Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.736
Filtrar
1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 151: 110806, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056600

RESUMO

PCBs and PBDEs in microplastics and zooplankton collected in surface water at 27 locations in the Pacific Ocean and around the coast of Japan were investigated. Both PCBs and PBDEs were observed in buoyant microplastics, even in smaller particles of 0.315-1 mm. Concentrations of Σ13 PCBs were 0.04-124 ng/g, and were higher in urban bay areas such as Tokyo Bay. Sporadic moderate to high concentrations of PBDEs were observed in both urban-offshore and rural-offshore locations, consisting mostly of higher-brominated congeners. From the latter, BDE 209 ranged from not detected to 2158 ng/g. The microplastic-to-zooplankton abundance ratio threshold was 0.6 for PCBs and 0.08 for PBDEs, above which exposure would be greater from microplastics than from zooplankton.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zooplâncton , Animais , Japão , Oceano Pacífico , Plásticos , Tóquio
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(6): 5744-5758, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933075

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), present in the environment, animals, and humans. Their levels, distribution, and human exposure have been studied extensively, and over the last decade, various legal measures have been taken to prohibit or minimize their production and use due to the increasing amount of evidence of their harmful effects on human and animal health.Our aim here was to make a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the levels and distribution of PBDEs in the aquatic environment, air, and soil, in indoor dust, and in humans. To fulfill this, we searched through Web of Science for literature data reported in the last five years (2015-2019) on levels of at least six key PBDE congeners in abovementioned matrices. According to our summarized data, significant PBDE mass concentrations/fractions are still being detected in various sample types across the world, which implies that PBDE contamination is an ongoing problem. Secondary sources of PBDEs like contaminated soils and landfills, especially those with electronic and electrical waste (e-waste), represent a particular risk to the future and therefore require a special attention of scientists.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Animais , Criança , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 713: 136606, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954238

RESUMO

This study focused on the assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their methoxylated metabolites (MeO-PBDEs) in estuarine seafood from the main Portuguese river, in order to evaluate their impact in the environment and the safety of consumers' health, thus providing a comparison with other world regions. For the purpose, PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were determined in several seafood species collected along the Tagus estuary region, Portugal, in two catching seasons of 2019. The analyses were performed by an environmental-friendly method comprising a QuEChERS-based extraction with subsequent gas chromatography (tandem) mass spectrometry detection. Only trace amounts of BDE-47 (up to 2.0 ng·g-1 wet weight) were found in the muscle of lower trophic levels fish species, i.e. mullet and common barbel, collected in the spring. All remaining targeted PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were below the limits of quantification, which is indicative of a reduced environmental contamination, as well as a low risk of exposure to PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs through the consumption of these species. These amounts are smaller than other regions worldwide and therefore indicative of a low contamination level in Portuguese waters.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Animais , Biota , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Portugal , Rios
4.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125030, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606000

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with a high risk of type 2 diabetes in different regions, although few studies from China have been published. We aimed to investigate the associations between POP exposure and type 2 diabetes in Chinese population. A total of 158 participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and 158 participants without the disorder from Shandong Province were enrolled in this case-control study during 2016-2017. Nine polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and 2 polybrominated diphenyl ethers with detectable levels in ≥75% of the participants were selected for data analysis. The results showed that POP exposure was significantly and positively associated with the risk of diabetes after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, triglycerides and total cholesterol. However, we did not observe an obvious modified effect of adiposity on the associations between POP exposure and diabetes in the present study, as strong associations between POPs and diabetes were observed in both the higher-BMI (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and the lower-BMI (BMI<25 kg/m2) groups. POPs showed stronger associations with diabetes in males than in females. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest quartile of ∑POPs was 6.97 for males, nearly two times higher than that for females (OR = 3.58). All these findings suggest that POP exposure may impact the risk of diabetes in Chinese population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/efeitos adversos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Razão de Chances , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109882, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698175

RESUMO

Microplastics attract widespread attention, including for their potential to transport toxic chemicals in the form of plasticisers and associated hydrophobic organic chemicals, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The aims of this study were to investigate how nylon (polyamide) microplastics may affect PBDE accumulation in snails, and the acute effects of nylon particles and PBDEs on survival, weight change and inherent microbiome diversity and community composition of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Snails were exposed for 96 h to BDEs-47, 99, 100 and 153 in the presence and absence of 1% w/w nylon microplastics in quartz sand sediment. No mortality was observed over the exposure period. Snails not exposed to microplastics lost significantly more weight compared to those exposed to microplastics. Increasing PBDE concentration in the sediment resulted in an increased PBDE body burden in the snails, however microplastics did not significantly influence total PBDE uptake. Based on individual congeners, uptake of BDE 47 by snails was significantly reduced in the presence of microplastics. The diversity and composition of the snail microbiome was not significantly altered by the presence of PBDEs nor by the microplastics, singly or combined. Significant effects on a few individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs) occurred when comparing the highest PBDE concentration with the control treatment, but in the absence of microplastics only. Overall within these acute experiments, only subtle effects on weight loss and slight microbiome alterations occurred. These results therefore highlight that L. stagnalis are resilient to acute exposures to microplastics and PBDEs, and that microplastics are unlikely to influence HOC accumulation or the microbiome of this species over short timescales.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Lymnaea/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Lymnaea/metabolismo , Lymnaea/microbiologia , Nylons/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124933, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726611

RESUMO

The occurrence, air-sea exchange, and gas-particle partitioning of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed during a 2015 research expedition from the East China Sea (ECS) to the open Northwest Pacific Ocean (NWP). The sum of 13 PBDEs (Σ13PBDEs) in air and surface seawater varied in the range of 0.54-14.5. pg m-3 and 0.60-13.5 pg L-1, respectively, with the highest concentrations observed in the ECS. The Clausius-Clapeyron approach and air mass origin analysis indicated that continued primary emissions of PBDEs, particularly BDE-209, from East Asian sources governed the spatial variability of air PBDEs over the NWP through long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). Net air-to-seawater gas deposition of PBDEs was evidenced based on the fugacity calculation with sum fluxes of seven selected PBDEs ranging from -45 to -582 pg m-2 d-1. Following the substantial advection of aerosol phase BDE-209 over the ECS, dry particle deposition dominated the input pathway of PBDEs into the ECS, whereas in the open NWP, relatively free from the influence of the land emissions, fluxes in PBDE absorption and in dry particle deposition were comparable. This suggests an impact of continental outflow on the fate of atmospheric PBDEs over the NWP. Regarding gas-particle partitioning, PBDEs over the NWP were obviously absorbed into continental organic aerosols during atmospheric transport, except for BDE-209, which tended to remain within the steady state.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Ásia , Atmosfera/química , China , Extremo Oriente , Oceano Pacífico , Água do Mar
7.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124878, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563719

RESUMO

Dihydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (diOH-PBDEs) can be natural products of marine organisms or the metabolites of PBDEs. The optimal determination method and concentration of diOH-PBDEs in seafood are unknown due to a lack of commercially available standards. In the present study, diOH-PBDEs were synthesized, and an efficient measurement method for OH-PBDEs and diOH-PBDEs in sea fish muscle samples, including extraction, clean-up and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis, was established. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by partitioning with a KOH solution and florisil cartridge clean-up proved to be a reliable and robust method for detecting all OH-PBDEs/diOH-PBDEs. GC-MS/MS with an electron ionization (EI) source analysis was a sensitive analytical instrument for OH-PBDEs/diOH-PBDEs. The recovery using this method ranged from 19% to 101%, 28%-88% and 42%-90% for 10 ng, 20 ng and 40 ng spiking levels, respectively. The equipment detection limits (EDLs) were in the range of 0.31-2.78 pg/µL, and the limits of detection (LOD) for the method were in the range of 5.07-38.74 pg/g wet weight. Concentrations of diOH-PBDEs in the marine fish muscle samples were in the range of 32.43-1528.63 pg/g wet weight. Similar compositions of OH-PBDEs/diOH-PBDEs were found within the same family of marine fish.


Assuntos
Peixes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Limite de Detecção
8.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124701, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499316

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, a class of flame retardants and endocrine disruptors, have been substituted in new products by organophosphate (OPFR) and replacement brominated flame retardants (RBFR). OPFRs and RBFRs readily migrate from consumer products into dust where humans are exposed via incidental ingestion and inhalation. We quantified concentrations and loadings of OPFRs and RBFRs in house dust samples (n = 317) collected from the homes of Cincinnati women between 2003 and 2006 and examined their associations with demographic and house characteristics. Tris-(1-chloro-2-propyl)-phosphate (TCIPP, geometric mean [GM]: 2140 ng g-1, range: 70.1-166,000 ng g-1), tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)-phosphate (TDCIPP, GM: 1840 ng g-1, range: 55.2-228,000 ng g-1), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP, GM: 1070 ng g-1, range: 34.1-62,100 ng g-1), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB, GM: 59.5 ng g-1, range: 2.82-7800 ng g-1), and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP, GM: 121 ng g-1, range 2.17-13,600 ng g-1) were all detected in >90% of dust samples; tris-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP, GM: 669 ng g-1, range: 56.8-160,000 ng g-1) was detected in 80.1% of samples. Concentrations of EH-TBB and BEH-TEBP increased in house dust from 2003 to 2006. The number of people living in the home, race, education, floor type, and year of sample collection were associated with some OPFR and RBFR concentrations and loadings. This study suggests that OPFRs and RBFRs were ubiquitous in house dust during the PBDE phase-out and justifies more research on the consequences of exposure to these environmental chemicals.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Organofosfatos/análise , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Halogenação , Humanos , Ohio
9.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124577, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450111

RESUMO

Biota samples from the Vancouver municipal landfill located in Delta, BC, Canada, have some of the highest polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels reported from North America. We followed a population of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) breeding in a remediated area in the landfill to identify exposure routes and bioaccumulation of PBDEs in a simple terrestrial food chain. This population was compared to a reference farm site located 40 km east in Glen Valley. We analyzed samples of European starling eggs and nestling livers as well as invertebrate prey species consumed by starlings for PBDE concentrations. We also collected soil samples from starling foraging areas. All samples from the Delta landfill had higher PBDE congener concentrations compared to the Glen Valley reference site and were dominated by BDE-99 and BDE-47. Stable nitrogen (δ N15) and carbon (δ C13) isotope analysis of starling blood samples and provisioned invertebrates revealed that stable δC13 signatures differed between the sites indicating that the diet of starlings in the Delta landfill included a component of human refuse. Biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) > 1 demonstrated that PBDEs were bioaccumulating in soil invertebrates, particularly earthworms, which were readily accessible to foraging starlings in the landfill. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) calculated from foraged food items and starling egg and liver samples were >1, indicating that a diet of soil invertebrates and refuse contributed substantially to the PBDE exposure of local starlings.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Oligoquetos/química , Estorninhos/metabolismo , Animais , Canadá , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Solo/química , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
10.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(1): 368-376, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854939

RESUMO

The Shen-Fu region is an important urban area in northeast China. We report on a study of the distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in representative topsoil from this region. In the summer of 2016, 72 soil samples from three cities (Shenyang, Fushun, and Shen-Fu New City) were collected, which covered four land use types:urban, rural residential, cultivated, and woodland. We report on the concentrations, compositions, and distributions of 14 PBDEs in soil and explore their sources, and additionally undertake human exposure analysis and health risk assessments. The results showed that the concentration of ∑14PBDEs in the topsoil ranged from 0.279-50.719 ng·g-1(dry weight), with a mean of (10.466±9.246) ng·g-1. The concentrations of PBDEs was ranked for the cities as:Fushun > Shenyang > Shen-Fu New City > background, and for different land use types as:urban land > rural residential land > cultivated land > forest. Deca-PBDE had the highest proportion of all congeners, accounting for 81.25%-89.23% of all PBDEs. Source analysis indicated that commercial Deca-PBDE was the main source, contributing 66.06% of the total Deca-PBDE according to principal component analysis/multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR). Among five different age groups assessed for exposure, children in Fushun had the highest exposure dose:(20.98±25.01) ng·(kg·d)-1. In terms of different land types, the highest exposure dose was for children living in urban areas:(18.54±20.27) ng·(kg·d)-1. The non-oncogenic health risks in the Shen-Fu region are of a relatively low level.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Criança , China , Cidades , Humanos , Medição de Risco
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 148-152, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590771

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analyzed in eighteen blubber samples biopsied from fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) during the feeding season near the Antarctic Peninsula in the summer of 2013. POP content (in ng g-1 lipid weight) ranged from 46.4 to 708 for polychlorinated biphenyls (∑PCBs), 6.77 to 123 for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 10.1 to 489 for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and derivatives (∑DDTs), 5.38 to 52.8 for hexachlorocyclohexanes (∑HCH) and <0.40 to 2.54 for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑PBDEs). The presence of those compounds in Southern Ocean fin whales is related to long-range transport and their diet based mainly on euphausiids (krill). Their contents were much lower compared to the same species in other locations, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, presumably due to differences in trophic position and the proximity of POP sources and contamination of prey items.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/química , Baleia Comum , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , DDT/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hexaclorobenzeno/análise , Hexaclorocicloexano/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Masculino , Oceanos e Mares , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109758, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600649

RESUMO

Plenty of banned and emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dechlorane plus (DP), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), were measured in oriental magpie-robins from an e-waste recycling site, an urban site (Guangzhou City), and a rural site in South China. Median concentrations of DDTs, PCBs, PBDEs, DP, and DBDPE ranged from 1,000-1,313, 800-59,368, 244-5,740, 24.1-127, and 14.7-36.0 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Birds from the e-waste site had significantly higher concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs than those from urban and rural sites (p < 0.05), implying contamination of PCBs and PBDEs brought by e-waste recycling activities. DDTs were the predominant POPs in birds from urban and rural sites. The values of δ15N were significantly and positively correlated with concentrations of p,p'-DDE and low-halogenated chemicals in samples from the e-waste site (p < 0.05), indicating the trophic magnification of these chemicals in birds. However, concentrations of most POPs were not significantly correlated with the δ15N values in birds from urban and rural sites. PCBs and PBDEs in birds from urban and rural sites were not likely from local sources, and the biomagnification of POPs in different sites needed to be further investigated with caution.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Passeriformes/metabolismo , Animais , China , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Músculos/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , População Rural , População Urbana
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 149: 110593, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550574

RESUMO

Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a key factor in predicting the collapse of global killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations due to reproductive and immune impacts. Blubber biopsies from killer whales (n = 25) were collected in the Russian Far East in 2002-2004. Biopsies were analyzed for ΣDDT, ΣPCB, and HCB concentrations. A subset of biopsies was further examined for additional contaminants, ΣPBDE, ΣHCH, ΣCHLD, mirex, and dieldrin. Mean concentrations were compared across resident (fish-eating) and transient (mammal-eating) ecotypes and between sexes. ΣPCB analytes (resident males 18,000, resident females 1200, and transient males 420,000 ng g-1 lw) and HCB (resident males 750, resident females 81, and transient males 6200 ng g-1 lw) differed significantly (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed between sexes. Notable disparities in contaminant levels between ecotypes support the major toxicological theories of contaminant bioaccumulation and dietary impacts on individual contaminant load.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Orca , Animais , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Masculino , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Federação Russa
14.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113151, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550656

RESUMO

Severe contamination of decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209, an emerging persistent organic pollutant) in coastal marine sediments has posed a serious threat to the marine ecosystems. Anaerobic microbial degradation can affect the toxicity and environmental fate of BDE-209 in anoxic marine sediments. However, little is known about the anaerobic microbial degradation of BDE-209 in anoxic marine/coastal sediments. In this study, the anaerobic degradation of BDE-209 in microcosms containing coastal marine sediments from a contaminated bay located in Southern China was investigated. It was observed that over 70% of the BDE-209 (5 µmol) added to the anaerobic sediment microcosms disappeared after 90-day of incubation. Thirty-five debrominated products (tetra- to nonaBDEs) were identified by GC-MS. Remarkably, a majority of these products (i.e. 20 products, including BDE-52, -92, -101, -102, -103, -133, -144, -146, -150, -161, -171, -172, -175, -177, -178, -180, -182, -188, -193, -199) have not been previously reported in the literature on the anaerobic microbial degradation of BDE-209 in sediments. There was no preferential debromination among ortho-, meta-, and para-bromines on BDE-209 and higher-brominated diphenyl ethers were the predominant debromination products. High-throughput sequencing revealed that the relative abundances of 9 microbial genera in the sediment microcosms increased as the anaerobic degradation of BDE-209 progressed, indicating their involvements in the degradation process. Taken together, our findings provided new insights into the anaerobic microbial degradation of BDE-209 in anoxic marine sediments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Biodegradação Ambiental , Bromo , China , Ecossistema , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise
15.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113282, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563788

RESUMO

Chokka squid (Loligo reynaudii) from three sites along the South African coast were analyzed for halogenated natural products (HNPs) and anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants (POPs). HNPs were generally more than one order of magnitude more abundant than POPs. The most prevalent pollutant, i.e. the HNP 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (Q1), was detected in all chokka squid samples with mean concentrations of 105, 98 and 45 ng/g lipid mass, respectively, at the Indian Ocean (site A), between both oceans (site B) and the South Atlantic Ocean (site C). In addition, bromine containing polyhalogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (PMBPs), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP, up to 28 ng/g lipid mass), polybrominated methoxy diphenyl ethers, MHC-1, TBMP and other HNPs were also detected. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the predominant class of anthropogenic POPs. PCB 153 was the most abundant PCB congener in chokka squid from the Indian Ocean, and PCB 138 in samples from the South Atlantic Ocean and between both oceans.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Loligo/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Produtos Biológicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Halogenação , Oceano Índico , Loligo/química , Bifenilos Policlorados , Alimentos Marinhos , África do Sul , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(5): 734-738, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535196

RESUMO

This research presents the assessment of contamination status, congener profiles and ecological risk of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (S-EDCs) in surface water from KimNguu River, Hanoi. Selected EDCs compose polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Water sampling and chemical analyses were carried out in collected water samples in dry season (April) and wet season (October) in 2018. Results pointed out a significant contamination with ∑6PCBs, ∑6PAEs and ∑7PBDE concentrations ranging from 1.89 to 8.93 ng/L, from 2.78 to 412.27 ng/L and from 1.92 to 7.08 ng/L, respectively. Composition analyses indicated the predominance of PCB52, PCB118, DEP, DEHP, DBP, BDE-47 and BDE-99. Ecological risks of S-EDCs range from very low to medium levels in the surface water of KimNguu River.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Vietnã , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água
17.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113144, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526913

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) continue to threaten aquatic organisms, but risk assessments are restricted by poor knowledge of the distribution and quantity of these substances in different biota. Assessments on aquatic invertebrates are particularly scarce. Here, we investigate variation in polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorines (OCs) in sediments, biofilms, macroinvertebrates and fish across rivers in South Wales (UK). Persistent PCB (-118, -153, -180) and PBDE congeners (BDE-47, -99, -100), and OCs (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE] and dieldrin [HEOD]) dominated the POPs detected, indicating links to historical emissions. Low concentrations of less persistent PBDEs, PCBs and OCs, however, suggest more contemporary sources. Concentrations of POPs were 2-22 times greater in fish than invertebrates, but their detection frequency (>90%) and concentrations (0-304 ng g-1 wet weight) were higher in these organisms than in sediments or biofilms (<10%; 0-12 ng g-1 wet weight). Invertebrates and fish also contained several PCB congeners (28, 52, 77 and 105) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) that were not detected in the environmental samples. Concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs and OCs differed among invertebrate taxa and feeding guilds. After controlling for significant variation among sample types and taxa, PBDEs were found to increase with urban land cover, while increased PCBs were associated with urban land cover and wastewater discharge. These data illustrate how body burdens of POPs across invertebrate and fish taxa provide valuable information on the spatial variation and likely sources of persistent pollutants in freshwater ecosystems. More work is required to resolve differences in POP contamination between taxonomic groups.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Ecossistema , Peixes , Invertebrados
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(31): 31934-31944, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489547

RESUMO

Jinsha (JSH) is one of the regional background sites in Central China. In this study, eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in atmospheric deposition samples (dry particle, wet particle, and wet dissolved), air (gaseous and particle) samples, and soil samples that were collected from March 2012 to March 2013. Of all eight PBDEs, BDE-209 was the most abundant congener in both deposition samples and air/soil samples. Average dry particle, wet particle, and wet dissolved deposition fluxes of Σ8PBDEs were 270 ± 310 pg m-2 day-1, 130 ± 210 pg m-2 day-1, and 250 ± 330 pg m-2 day-1, respectively, while those of BDE-209 were 210 ± 290 pg m-2 day-1, 80 ± 120 pg m-2 day-1, and 160 ± 290 pg m-2 day-1, respectively. Dry deposition velocities of individual PBDE ranged from 0.11 ± 0.15 cm s-1 (BDE-183) to 0.24 ± 0.38 cm s-1 (BDE-209), and total washout ratios ranged from 5.0 × 103 (BDE-28) to 4.2 × 104 (BDE-209). The calculated net air-soil gas exchange flux of Σ8PBDEs was - 16 ± 13 pg m-2 day-1, suggesting the deposition status of PBDEs. The gas exchange flux at the air-soil interface was significantly lower than the deposition flux, which only accounted for 2.5% of the total deposition flux, implying that atmospheric deposition was an important input pathway for PBDEs to soils. Overall, the pollution level of the soil was relatively low, and the soil serves as a sink for PBDEs from adjacent regions.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Bifenil Polibromatos/química , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/química , Solo
19.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 77(4): 594-604, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388704

RESUMO

A total of 39 lower brominated PBDE congeners in surface soils from the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve (YRDNR) were analyzed in the present study. The total concentrations of PBDEs (ΣPBDEs) ranged from "not detected" to 0.732 ng g-1, with a mean concentration of 0.142 ng g-1. The concentrations of the ΣPBDEs displayed no correlation with the content of the total organic carbon in the YRDNR. The ΣPBDEs concentrations in the Experimental Area were significantly higher than that of the Buffer Area and Core Area, and ΣPBDEs in soils in the North were lower than that of the South. PentaBDEs and HexaBDEs were the most abundant homologues, and the occurrence of PBDEs in the YRDNR may be attributed to the debromination and long range transport of DecaBDEs. Even though the cancer risk and mass inventory of PBDEs in the present study area were estimated to be very low, due to the widespread presence of PBDEs and the particularity of the natural reserve, vigilance should not be let up on the issue of environmental contamination caused by these compounds despite the gradual phase out of their commercial products in the world.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Carcinógenos Ambientais/análise , Carcinógenos Ambientais/toxicidade , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
20.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124463, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382198

RESUMO

Diet is the major route of exposure to environmental contaminants in biota and, after penetration into an organism, xenobiotics continue to accumulate in the body. In birds the egg-laying process acts as a transfer mechanism for the accumulated pollutants and results in the burdening of the next generation at an early stage of development. This transfer has a strong influence on developmental disorders and even breeding success. With this in mind polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo furans (PCDD/Fs), as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were analyzed in the eggs of aquatic birds from different habitats and with different diet preferences. The highest concentration of PBDE was noted in gull eggs (198.31 ng g-1 dw.) and the lowest in tern eggs (sandwich tern: 76.96 ng g-1 dw.; common tern: 113.73 ng g-1 dw). Deca-BDE was detected only in herring gull eggs from the Wloclawek reservoir. PCDDF/s were found in the eggs of terns from the southern coast of the Baltic Sea and gulls from an inland reservoir (dam) on the River Vistula close to the town of Wloclawek. The highest toxicity (birds Toxic Equivalent Factor) was found in the eggs of terns (sandwich tern - 93.97 pg g-1 dw., common tern - 68.35 pg g-1 dw.), and this was found to be several times higher than in herring gull eggs (18.80 pg g-1 dw.). Non-dioxin like PCBs were ten times higher than other analyzed PCB congeners, but the congener pattern was similar to other studies.


Assuntos
Aves , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Óvulo/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Animais , Charadriiformes , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Polônia , Rios
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA