocarp oil has been found to contain plenty of naturally occurring valuable phytonutrients. The application and study of the oil are limited, therefore, quality assessment of refined red palm-pressed mesocarp olein (PPMO) is deemed necessary to provide data in widening the applications as a niche products or raw material for the nutraceutical industry. Results showed that refined PPMO has comparable physicochemical properties and oxidative stability with commercial cooking oil, palm olein (PO). The food safety parameters and contaminants (PAH, 3-MCPD ester, 2-MCPD ester, glycidyl ester and trace metals) analyses proven that refined PPMO is safe to be consumed. Besides, refined PPMO contains remarkably greater concentrations of phytonutrients including carotenoids, phytosterols, squalene and vitamin E than PO, postulating its protective health benefits. The overall quality assessment of refined PPMO showed that it is suitable for human consumption and it is a good source for food applications and dietary nutritional supplements.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Carotenoides/análise , Culinária , Ésteres/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Glicerol/análogos & derivados , Glicerol/análise , Oxirredução , Óleo de Palmeira/análise , Fitosteróis/análise , Vitamina E/análise , alfa-Cloridrina/análise
7.
Food Chem ; 338: 127715, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798824

RESUMO

The influence of dough composition on acrylamide, 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters, and glycidyl esters (GE) formation during bread toasting was investigated. The doughs differed in added amounts of soy lecithin, salt, and reducing agents (l-cysteine and glutathione). The toasting of bread for 2.5 min considerably enhanced the formation of acrylamide and 3-MCPD esters. The addition of lecithin (1%, w/w) resulted in four times higher content of 3-MCPD esters in toasted bread slices. No distinct relationship between dough composition and GE formation in untoasted and toasted bread was found. The addition of reducing agents (0.05%, w/w) mitigated during toasting not only the formation of 3-MCPD esters (more than six times) but also the extent of Maillard reaction that resulted in three times lower amounts of acrylamide and predominant formation of alcohol-like compounds. Toasted bread without reducing agents contained typical Maillard reaction compounds such as aldehydes, alkyl pyrazines, and derivatives of furan.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Culinária/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Acrilamida/análise , Ésteres/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glutationa/química , Lecitinas/química , Reação de Maillard , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Triticum/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , alfa-Cloridrina/análise
8.
Food Chem ; 334: 127615, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711261

RESUMO

In this review article, the state of the art of gas sensors based on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for fruit freshness detection is overviewed from the aspects of development history, working principle, selection and modification of sensitive materials, and volatile organic compounds detection of fruits. According to the characteristics of respiratory intensity at the stage of fruit ripening, fruits can be divided into respiration climacteric fruits and non-climacteric fruits. In recent years, research has mainly focused on respiration climacteric fruits, such as bananas and mangoes, etc., while related studies on non-climacteric fruits have been rarely reported, except for citrus fruits. The preparation methods and structure design of sensitive materials based on physical/chemical adsorption mechanisms are further discussed according to the odor components that affect the freshness of fruits, namely alkenes, esters, aldehydes and alcohols.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Técnicas de Microbalança de Cristal de Quartzo/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Adsorção , Álcoois/análise , Aldeídos/análise , Ésteres/análise , Etilenos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Gases/análise , Odorantes/análise , Técnicas de Microbalança de Cristal de Quartzo/instrumentação
9.
Food Chem ; 335: 127665, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738530

RESUMO

'Nanguo' pear is particularly renowned for its fragrance. Esters are the main components of its aroma, which are synthesized primarily by the LOX pathway. We identified the main volatile esters and critical gene family members involved in the LOX pathway by monitoring their variation accompanying post-harvest ripening and examining their roles through principal component analysis (PCA), partial least-square regression (PLSR), and correlation analysis. In pears ripening to the optimum taste period (OTP), components and contents of volatile esters reached a peak, of which ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and hexyl acetate were most prominent. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid contents rose greatly until OTP and then declined; the activities of LOX, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) increased progressively until the OTP. Among the genes involved in LOX-pathway, the expressions of PuLOX3, PuADH3, and PuAAT contributed most to changes of total ester and main esters in 'Nanguo' pears.


Assuntos
Frutas/fisiologia , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pyrus/fisiologia , Aciltransferases , Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Álcool Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Caproatos/análise , Caproatos/metabolismo , Ésteres/análise , Ésteres/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Ácido Linoleico/genética , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Lipoxigenase/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Pyrus/genética , Pyrus/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo
10.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127864, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768751

RESUMO

Phthalate esters (PAEs) are a class of endocrine disruptors that are produced and used extensively in China. Given its presence in various products, a great quantity of PAEs flows into different aquatic systems each year. Hence, it is important to study the pollution levels and ecological risk of PAEs. This study investigated the distribution and seasonal variation of six priority PAEs in the surface water of Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China. In the wet season, the mean concentration of the total PAEs was 0.544 ± 0.173 µg/L, while the dry season concentration (1.003 ± 0.451 µg/L) nearly doubled. The most abundant PAE congeners were di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), followed by bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). To evaluate the ecological risks in Poyang Lake, the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) of four PAEs based on non-lethal effects were derived. For diethyl phthalate (DEP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), DBP, and DEHP, the PNECs were 31.6, 3.30, 2.31, and 0.0210 µg/L, respectively. The tiered ecological risk assessment showed that DEP and BBP posed no risk in Poyang Lake. Meanwhile, DBP posed a potential risk in Poyang Lake, but the risk of DEHP was unacceptable and requires more actions. Specifically, the probabilities of exceeding the threshold for the protection of 95% of the aquatic organisms (HC5) were 3.30% and 4.43% for DEHP in the wet and dry season, respectively. This study provides an appropriate reference for the surface water management of PAE pollution in China.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Ésteres/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Organismos Aquáticos , China , Dibutilftalato , Disruptores Endócrinos , Lagos , Medição de Risco , Rios , Estações do Ano , Água
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111667, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181942

RESUMO

Phthalate esters (PAEs) are a class of the emerging pollutants that pose a potential environmental threat to marine ecosystems. In this study, a simple analytical method using ultrasound-assisted extraction combined with gas purges microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) coupled with GC-MS was utilized for the reliable and rapid determination of PAEs in different types of marine sediment. The analytical results showed that the method exhibited excellent reproducibility, linear responses, and detection limits, which verified the suitability of the method for the determination of PAEs in marine sediment. This approach requires minimal reagents, solvents, and sample pretreatment procedures as well as a short analysis time; thus, procedural blanks can be kept to a minimum. This method was demonstrated to be a highly efficient and sensitive quantitative analytical method for the simple detection of PAEs in marine sediment.


Assuntos
Ésteres , Ácidos Ftálicos , Ecossistema , Ésteres/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Sedimentos Geológicos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(11): 1359-1366, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055442

RESUMO

For the very first time, the nutritional and physicochemical properties of the oil extracted from hackberry Celtis australis fruit were investigated with the aim of possible applications of such wild fruit oil. The physicochemical properties such as peroxide value, acidity, saponification, iodine value and total fat content of the extracted oil were examined extensively. The obtained results showed that peroxide value, acidity, saponification, iodine value and total fat content of the extracted oil were found to be 4.9 meq O2/kg fat, 0.9 mg KOH/g fat, 193.6 mg KOH/g fat, 141.52 mg I2/g fat and ~5%, respectively. The predominant fatty acid found in this wild fruit is linoleic acid which was calculated to be 73.38%±1.24. In addition, gamma-tocopherol (87%) and ß-sitosterol (81.2%±1.08) were the major tocopherol and sterol compositions found in Celtis australis seed oil. Moreover, equivalent carbon number (ECN) analysis has indicated that the three linoleic acids are the main composition of the triacylglycerols extracted from Celtis australis. Also, the high value of omega 6 and ß-sitosterol make this oil applicable in cosmetics and pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Ésteres/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Fitosteróis/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Tocoferóis/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ulmaceae/química , Biofarmácia , Fenômenos Químicos , Cosméticos , Peróxidos/análise , Sitosteroides/análise , Triglicerídeos/química , gama-Tocoferol/análise
13.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461356, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797836

RESUMO

The presence of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in everyday commodities such as furniture, household appliances and baby toys have rendered these contaminants ubiquitous in environmental fates such as air, water, soils and biota. Their presence in food-related species suggests that an additional route of exposure to these esters for the general population is fish intake through diet. Their incipient toxicity and carcinogenetic behaviour make it essential to develop methods for determining OPEs in fish samples. In this paper we have developed a new method for determining 9 OPEs based on the QuEChERS extraction method followed by a simple clean-up using a novel device for selective lipid removal (LipiFiltr) and GC-MS/MS to extract these compounds from fish samples regardless of lipid content. QuEChERS salt packet optimisation and clean-up strategies such as liquid-liquid extraction, dispersive-solid phase extraction and LipiFiltr were tested. Our results showed that EN 15662 method salts and Lipifiltr were the best combination to produce efficient analyte apparent recovery (67-116%) and negligible matrix effects (<10%). Limits of detection ranged from 0.05 ng g-1 (dry weight) for TiBP and TBP to 2.00 ng g-1 (dry weight) for TCEP. Fish samples from four fish species were determined with a median concentration of ΣOPEs 5.31 ng g-1 on a wet weight basis, with TBP, TiBP and TCPP as the main contenders. Estimates of exposure and risk associated with consuming these compounds via dietary intake showed low levels of concern for the population of Tarragona.


Assuntos
Ésteres/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Organofosfatos/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461307, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709350

RESUMO

In this study, the ultrasonic-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction (UA-d-SPE) method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied for the analysis of phthalate esters in drinking water and distilled herbal beverages (Rosa, Mentha, Cichorium). A new nanocomposite based on layered double hydroxide supported on graphene oxide was synthesized and modified by sulfonated polyaniline via a simple one-pot in-situ polymerization method. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposite was confirmed by means of complementary techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of key parameters including adsorbent mass, type and amount of back extraction solvent, extraction and desorption time, pH of the solution and ionic strength were optimized and good precision and sensitivity were achieved. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection were between 0.06-0.3 ng mL-1 in aqueous solutions. The hybrid nanomaterial exhibited good adsorption ability toward phthalates in drinking water and distilled herbal beverages. The relative standard deviations (RSD%) for beverage samples varied from 0.1% to 9.9% (n = 3). The relative recoveries varied from 54.5% to 112.6%.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/química , Bebidas/análise , Grafite/química , Hidróxidos/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Ultrassom/métodos , Adsorção , Ésteres/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanocompostos/química , Concentração Osmolar , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Preparações de Plantas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solventes/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Fatores de Tempo , Difração de Raios X
15.
Food Chem ; 329: 127086, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516706

RESUMO

Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression were applied to investigate the effect of glutathione-enriched inactive dry yeast (g-IDY) on the amino acids and volatile components of kiwi wine. Results indicated that the addition of g-IDY had positive effect on most amino acids of kiwi wine, especially glutamine and glycine. In case of pure juice fermentation, the concentrations of ethyl decanoate, 2-methylbutyric acid, trans-2-nonenal and hexyl butyrate had notably positive correlation with the addition of g-IDY. PLS regression indicated that the amino acids were highly interrelated to the volatile compositions, and glycine had the strongest positive impact on the concentrations of esters and total volatile components. This might explain the similar effect of g-IDY on the amino acids and volatile components of kiwi wine. Besides, PLS regression showed that E-nose was a good method to predict volatile compositions of kiwi wine, especially esters.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Glutationa/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise , Actinidia/metabolismo , Nariz Eletrônico , Ésteres/análise , Fermentação , Análise Multivariada , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(13): 8133-8143, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515948

RESUMO

Atmospheric concentrations of 11 organophosphate esters (OPEs) were measured in an urban area in Izmir, Turkey to explore their phase partitioning. Octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and vapor pressures (PL) of the OPEs were also measured as a function of temperature. Average Σ11OPE gas-phase concentrations were 1.77 ± 0.84 and 4.00 ± 1.77 ng/m3, while particle-phase concentrations were 1.95 ± 0.77 and 1.15 ± 0.36 ng/m3 during winter and summer, respectively. TCiPP1 dominated Σ11OPEs, followed by TnBP and TEP. OPE concentrations generally increased and shifted to gas-phase in the summer probably due to higher temperatures that favor partitioning to the gas-phase. Distribution between two phases covered a wide range from being primarily in gas-phase (TEP, TnBP) or particle-phase (EHDPP, TEHP, T2iPPP). Phase partitioning was also examined via four widely used models (KOA, Soot, Steady-State, and pp-LFER). All models underestimated the majority of particle-gas partition coefficients (KP) especially for the compounds having higher volatilities. Estimations based on the recently reported molecular weight of organic matter in urban aerosols (MWOM) and activity coefficients of OPEs in octanol (ξOCT) determined in the present study suggested that the basic assumptions of KOA-based models (i.e., ξOCT/ξOM and MWOCT/MWOM = 1) are not valid.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ésteres , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres/análise , Octanóis , Organofosfatos/análise , Temperatura , Turquia , Pressão de Vapor
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 152: 110899, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479282

RESUMO

Distribution and ecological risks of Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are poorly studied in estuarine environments in India. An attempt is made to chart the sources and assess the ecological risk of six PAE congeners (∑6PAEs), present in dissolved and particulate forms in a tropical ecosystem (Cochin Estuary, India). Terrestrial input, as attested by a clear seasonality with substantial enrichment during monsoon (2-28 µg/L and 31-1203 µg/g; dissolved and particulate PAEs respectively) and post-monsoon (1-7 µg/L and 7-321 µg/g; dissolved and particulate PAEs respectively), was identified as the primary source. DnBP (di-n-butyl phthalate) and DEHP (diethylhexyl phthalate) were found to be the dominant species except for dissolved PAEs at pre-monsoon season. Statistical analysis identified two major clusters, in the ∑6PAEs, composed of medium to high molecular weight PAEs (derived from plastic products) and low molecular weight PAEs (derived from cosmetic products). Calculated Risk Quotient (RQ) indicated values indicated moderate to high ecological risk for DnBP and DEHP congeners is a grim pointer to their detrimental effects on human health through consumption of contaminated organisms. Although substantial enrichment of suspended matter gets flushed out of the estuary during monsoon, there is a net PAE accumulation in the estuary during post-monsoon following an increased sedimentary restitution. Data of PAEs generated herein raises a challenge for immediate enactment of statutory legislation to curb and regulate hazardous contamination of estuaries by phthalic acid esters.


Assuntos
Estuários , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , China , Dibutilftalato/análise , Ecossistema , Ésteres/análise , Humanos , Índia
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 726: 137978, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481218

RESUMO

As an important environmental reservoir of phthalate esters (PAEs), soil-plant system constitutes a key exposure pathway to human health. In this study, agricultural soil and vegetable samples were collected from the Yangtze River Delta (approximately 211,700 km2), one of the most developed regions in China, to determine the contamination characteristics of priority PAEs. The total concentrations of six PAEs ranged from 5.42 to 1580 ng·g-1 dry weight in soils and from 10.9 to 16,400 ng·g-1 dry weight in vegetables. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) accounted for 88.3% and 61.9% of the total PAEs in soils and vegetables, respectively. The spatial distribution of PAEs in the soils was as follows: Shanghai city (70.8-1583 ng·g-1 dw) > Anhui province (46.8-1530 ng·g-1 dw) > Jiangsu province (14.4-558 ng·g-1 dw) > Zhejiang province (5.40-488 ng·g-1 dw). Non-cancer risks exist for adults and children in 6.5% and 7.8% of the sites, respectively. Carcinogenic risks were regarded unacceptable in 5.6% and 1.3% of the sites for adults and children, respectively. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of PAEs showed positive correlation with lipid content of vegetables. A basic reference of the lipid-content threshold to guarantee the safety of leafy vegetables was proposed based on partition-limited model. We suggested to cultivate vegetables with lipid content <0.21% in most heavily contaminated area in the region. This study provides information for effectively controlling PAEs contamination in soil-plant system in developed districts.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Criança , China , Cidades , Dibutilftalato/análise , Ésteres/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Rios , Solo , Verduras
19.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 114913, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531649

RESUMO

Spatiotemporal variability in seawater, spatial variation in sediment, pollution characteristics, and risks related to 16 phthalate esters (PAEs) were investigated in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent East China Sea. The total concentrations of ΣPAEs in surface water were 0.588-17.7 µg L-1 in summer, 2.63-22.9 µg L-1 in winter, and 1.93-20.7 µg L-1 in spring, with average values of 2.05, 10.2, and 4.89 µg L-1, respectively. PAE concentrations exhibited notable seasonal variations with the highest value in winter and the lowest value in summer. The seasonal variation in PAE concentrations may be influenced by runoff and diluted water from the Yangtze River. The chemical composition of PAEs showed that di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) had significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations than the other congeners and were the most abundant PAE species in sediment and seawater in all three seasons. In addition, DnBP and DiBP were the two main congeners in seawater, and DEHP concentrations were higher in sediment than in seawater. DEHP had higher potential risks to sensitive organisms in water environment than DnBP and DiBP, and DiBP and DnBP which presented high levels of risk in sedimentary environment. DMP and DEP in watery and sedimentary environments and DEHP in sedimentary environment showed no or low risks to sensitive organisms.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Rios , China , Dibutilftalato/análise , Ésteres/análise , Estuários , Água
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 139883, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544682

RESUMO

Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are ubiquitous pollutants in agricultural soils. Application of bioorganic fertilizer (BOF) containing beneficial microbes represents a promising approach to improve the yield and quality of crops grown in contaminated soils. In the present study, a novel multifunctional bioorganic fertilizer N-BOF was developed by using compost of sewage sludge and agricultural waste and inoculating with PAEs-degrading B. megaterium YJB3 and phosphate solubilizing B. megaterium YLYP1. Its feasibility of improving the yield and quality of vegetable grown in PAEs (including DBP and DEHP) contaminated soil was evaluated by pot experiments. The N-BOF could effectively promote plant growth, with biomass increasing by 4-66.9% and 19-110% compared to chemical (CF) and no fertilizer (CK), respectively. The concentrations of DBP and DEHP in shoots of chemically fertilised vegetable ranged 1.23-3.12 mg/kg (dry weight, DW) and 1.63-3.89 mg/kg (DW), respectively. Their concentrations were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) when N-BOF was applied (1%, 2%, 5% amendment), especially at higher application rate ranging 0.11-0.3 mg/kg (DW) and 0.16-0.32 mg/kg (DW), respectively. Meanwhile, vegetable quality attributes were also significantly improved when 2% N-BOF was applied, with increase in the contents of vitamin C, vitamin B1, total protein, and starch, and decrease in the contents of nitrite and nitrate. In this case, the human health risk from consumption of the vegetable grown in PAEs-contaminated soil could be significantly reduced. Thus, our study is expected to provide an efficient way of high-value utilization of organic substrates by producing low-cost but high quality N-BOF. Future studies on the effects of N-BOF in terms of fertilizer regimes on yield and quality of the vegetable are needed, and further field studies for assessing the long-term efficacy and reliability of this promising N-BOF are also warranted.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Ésteres/análise , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solo , Verduras
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