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1.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127807, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763577

RESUMO

Human hair has been identified as a non-invasive alternative matrix for assessing the human exposure to specific organic contaminants. In the present study, a solvent-saving analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 8 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 3 hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs), 12 phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs), and 4 emerging PFRs (ePFRs) has been developed and validated for the first time. Hair sample preparation protocols include precleaning with Milli-Q water, digestion with HNO3/H2O2 (1:1, v/v), liquid-liquid extraction with hexane:dichloromethane (4:1, v/v), and fractionation and cleanup on a Florisil cartridge. The method was validated by using two levels of spiked hair samples of 3 replicates for each spiking group. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.12-22.4 ng/g for all analytes, average values of accuracies were ranging between 88 and 115%, 82-117%, 81-128%, and 81-95% for PBDEs, HBCDDs, PFRs, and ePFRs, respectively; and precision was also acceptable (RSD < 20%) for all analytes. Eventually, this method was applied to measure the levels of the targeted analytes in hair samples of e-waste dismantling workers (n = 14) from Qingyuan, South China. Median values ranged between 3.00 and 18.1 ng/g for PBDEs, 0.84-4.04 ng/g for HBCDDs, 2.13-131 ng/g PFRs, and 1.49-29.4 ng/g for ePFRs, respectively. PFRs/ePFRs constitute the major compounds in human hair samples, implying the wide use of PFRs/ePFRs as replacements of PBDEs and HBCDDs, as well the potential high human exposure risks of PFRs/ePFRs. Overall, this work will allow to a comprehensive assessment of human exposure to multiple groups of FRs using hair as a non-invasive bioindicator.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Cabelo/química , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Fósforo/análise
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 142205, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207472

RESUMO

PBDEs, HBCD, novel DBDPE, PBEB and HBB, dechloranes, OPFRs and natural MeO-PBDEs were monitored in muscle of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Mediterranean Sea collected in three time periods (1990, 2004-2009 and 2014-2018). PBDEs levels decreased about 60% in under three decades, from 5067 ± 2210 to 2068 ± 2642ngg-1 lw, evidencing the success of their ban. Most PBDEs were found in all the samples, with BDE-47, -99, -154, -100 and -153 as the main contributors. Found in 71.4% of the samples, α-HBCD was stable through time and usually

Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Stenella , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Mar Mediterrâneo , Organofosfatos
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141996, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207505

RESUMO

This study was performed to assess the Latvian population exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDD), dechlorane-related compounds (DRCs), and emerging brominated flame retardants (EBFRs). Food items including fish, fish products, meat, dairy products, cereals and bread, eggs, vegetable oils, and sweets were analyzed for the content of these contaminants, followed by per capita intake calculations and risk assessment. The highest dietary exposure for general population was observed in the case of HBCDD, .reaching an estimated daily intake (EDI) value of 2.92 ng kg-1 b.w. (or 3.35 ng kg-1 b.w. if an outlying data point is included), followed by PBDEs with EDI of 1.24 ng kg-1 b.w., including ~25% contribution of PBDE-209 to the overall EDI from PBDEs. DRCs and EBFRs were secondary contributors to the total intake of selected flame retardants (FRs), with the observed EDIs of 0.46 and 0.47 ng kg-1 b.w, respectively. The obtained occurrence data and risk characterization according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approach showed the calculated margin of exposure (MOE) values higher than the critical values for PBDE-47, -99 and -153as well as for HBCDD, indicating that the estimated dietary exposures are unlikely to be of significant health concern for the Latvian population. At the same time, it should be pointed out that the risk assessment was performed only for five out of the twenty-five selected halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), while cumulative effects due to the potential presence of other HFRs and their biodegradation products were not considered.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Letônia
4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111714, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181970

RESUMO

The spatial and temporal distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were investigated in five sediment cores from the Yangtze River Delta of Yangtze River in China. The surficial concentrations of nine tri- through hepta-BDE congeners (Σ9BDEs) and BDE209 were highest at urban sites S3 and S2, followed by rural site S1 and estuary sites S5 and S4, respectively, based on dry sediment weight. Both BDE209 and ∑9BDE concentrations exponentially increased between 1990 and 2008. Commercial deca-BDE, penta-BDE, and octa-BDE products were likely PBDE sources in the study area. The relative abundances of BDE209 were higher in sediment cores from estuary than those from urban and rural locations, ascribing to the atmospheric transport from the adjacent densely populated northern and eastern coastal regions. This conclusion was further confirmed by the higher ratios of BDE47/BDE99 and BDE100/BDE99 in cores from the estuary than those from other locations.


Assuntos
Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(4): 453-460, 2020 08.
Artigo em Chinês, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047524

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To discuss the effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in e-waste dismantling region on the human body and provide data support for the identification of environmental health damage to residents in the e-waste dismantling region. Methods Adults in an e-waste dismantling region (exposed group, 54 participants) and a control region (control group, 58 participants) were selected, questionnaires were carried out and blood and urine samples were collected. Blood PBDEs, blood lipids, blood routine, blood lead, urine cadmium, urine chromium and urine nickel were detected. T-test was utilized to compare the differences of PBDEs between the two groups. Multivariate analysis were utilized to compare the differences between the two groups in blood routine indexes. Linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between PBDEs and blood routine. Results Exposure levels of PBDEs were significantly higher in the exposed group (240.00 ng/g, adjusted mass fraction of blood lipids, thereafter) than in the control group (93.00 ng/g, P<0.05). There was no statistical significance in the differences in most blood routine indexes of the two groups ( P>0.05), and their reference values were all within normal ranges. Mean platelet volume, plateletcrit, basophils percentage, absolute value of basophils, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were higher in the exposed group than in the control group (P<0.05). Platelet distribution widths were lower in the exposed group than in the control group and below the normal reference range (P<0.05). Conclusion PBDEs exposure in e-waste dismantling region tend to change platelet morphology, the number of basophils, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and may pose potential health hazards to local residents.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Adulto , China , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Corpo Humano , Humanos
6.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(10): 4525-4538, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124384

RESUMO

To investigate the spatiotemporal differentiation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in urban water-source reservoirs and degradation sources of BDE homologues and their contributions, we analyzed the contents, pollution degrees, spatial distributions, hydrological period changes, inventories, profiles, and degradation source contributions of PBDEs in the surface sediments of Shanmei Reservoir and its inflowing river, Quanzhou, China. The results showed that the median ∑PBDEs (1072.1 ng ·g-1) in the inflowing river sediment was 6.7 times than that of the reservoir (160.4 ng ·g-1) and the total amount of ∑PBDEs in sediments per unit area (80.3 kg ·km-2) was 6.3 times than that of Taihu Lake and 188 times than that of the Great Lakes in North America. The pollution degrees of PBDEs in Shanmei Reservoir were more severe than those of most lakes and reservoirs at home and abroad, which was dominated by BDE-209 (84.5%-99.2%). Most of the sampling sites in the reservoir (r 0.564-0.994, P<0.034) and the inflowing river (r 0.953-1.0, P<0.000) had high similarity in the composition of PBDEs. Significantly positive correlations (r 0.779-0.964, P<0.005) were observed between the reservoir entry area and river sampling sites, which were stronger than the other functional areas, indicating that the inflowing river was a major pollution source of PBDEs in the Shanmei Reservoir. The tail region of the reservoir had low correlations with the inflowing river (r 0.454-0.915, P≤0.128), and was relatively much more affected by Jiudu Town. The changes in hydrological period of the ∑PBDEs were relatively consistent at each sampling site (r 0.617-0.714, P≤0.077), but the impact of the changes in the hydrological period on the ∑PBDEs was not statistically significant (P=0.178, Two-Way ANOVA). However, the site changes had a significant influence on the ∑PBDEs (P=0.0001), and significant or nearly differences were observed between the reservoir entry area and other functional areas (P 0.019-0.061), indicating that the spatial distribution variations of the PBDEs in reservoir sediments were greater than the changes in hydrological period. The natural degradation of the PBDEs gradually increased from the river to the reservoir entry area and then to the central reservoir area. The reductive debromination rates varied at different brominated levels, and some BDE homologues accumulated due to their slowly continued degradation velocities. Research on abundance ratios indicated that the lower brominated BDE homologues were mainly derived from the natural degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether by stepwise reductive debromination. Approximately 70% of Nona-BDE produced by Deca-BDE degradation could rapidly be degraded to form Octa-BDE. Approximately 85% of BDE-208 was derived from the degradation of BDE-209. During the degradation process from Octa-BDE to Penta-BDE, some Octa-BDE and Hexa-BDE homologues accumulated due to relatively slower degradation velocities, and the degradation rates of Penta-BDE to Tri-BDE were above 70%.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Lagos , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(10): 4740-4748, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124408

RESUMO

The concentration of polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in surface soil and atmosphere of e-waste dismantling sites in Taizhou city, Zhejiang Province was determined. The concentration ranges of ∑12PBDEs in surface soil of e-waste dismantling site, farmland, and resident areas in Fengjiang Town (FJ) and Binhai Town (BH) were 21.8-1310 ng ·g-1 and 6.19-220 ng ·g-1, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the distribution of PBDEs between the FJ and BH soil. The concentration range of ∑12PBDEs in the atmosphere of FJ and BH were 262-3240 pg ·m-3 and 840-2990 pg ·m-3, respectively. The median levels of PBDEs in the atmosphere of FJ and BH were 1410 pg ·m-3 and 840 pg ·m-3 in winter and 1590 pg ·m-3 and 1960 pg ·m-3 in summer, respectively. However, a significant difference was observed in the distribution of 11 PBDE congeners, except BDE-209, during winter and summer seasons. The migration trend analysis showed the differences between the soil and air of FJ and BH. The main migration trend of 3-5-BDEs was the volatilization from soil to atmosphere, and the increase in temperature promoted the volatilization of these PBDEs from soil to atmosphere in FJ. This indicated that the PBDEs in soil had become a major source of pollution emission and suggested that soil remediation should be carried out at the e-waste dismantling site and parts of farmland in FJ. Contrary to FJ, atmospheric deposition was the major migration trend of PBDEs and the soil was the main sink of PBDEs in BH. This indicated that e-waste dismantling site in BH could be a new source of PBDEs emission in this area.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Atmosfera , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Solo
8.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 98: 31-38, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097155

RESUMO

High-altitude lake sediment can be used as a natural archive to reconstruct the history of pollutants. In this work, the temporal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined using a high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) in an alpine lake sediment core collected from the southern Tibetan Plateau (TP) to examine whether the expected decreasing trends due to the implementation of the international Conventions could be observed. The concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs in the sediment core were in the range of 11.8-142 pg/g dw and ND-457 pg/g dw, and their fluxes were in the range of 2.51-31.7 ng/(m2·yr) and ND-43.2 ng/(m2·yr), respectively. The prevalence of low-chlorinated (tri-CB) PCBs and low-brominated (tri- to tetra-) PBDEs in most sections of the sediment profiles was observed, suggesting that the light molecular weight PCBs and PBDEs have most likely reached lake sediments by long-range atmospheric transport from distant sources. Despite the restrictions on their applications, the sediment records for the concentrations and fluxes showed no corresponding decreasing trend with restrictions for PCBs, which suggested that these POPs (e.g., PCBs) were still emitted to the environment owing to the influence of primary or secondary emissions. To our knowledge, this is the first report on input history of atmospheric PCBs and PBDEs recorded in TP Lake sediment.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Lagos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Tibet , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 748: 142310, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113684

RESUMO

Human health concerns are rising with polybrominated diphenyl ethers' (PBDEs) analogues, methoxylated and hydroxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs and OH-PBDEs), due to their occurrences in foods and greater potential toxicological effects than PBDEs. While the oral bioaccessibilities (BA%) of PBDEs in foods are available, such information on MeO-PBDEs and OH-PBDEs, and the effects of cooking on them have not been adequately addressed. The present study was conducted with fish and chicken egg as typical foods to assess the bioaccessibility (BA%) of PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs, and OH-PBDEs using the colon extended physiologically based extraction test and examine the effects of cooking processes (boiling, frying, and steaming) on them. The results showed that thermal degradation or transformation of the target compounds did not occur during boiling and frying of fish. The BA% of individual PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs, and OH-PBDEs were 20-51% for boiled fish, 11-20% for pan-fried fish, 15-77% for steamed egg, and 42-68% for pan-fried egg. Cooking decreased the BA% of all target compounds in fish due to protein denaturation. However, the BA% of OH-PBDEs in pan-fried egg were greater than those in steamed egg. In addition, the substituent groups of CH3O- and OH- did not pose any effects on the BA% of BDE-47 in fish, but OH-group decreased its BA% in egg. These findings suggested that MeO-PBDEs and OH-PBDEs exhibited the similar oral BA% in fish to PBDEs, but the underlying mechanism for the effects of cooking on BA% of OH-PBDEs in egg needs to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Tilápia , Animais , Galinhas , Culinária , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos
10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 97: 180-185, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933733

RESUMO

Novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were investigated in Arctic air and soil samples collected from Ny-Ålesund and London Island, Svalbard, during Chinese scientific research expeditions to the Arctic during 2014-2015. The concentrations of Σ9NBFRs in the Arctic air and soil were 4.9-8.7 pg/m3 (average 6.8 pg/m3) and 101-201 pg/g dw (average 150 pg/g dw), respectively. The atmospheric concentration of hexabromobenzene (HBB) was significantly correlated with that of pentabromotoluene (PBT) and pentabromobenzene (PBBz), suggesting similar source and environmental fate in the Arctic air. No significant spatial difference was observed among the different sampling sites, both for air and soil samples, indicating that the effects of the scientific research stations on the occurrence of NBFRs in the Arctic were minor. The fugacities from soil to air of pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), 2,3-dibromopropyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE), and decabromodiphenylethane 1,2-bis (pentabromophenyl) ethane (DBDPE) were lower than the equilibrium value, indicating a nonequilibrium state of these compounds between air and soil, the dominant impact of deposition and the net transport from air to soil. The correlation analysis between the measured and predicted soil-atmosphere coefficients based on the absorption model showed that the impact of the soil organic matter on the distribution of NBFRs in the Arctic region was minor. To the best of our knowledge, this work is one of the limited reports on atmospheric NBFRs in the Arctic and the first study to investigate the occurrence and fate of NBFRs in the Arctic soil.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Regiões Árticas , Atmosfera , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Ilhas , Londres , Solo , Svalbard
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 140136, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927574

RESUMO

Children are exposed to many potentially toxic compounds in their daily lives and are vulnerable to the harmful effects. To date, very few non-invasive methods are available to quantify children's exposure to environmental chemicals. Due to their ease of implementation, silicone wristbands have emerged as passive samplers to study personal environmental exposures and have the potential to greatly increase our knowledge of chemical exposures in vulnerable population groups. Nevertheless, there is a limited number of studies monitoring children's exposures via silicone wristbands. In this study, we implemented this sampling technique in ongoing research activities in Montevideo, Uruguay which aim to monitor chemical exposures in a cohort of elementary school children. The silicone wristbands were worn by 24 children for 7 days; they were quantitatively analyzed using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for 45 chemical pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), and novel halogenated flame-retardant chemicals (NHFRs). All classes of chemicals, except NHFRs, were identified in the passive samplers. The average number of analytes detected in each wristband was 13 ±3. OPFRs were consistently the most abundant class of analytes detected. Median concentrations of ΣOPFRs, ΣPBDEs, ΣPCBs, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD)) were 1020, 3.00, 0.52 and 3.79 ng/g wristband, respectively. Two major findings result from this research; differences in trends of two OPFRs (TCPP and TDCPP) are observed between studies in Uruguay and the United States, and the detection of DDT, a chemical banned in several countries, suggests that children's exposure profiles in these settings may differ from other parts of the world. This was the first study to examine children's exposome in South America using silicone wristbands and clearly points to a need for further studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Praguicidas , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos , Silicones , América do Sul , Uruguai
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111639, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920258

RESUMO

Legacy and novel flame retardants (FRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel BFRs, and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) were measured in water and sediment collected from highly industrialized bays of Korea. Predominant compounds in sediment were BDE 209, DBDPE, and BTBPE for BFRs, and TCPP and TBOEP for OPFRs, respectively. Higher alternative FR concentrations were observed compared to those reported for previous studies. The highest BFR concentrations were found in locations close to industrial complexes, while the OPFR concentrations were highest in locations close to domestic regions and a wastewater treatment plant. Different contamination sources were observed for BFRs and OPFRs. The ratio of DBDPE/BDE 209 in sediment ranged from 0.84 to 28, indicating a shift in consumption of BFRs. A significant decline in PBDEs suggests the effectiveness of domestic and global regulations. Despite this, sedimentary PBDE concentrations may pose adverse health risks to benthic organisms and humans.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Baías , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , República da Coreia , Água
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 570, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770417

RESUMO

Silver eel samples, collected from the lagoons of Fogliano and Caprolace (Italy), were investigated for a broad range of contaminants (29 polychlorinated biphenyls, 9 polybrominated diphenyl ethers, 5 dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, 5 chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, 3 hexachlorocyclohexane, and 5 metals). Concentrations of targeted compounds stand for a general low contamination pattern. Infestation by Anguillicola crassus and virus infections were also examined. No parasite infestation was found, while infected silver eels had a low prevalence for EVEX, and, for the first time in the Mediterranean area, for AngHV-1. Overall, a good quality status of escaping silver eels, for both lagoons, was highlighted by the use of integrative Indexes. A quality assessment of the ecological status of the two lagoons was carried out developing an expert judgment approach, in order to characterize the habitat of eel stocks. A Final Pressure Index was derived, whose values showed an overall limited global anthropogenic impact acting on both lagoons. Results stand for the suitability of an integrated approach to assess lagoon habitats and eel local stocks quality. This could be proposed as a tool to identify sites yielding high quality eel spawners in the Mediterranean region, in order to set up suitable management frameworks, providing elements to appraise and discuss the potential of coastal lagoons in the Mediterranean region towards the recovery of the eel global stock.


Assuntos
Anguilla , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Itália
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140222, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783844

RESUMO

In the present study we examined spatial and seasonal trends in the levels of a wide suite of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdii) in East Canyon Creek, Utah, USA, an effluent-dominated stream during summer months. Fish samples were collected from four sampling sites, including one reference site upstream, and three sites at incremental distances downstream of the effluent discharge over multiple seasons. The samples were analyzed for 218 lipophilic contaminants, including pesticides and their metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other flame retardants. Some PAHs, pesticides and their metabolites, PCBs, PBDEs and other flame retardants were measured in mottled sculpin (11 analytes) and brown trout (17 analytes). Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-DDE, BDE-47 and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the most frequently detected contaminants in mottled sculpin and brown trout, while BDE-47 and p,p'-DDE were measured at the highest concentrations, reaching up to 73 and 19 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Our results indicated that snowmelt did not alter accumulation of the examined lipophilic contaminants, and no consistent seasonal differences were observed in their accumulation. A spatial pattern was observed for PBDE congeners, where lowest levels were measured in fish tissues from a reference site, and highest concentrations were measured in fish collected downstream of the effluent discharge, indicating that municipal effluent discharge contributes to the elevated PBDE levels in fish residing in this effluent-dominated stream. We further calculated screening level consumption risks following United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods, and identified the importance of considering discharge gradients in effluent-dominated systems during bioaccumulation assessments.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Estações do Ano , Utah
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111287, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753166

RESUMO

Forage fish are primary prey for seabirds, fish and marine mammals. Contaminant transfer and biomagnification of the toxic compounds measured in this study likely contribute to elevated levels in Puget Sound, Washington, salmon and killer whale tissues that could be sufficiently high to elicit adverse effects and hamper population recovery efforts. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, chlorinated pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, and chlorinated paraffins were detected in all Pacific sand lance tissue samples generally below available health effect levels. Residual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon tissue concentrations near a former creosote site suggest ongoing contaminant exposure. Biomagnification calculations suggest that concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in some forage fish could result in predator tissue concentrations exceeding effect levels. The emerging contaminants alkylphenols and chlorinated paraffins are first reported here in Puget Sound forage fish, and their frequent detection, high production volumes and endocrine-disrupting properties highlight the need for further study.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Washington
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 140049, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758951

RESUMO

The present study determined contamination levels of POPs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), in oysters (Saccostrea mordax) collected throughout the seacoast of Okinawa, Japan and their geographic distribution. PCBs, DDTs, CHLs, PBDEs and HBCDs were detected in almost all the oyster samples analyzed and higher concentrations of PCBs, DDTs and CHLs were found in oysters from southwestern populated areas. On the other hand, HBCDs in oysters showed similar levels throughout Okinawa and the highest concentration in a northern rural site with less human and industrial activities, although oyster concentrations of PBDEs were relatively lower. When POPs in expanded polystyrene (EPS) buoys and polystyrene foam debris floated and drifted on coastal seawater were analyzed, extremely high concentrations of HBCDs were detected in some of these EPS buoys and polystyrene foam debris but other POPs were below the limit of detection in all the samples. To evaluate the specific exposure route of HBCDs for oysters, we further analyzed HBCD diastereomers, and PCB congeners by way of comparison, in seawater and sediment samples collected at an urban site and a rural site and estimated their biota (oyster)-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) and bioaccumulation factors (BAF). Interestingly, the highest log BAF values were found for α-HBCD despite its lower log Kow than those of γ-HBCD and PCB congeners, although log BSAF values for HBCDs were lower than those for PCBs. Considering that α-HBCD was detected in a few polystyrene foam samples as the predominant diastereomer, oysters inhabiting the coastal region of Okinawa might be frequently exposed to micronized polystyrene foam particles containing HBCDs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , Ostreidae , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Biológico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Japão , Poliestirenos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140874, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758856

RESUMO

Atmospheric concentration of legacy (LFRs) and emerging flame retardants (EFRs) including 8 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 6 novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), 2 dechlorane plus isomers (DP), and 8 chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) were consecutively measured in eight major cities across Pakistan. A total of 96 samples (48 PM2.5 & 48 PUFs) were analyzed and the concentrations of ∑8PBDEs (gaseous+particulate) ranged between 40.8 and 288 pg/m3 with an average value of 172 pg/m3. ∑6NBFRs ranged between 12.0 and 35.0 pg/m3 with an average value of 22.5 pg/m3 while ∑8OPFRs ranged between 12,900-40,800 pg/m3 with an average of 24,700 pg/m3. Among the studied sites, Faisalabad city exhibited the higher concentrations of FRs among all cities which might be a consequence of textile mills and garment manufacturing industries. While analyzing the diurnal patterns, OPFRs depicted higher concentrations during night-time. The estimated risks of all groups of FRs from inhalation of ambient air were negligible for all the cities, according to USEPA guidelines. Nonetheless, our study is the first to report gaseous and particulate concentrations of FRs in air on a diurnal basis across major cities in Pakistan, offering insights into the atmospheric fate of these substances in urban areas in a sub-tropical region.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Atmosfera , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Paquistão
18.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 22(9): 1809-1827, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760963

RESUMO

Regulations and the voluntary activities of manufacturers have led to a market shift in the use of flame retardants (FRs). Accordingly, organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPFRs) have emerged as a replacement for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). One of the widely used OPFRs is tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), the considerable usage of which has reached 1.0 Mt globally. High concentrations of TCEP in indoor dust (∼2.0 × 105 ng g-1), its detection in nearly all foodstuffs (max. concentration of ∼30-300 ng g-1 or ng L-1), human body burden, and toxicological properties as revealed by meta-analysis make TCEP hard to distinguish from traditional FRs, and this situation requires researchers to rethink whether or not TCEP is an appropriate choice as a new FR. However, there are many unresolved issues, which may impede global health agencies in framing stringent regulations and manufacturers considering the meticulous use of TCEP. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to highlight the factors that influence TCEP emissions from its sources, its bioaccessibility, threat of trophic transfer, and toxicogenomics in order to provide better insight into its emergence as an FR. Finally, remediation strategies for dealing with TCEP emissions, and future research directions are addressed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Organofosfatos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Fosfatos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 747: 141141, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777495

RESUMO

The concentrations, distributions, and biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental and biological media in a terrestrial grass ecosystem were studied, The total PBDE concentrations in grasses were 4.00 × 10-2 to 4.28 ng·g-1. The total PBDE concentration in weasel muscle (23.2 ng·g-1 l.w.) was the highest concentrations of all animal tissue samples, and the total PBDE concentration in hair from local herdsmen (22.2 ng·g-1 l.w.) was second highest. Less-brominated PBDEs were found to be more strongly biomagnified than more-brominated PBDEs in the grassland food web. PBDEs were found to be much more strongly biomagnified in the food chains of homothermic animals than heterothermic animals. More-brominated PBDEs were not markedly biomagnified in the grassland food web. For example, BDE-153 was not biomagnified in the grassland wildlife food chain but was clearly biomagnified through the sheep, cattle, or horse hair to human hair route. The biomagnification factors and log Kows negatively correlated for the toad-snake, lizard-snake, and mouse-weasel food chains. The ability of PBDE congeners to become enriched generally decreased as the log Kow increased, and this decrease occurred 100-1000 times more strongly for homothermic animals than heterothermic animals.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Bifenil Polibromatos , Animais , Bioacumulação , Bovinos , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cadeia Alimentar , Pradaria , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Camundongos , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Ovinos
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(33): 42168-42174, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860190

RESUMO

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are commonly used in consumer products and they shed off these products and eventually build up in household dust. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in particular, are known endocrine-disrupting chemicals affecting various hormone syntheses. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) is the most common non-destructive method in identifying BFRs in environmental samples. However, the method is insensitive to bromine speciation. Synchrotron-based XRF has been shown to have very low detection limits (< 1 µg/g) that is suitable for detecting BFRs and can be combined with X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) to identify the bromine species present in the household dust. Twenty indoor dust samples were collected from rural homes in Newfoundland (Canada) to assess the use of synchrotron-based techniques to identify BFRs. Synchrotron-based XRF analysis identified bromine in all the samples, with concentrations ranging from 2-19 µg/g. XANES analysis identified organic-based bromine species in several samples that are likely BFRs based on the spectral line shape. The accuracy of using XANES to identify BFRs is highly dependent on the source and size of the dust samples. Therefore, for future research, it is important to take into account the sources of dust sample and to focus on fine dust particles.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Retardadores de Chama , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Canadá , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , Terra Nova e Labrador , Síncrotrons , Raios X
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