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1.
Science ; 371(6534): 1154-1159, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707263

RESUMO

Alterations of the mycobiota composition associated with Crohn's disease (CD) are challenging to link to defining elements of pathophysiology, such as poor injury repair. Using culture-dependent and -independent methods, we discovered that Debaryomyces hansenii preferentially localized to and was abundant within incompletely healed intestinal wounds of mice and inflamed mucosal tissues of CD human subjects. D. hansenii cultures from injured mice and inflamed CD tissues impaired colonic healing when introduced into injured conventionally raised or gnotobiotic mice. We reisolated D. hansenii from injured areas of these mice, fulfilling Koch's postulates. Mechanistically, D. hansenii impaired mucosal healing through the myeloid cell-specific type 1 interferon-CCL5 axis. Taken together, we have identified a fungus that inhabits inflamed CD tissue and can lead to dysregulated mucosal healing.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Doença de Crohn/patologia , /fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Quimiocina CCL5/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Vida Livre de Germes , Humanos , Íleo/microbiologia , Íleo/patologia , Inflamação , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1178-1191, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518076

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal health of poultry can be impacted by a variety of factors including their environment. As egg production moves from conventional cage housing (CC) toward cage-free housing (CF), it is important to understand this impact on intestinal health. This study was conducted to determine if housing type impacted intestinal permeability, morphology, and microbial communities in commercial hens across housing systems. Hens were randomly selected from 2 rooms of CC (n = 25) and CF (n = 25) at a commercial facility. Birds were given fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-D) by oral gavage to measure intestinal permeability. Jejunal and ileal samples were collected to evaluate villus height, crypt depth, and their ratio. Ileal contents were collected for bacterial DNA isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Serum FITC-D was similar between housing type (P = 0.709). Hens housed in the CF had increased jejunal villus height and crypt depth compared with hens from the CC (P < 0.002). Hens from the CC tended to have a greater villus height to crypt depth ratio in both the jejunum and ileum compared with the CF (P = 0.064; P = 0.091, respectively). Microbial community diversity measurements favored hens housed in the CC as ileal contents tended to have increased species richness (P = 0.059), had greater alpha diversity (P = 0.044), and had an increased number of over represented operational taxonomic units (46/64), including Romboutsia sp. (30.80%), Lactobacillus kitasatonis (17.16%), and Lactobacillus aviarius (11.15%). Correlations between microbial communities with intestinal traits identified significant association with the greatest number of correlations with FITC-D and ileal morphology. Many of these correlations identified microbial communities associated with expected traits; thus, providing limited functional data to microbial communities with limited information. The greater number of correlations of ileal morphology with ileal microbial communities suggesting local microbial communities contribute to the intestinal environment distant. In this limited study, several parameters favored hens from CC suggesting an advantage of this system for intestinal health. However, the lower intestinal health parameters observed in CF were not at levels to indicate detrimental effects.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Galinhas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Abrigo para Animais/classificação , Íleo/metabolismo , Íleo/microbiologia , Animais , Feminino , Íleo/anatomia & histologia , Jejuno/anatomia & histologia , Jejuno/microbiologia , Permeabilidade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
3.
Environ Int ; 151: 106444, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621917

RESUMO

Oral bioavailability of arsenic (As) determines levels of As exposure via ingestion of As-contaminated soil, however, the role of gut microbiota in As bioavailability has not evaluated in vivo although some in vitro studies have investigated this. Here, we made a comparison in As relative bioavailability (RBA) estimates for a contaminated soil (3913 mg As kg-1) using a mouse model with and without penicillin perturbing gut microbiota and metabolites. Compared to soil exposure alone (2% w/w soil in diets), addition of penicillin (100 or 1000 mg kg-1) reduced probiotic Lactobacillus and sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio, enriched penicillin-resistant Enterobacter and Bacteroides, and decreased amino acid concentrations in ileum. With perturbed gut microbiota and metabolic profile, penicillin and soil co-exposed mice accumulated 2.81-3.81-fold less As in kidneys, excreted 1.02-1.35-fold less As in urine, and showed lower As-RBA (25.7-29.0%) compared to mice receiving diets amended with soil alone (56 ± 9.63%). One mechanism accounted for this is the decreased concentrations of amino acids arising from the gut microbiota shift which resulted in elevated iron (Fe) and As co-precipitation, leading to reduced As solubilization in the intestine. Another mechanism was conversion of bioavailable inorganic As to less bioavailable monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) by the antibiotic perturbed microflora. Based on in vivo mouse model, we demonstrated the important role of gut microbiota and gut metabolites in participating soil As solubilization and speciation transformation then affecting As oral bioavailability. Results are useful to better understand the role of gut bacteria in affecting As metabolism and the health risks of As-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Arsênico , Microbiota , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Arsênico/análise , Arsênico/toxicidade , Disponibilidade Biológica , Íleo/química , Íleo/microbiologia , Metaboloma , Camundongos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
4.
Mol Immunol ; 127: 12-20, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905904

RESUMO

Piglet diarrhea and even death due to Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) type C infection have led to huge economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. C. perfringens beta2 (CPB2) toxin is the main virulence factor for this pathogen. MiR-140-5p can exacerbate toxin-induced toxicity of toxin to cells by promoting oxidative stress. However, the role of pig miR-140-5p (ssc-miR-140-5p) in piglet diarrhea caused by C. perfringens type C has not been studied. Here, we study investigated the function of ssc-miR-140-5p by generating an in vitro CPB2-induced injury model in intestinal porcine epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells. Our results revealed that transfection with an ssc-miR-140-5p inhibitor significantly increased the viability of CPB2-induced IPEC-J2 cells, decrease the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inhibit inflammatory responses and apoptosis. In addition, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) was identified as a direct target of ssc-miR-140-5p by luciferase reporter assay. Western blot analysis showed that inhibition of ssc-miR-140-5p could activate the ERK1/2 signaling pathway and inhibit the JNK signaling pathway. In summary, we showed that down-regulation of ssc-miR-140-5p ameliorated CPB2-induced inflammatory responses in IPEC-J2 cells via the ERK1/2 and JNK signaling pathways by targeting VEGFA.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Inflamação/enzimologia , Inflamação/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridium perfringens/fisiologia , Íleo/metabolismo , Íleo/microbiologia , Íleo/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suínos
5.
J Anim Sci ; 98(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877510

RESUMO

The study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of a probiotic Bacillus subtilis strain on growth performance, diarrhea, systemic immunity, and intestinal health of weaned pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and to compare the efficacy of B. subtilis with that of carbadox. Weaned pigs (n = 48, 6.17 ± 0.36 kg body weight [BW]) were individually housed in disease containment rooms and randomly allotted to one of four dietary treatments: negative control (NC, control diet without E. coli challenge), positive control (PC, control diet with E. coli challenge), and supplementation of 50 mg/kg of carbadox (antibiotic growth promotor [AGP]) or 2.56 × 109 CFU/kg of B. subtilis probiotics (PRO). The experiment lasted for 28 d with 7 d before and 21 d after the first E. coli inoculation. Fecal and blood samples were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21 post inoculation (PI) to analyze ß-hemolytic coliforms and complete blood cell count, respectively. Diarrhea score was recorded daily for each pig to calculate the frequency of diarrhea. All pigs were euthanized at day 21 PI to collect jejunal and ileal mucosa for gene expression analysis. Pigs in AGP had greater (P < 0.05) BW on days 7, 14, and 21 PI than pigs in PC and PRO groups. Supplementation of PRO enhanced pigs' BW on day 21 PI compared with the PC. Escherichia coli F18 challenge reduced (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency from day 0 to 21 PI, while supplementation of carbadox or PRO enhanced ADG and feed efficiency in E. coli F18-challenged pigs from day 0 to 21 PI. Pigs in AGP and PRO groups had reduced (P < 0.05) frequency of diarrhea throughout the experiment and fecal ß-hemolytic coliforms on day 7 PI than pigs in the PC. Pigs in PRO had greater (P < 0.05) gene expression of CLDN1 in jejunal mucosa than pigs in the PC. Supplementation of carbadox or PRO reduced (P < 0.05) the gene expression of IL6 and PTGS2 in ileal mucosa of E. coli-infected pigs compared with pigs in the PC. Pigs in the PRO group had lower (P < 0.05) white blood cell number and neutrophil count, and serum haptoglobin concentration on day 7 PI, and less (P < 0.05) monocyte count on day 14 PI, compared with PC. In conclusion, supplementation of probiotic B. subtilis could enhance disease resistance and promote the growth performance of weaned pigs under disease challenge conditions. The potential mechanisms include but not limited to enhanced gut barrier integrity and local and systemic immune responses of weaned pigs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Carbadox/farmacologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Probióticos/farmacologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Desmame
6.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(21)2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859592

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a prevalent incitant of enteritis in human beings and nonhuman animals. It has been proposed that host defense responses incited by Salmonella allow the bacterium to overcome colonization resistance. Piglets (n = 24) were orally inoculated with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 or buffer alone, and the host and microbial responses were temporally examined at the acute (2 days postinoculation [dpi]), subacute (6 dpi), and recovery (10 dpi) stages of salmonellosis. At the acute stage of disease, body temperatures were elevated, and feed consumption and weight gain were reduced. The densities of Salmonella associated with the gut mucosa decreased over time, with higher densities of the bacterium in the ileum and the large intestine. Moreover, substantive histopathological changes were observed as a function of time, with prominent epithelial injury and neutrophil infiltration observed at 2 dpi. Correspondingly, a variety of host metrics were temporally affected in piglets with salmonellosis (e.g., TNFα, IFNγ, PR39, ßD2, iNOS, IL8, REGIIIγ). The enteric microbiota was characterized using culture-independent and -dependent methods in concert, and taxon- and location-specific changes to the microbiota were observed in infected piglets. Bacteroides spp. (e.g., Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides fragilis), Streptococcus spp. (e.g., Streptococcus gallolyticus), and various Gammaproteobacteria were highly associated with inflamed tissues, while bacteria within the Ruminococcaceae and Veillonellaceae families were mainly associated with healthy mucosae. In conclusion, the study findings showed that S Typhimurium incited temporal and spatial modifications to the swine autochthonous microbiota, and to host defense responses, that were consistent with overcoming colonization resistance to incite salmonellosis in swine.IMPORTANCE Limited information is available on host and enteric microbiota responses incited by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in swine and on possible mechanisms by which the bacterium overcomes colonization resistance to incite salmonellosis. Temporal characterization of a variety of host metrics in piglets (e.g., physiological, histopathological, and immunological) showed the importance of studying the progression of salmonellosis. A number of host responses integrally associated with disease development were identified. Utilization of next-generation sequence analysis to characterize the enteric microbiota was found to lack sufficient resolution; however, culture-dependent and -independent methods in combination identified taxon- and location-specific changes to bacterial communities in infected piglets. The study identified bacterial and host responses associated with salmonellosis, which will be beneficial in understanding colonization resistance and in the development of effective alternatives to antibiotics to mitigate salmonellosis.


Assuntos
Ceco/microbiologia , Colo/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Íleo/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Animais , Ceco/imunologia , Colo/imunologia , Íleo/imunologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 919-931, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451498

RESUMO

The prognosis of colon cancer (CC) is dictated by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, including follicular helper T (TFH) cells and the efficacy of chemotherapy-induced immune responses. It remains unclear whether gut microbes contribute to the elicitation of TFH cell-driven responses. Here, we show that the ileal microbiota dictates tolerogenic versus immunogenic cell death of ileal intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and the accumulation of TFH cells in patients with CC and mice. Suppression of IEC apoptosis led to compromised chemotherapy-induced immunosurveillance against CC in mice. Protective immune responses against CC were associated with residence of Bacteroides fragilis and Erysipelotrichaceae in the ileum. In the presence of these commensals, apoptotic ileal IECs elicited PD-1+ TFH cells in an interleukin-1R1- and interleukin-12-dependent manner. The ileal microbiome governed the efficacy of chemotherapy and PD-1 blockade in CC independently of microsatellite instability. These findings demonstrate that immunogenic ileal apoptosis contributes to the prognosis of chemotherapy-treated CC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxaliplatina/farmacologia , Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/microbiologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/imunologia , Bacteroides fragilis , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo/microbiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Firmicutes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Íleo/imunologia , Íleo/microbiologia , Íleo/patologia , Morte Celular Imunogênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular Imunogênica/imunologia , Vigilância Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Vigilância Imunológica/imunologia , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Tipo I de Interleucina-1/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia
8.
Br J Nutr ; 124(6): 567-576, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312334

RESUMO

Dietary fibre fermentation in humans and monogastric animals is considered to occur in the hindgut, but it may also occur in the lower small intestine. This study aimed to compare ileal and hindgut fermentation in the growing pig fed a human-type diet using a combined in vivo/in vitro methodology. Five pigs (23 (sd 1·6) kg body weight) were fed a human-type diet. On day 15, pigs were euthanised. Digesta from terminal jejunum and terminal ileum were collected as substrates for fermentation. Ileal and caecal digesta were collected for preparing microbial inocula. Terminal jejunal digesta were fermented in vitro with a pooled ileal digesta inoculum for 2 h, whereas terminal ileal digesta were fermented in vitro with a pooled caecal digesta inoculum for 24 h. The ileal organic matter fermentability (28 %) was not different from hindgut fermentation (35 %). However, the organic matter fermented was 66 % greater for ileal fermentation than hindgut fermentation (P = 0·04). Total numbers of bacteria in ileal and caecal digesta did not differ (P = 0·09). Differences (P < 0·05) were observed in the taxonomic composition. For instance, ileal digesta contained 32-fold greater number of the genus Enterococcus, whereas caecal digesta had a 227-fold greater number of the genus Ruminococcus. Acetate synthesis and iso-valerate synthesis were greater (P < 0·05) for ileal fermentation than hindgut fermentation, but propionate, butyrate and valerate synthesis was lower. SCFA were absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract location where they were synthesised. In conclusion, a quantitatively important degree of fermentation occurs in the ileum of the growing pig fed a human-type diet.


Assuntos
Ceco/metabolismo , Dieta , Fermentação , Íleo/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Humanos , Íleo/microbiologia , Suínos
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1995, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332732

RESUMO

Gut microbial dysbiosis is associated with the development of autoimmune disease, but the mechanisms by which microbial dysbiosis affects the transition from asymptomatic autoimmunity to inflammatory disease are incompletely characterized. Here, we identify intestinal barrier integrity as an important checkpoint in translating autoimmunity to inflammation. Zonulin family peptide (zonulin), a potent regulator for intestinal tight junctions, is highly expressed in autoimmune mice and humans and can be used to predict transition from autoimmunity to inflammatory arthritis. Increased serum zonulin levels are accompanied by a leaky intestinal barrier, dysbiosis and inflammation. Restoration of the intestinal barrier in the pre-phase of arthritis using butyrate or a cannabinoid type 1 receptor agonist inhibits the development of arthritis. Moreover, treatment with the zonulin antagonist larazotide acetate, which specifically increases intestinal barrier integrity, effectively reduces arthritis onset. These data identify a preventive approach for the onset of autoimmune disease by specifically targeting impaired intestinal barrier function.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/prevenção & controle , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Disbiose/complicações , Haptoglobinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Precursores de Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Animais , Artrite Experimental/sangue , Artrite Experimental/imunologia , Artrite Experimental/microbiologia , Artrite Experimental/prevenção & controle , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/microbiologia , Translocação Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Translocação Bacteriana/imunologia , Células CACO-2 , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Íleo/citologia , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/microbiologia , Íleo/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
10.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(12)2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276973

RESUMO

Communities of gut bacteria (microbiota) are known to play roles in resistance to pathogen infection and optimal weight gain in turkey flocks. However, knowledge of turkey respiratory microbiota and its link to gut microbiota is lacking. This study presents a 16S rRNA gene-based census of the turkey respiratory microbiota (nasal cavity and trachea) alongside gut microbiota (cecum and ileum) in two identical commercial Hybrid Converter turkey flocks raised in parallel under typical field commercial conditions. The flocks were housed in adjacent barns during the brood stage and in geographically separated farms during the grow-out stage. Several bacterial taxa, primarily Staphylococcus, that were acquired in the respiratory tract at the beginning of the brood stage persisted throughout the flock cycle. Late-emerging predominant taxa in the respiratory tract included Deinococcus and Corynebacterium Tracheal and nasal microbiota of turkeys were identifiably distinct from one another and from gut microbiota. Nevertheless, gut and respiratory microbiota changed in parallel over time and appeared to share many taxa. During the brood stage, the two flocks generally acquired similar gut and respiratory microbiota, and their average body weights were comparable. However, there were qualitative and quantitative differences in microbial profiles and body weight gain trajectories after the flocks were transferred to geographically separated grow-out farms. Lower weight gain corresponded to the emergence of Deinococcus and Ornithobacterium in the respiratory tract and Fusobacterium and Parasutterella in gut. This study provides an overview of turkey microbiota under field conditions and suggests several hypotheses concerning the respiratory microbiome.IMPORTANCE Turkey meat is an important source of animal protein, and the industry around its production contributes significantly to the agricultural economy. The microorganisms present in the gut of turkeys are known to impact bird health and flock performance. However, the respiratory microbiota in turkeys is entirely unexplored. This study has elucidated the microbiota of respiratory tracts of turkeys from two commercial flocks raised in parallel throughout a normal flock cycle. Further, the study suggests that bacteria originating in the gut or in poultry house environments influence respiratory communities; consequently, they induce poor performance, either directly or indirectly. Future attempts to develop microbiome-based interventions for turkey health should delimit the contributions of respiratory microbiota and aim to limit disturbances to those communities.


Assuntos
Ceco/microbiologia , Íleo/microbiologia , Microbiota , Cavidade Nasal/microbiologia , Traqueia/microbiologia , Perus/microbiologia , Ganho de Peso , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Masculino
11.
Microbiologyopen ; 9(7): e1036, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239666

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes watery diarrhea in piglets. Little is known regarding the alteration of the gut microbiota in PDCoV-induced diarrhea piglets. In this study, 5-day-old piglets were experimentally infected with PDCoV strain CH-01, and all piglets developed typical clinical disease, characterized by acute and severe watery diarrhea. Histologic lesions were limited to the villous epithelium of the duodenum and ileum. Gut microbiota profiles in the colon and feces of piglets inoculated with PDCoV were investigated using 16S rRNA sequencing. The results showed that PDCoV infection reduced bacterial diversity and significantly altered the composition of the microbiota from the phylum to the genus level in the colon and feces of piglets. Firmicutes (phylum), Lactobacillaceae (family), and Lactobacillus (genus) were significantly increased (p < .01), while the abundance of Bacteroidetes (phylum) was markedly reduced in the colon and feces of the PDCoV-infected piglets (p < .01) when compared to those of the healthy piglets. Furthermore, microbial function prediction indicated that the changes in the intestinal flora also affected the nucleotide transport and metabolism, defense, translation, and transcription function of the intestinal microbiota. The current study provides new insight into the pathology and physiology of PDCoV.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Colo/microbiologia , Duodeno/microbiologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Íleo/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Fezes/microbiologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/virologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
12.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 2078-2086, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241493

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on growth performance, immunity, antioxidant capacity, relative organ weight, jejunum morphology, ileal microflora, and meat quality in Pekin ducks. A total of 1,500 female 1-day-old Pekin ducklings (52.0 ± 0.2 g) were blocked based on body weight (BW) and randomly allocated into 3 treatments with 10 replicates of 50 birds each. The experiment lasted for 6 wk, and dietary treatments included corn-soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 0.01, and 0.02% GSE. The supplementation of GSE increased (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG) and final BW linearly but decreased (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio (F/G) linearly during day (D) 22 to 42 and the entire experiment. The inclusion of GSE increased (P < 0.05) serum superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, total antioxidative capacity, catalase, complement4, immunoglobin G, interleukin-2, and interferon-γ linearly but decreased (P < 0.05) serum malondialdehyde linearly. The relative weight of carcass, breast meat, and spleen in GSE treatments was increased (P < 0.05) linearly, whereas the relative weight of abdominal fat was decreased linearly (P < 0.05). Birds fed GSE1 and GSE2 diets had lower (P < 0.05) cook loss, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and drip loss on day 3 and 5 linearly but higher (P < 0.05) pH24h and water-holding capacity. The addition of GSE decreased (P < 0.05) jejunum crypt depth and ileal Escherichia coli counts linearly but increased (P < 0.05) jejunum villus height: crypt depth ratio and ileal Lactobacilli linearly. Taken together, the inclusion of GSE increased final BW and BWG, decreased F/G during day 22 to 42 and day 1 to 42, partially improved antioxidant activities, immunity, meat quality, and gut health in Pekin ducks.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Patos/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/metabolismo , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Carne/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Patos/imunologia , Patos/microbiologia , Feminino , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/administração & dosagem , Íleo/microbiologia , Jejuno/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2988, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076066

RESUMO

Crohn's disease causes chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract and its pathogenesis remains unclear. In the intestine of Crohn's disease patients, CD14+CD11+CD163low macrophages contribute to inflammation through the induction of Th17 cells and production of inflammatory cytokines; the CD14+CD11c+163high fraction is anti-inflammatory through the production of IL-10 in normal cases. In this report, the 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing method was used to identify bacteria that are specifically present in intestinal CD14+CD11c+ macrophages of Crohn's disease patients. Bacteria present in intestinal CD14+CD11c+ macrophages and mucus of Crohn's disease patients were separated into different clusters in principal coordinates analysis. There was a statistically significant increase in the relative composition of CD14+CD11c+ macrophages from mucus in two phyla (Proteobacteria [p = 0.01] and Actinobacteria [p = 0.02]) and two families (Moraxellaceae [p < 0.001] and Pseudomonadaceae [p = 0.01]). In addition, OTU-1: Acinetobacter and OTU-8: Pseudomonadaceae tended to concentrate in the CD14+CD11c+CD163low subset, whereas OTU-10: Proteus, OTU-15: Collinsella tended to concentrate more in the CD14+CD11c+CD163high subset than the other subset and mucus.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Gammaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Íleo/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Gammaproteobacteria/genética , Gammaproteobacteria/imunologia , Humanos , Íleo/citologia , Íleo/imunologia , Íleo/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto Jovem
14.
Animal ; 14(6): 1156-1166, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026796

RESUMO

To further understand the contribution of feedstuff ingredients to gut health in swine, gut histology and intestinal bacterial profiles associated with the use of two high-quality protein sources, microbially enhanced soybean meal (MSBM) and Menhaden fishmeal (FM) were assessed. Weaned pigs were fed one of three experimental diets: (1) basic diet containing corn and soybean meal (Negative Control (NEG)), (2) basic diet + fishmeal (FM; Positive Control (POS)) and (3) basic diet + MSBM (MSBM). Phase I POS and MSBM diets (d 0 to d 7 post-wean) included FM or MSBM at 7.5%, while Phase II POS and MSBM diets (d 8 to d 21) included FM or MSBM at 5.0%. Gastrointestinal tissue and ileal digesta were collected from euthanised pigs at d 21 (eight pigs/diet) to assess gut histology and intestinal bacterial profiles, respectively. Data were analysed using Proc Mixed in SAS, with pig as the experimental unit and pig (treatment) as the random effect. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses of stomach and small intestinal tissue using haematoxylin-eosin, Periodic Acid Schiff/Alcian blue and inflammatory cell staining did not reveal detectable differences in host response to dietary treatment. Ileal bacterial composition profiles were obtained from next-generation sequencing of PCR generated amplicons targeting the V1 to V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Lactobacillus-affiliated sequences were found to be the most highly represented across treatments, with an average relative abundance of 64.0%, 59.9% and 41.80% in samples from pigs fed the NEG, POS and MSBM diets, respectively. Accordingly, the three most abundant Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were affiliated to Lactobacillus, showing a distinct abundance pattern relative to dietary treatment. One OTU (SD_Ssd_00001), most closely related to Lactobacillus amylovorus, was found to be more abundant in NEG and POS samples compared to MSBM (23.5% and 35.0% v. 9.2%). Another OTU (SD_Ssd_00002), closely related to Lactobacillus johnsonii, was more highly represented in POS and MSBM samples compared to NEG (14.0% and 15.8% v. 0.1%). Finally, OTU Sd_Ssd-00011, highest sequence identity to Lactobacillus delbrueckii, was found in highest abundance in ileal samples from MSBM-fed pigs (1.9% and 3.3% v. 11.3, in POS, NEG and MSBM, respectively). There was no effect of protein source on bacterial taxa to the genus level or diversity based on principal component analysis. Dietary protein source may provide opportunity to enhance presence of specific members of Lactobacillus genus that are associated with immune-modulating properties without altering overall intestinal bacterial diversity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Suínos/microbiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Íleo/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Soja , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/fisiologia , Desmame , Zea mays
15.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 1096-1106, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029146

RESUMO

We studied the microbial profiles of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum during different developmental stages in the duck using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We also investigated the differences in the microbiota in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum at different developmental times. A correlation analysis was performed between the most abundant bacterial genera and the development of the small intestine. An analysis of alpha diversity indicated different species richness and bacterial diversity in the different small intestinal segments and at different development times. A beta diversity analysis indicated differences in the bacterial community compositions across time. In a weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis, the samples clustered into two categories, 2 to 4 wk and 6 to 10 wk, in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Our results show that the small intestine is predominantly populated by the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria throughout the developmental stages of the duck. The duodenum, jejunum, and ileum shared most of the bacterial phyla and genera present, although they showed significant differences in their relative abundances in the intestinal segments and developmental stages. They shared different bacterial taxa during development times and among different segments when the intergroup differences were analyzed. The genera Bacillus, Corynebacterium 1, Lactococcus, Sphingomonas, and Haliangium correlated moderately positively with the increase in bodyweight and the lengths and weights of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and these genera may be considered important markers when assessing the heath of the intestinal microbiota in ducks. This study provides a foundation upon which to extend our knowledge of the diversity and composition of the duck microbiota and a basis for further studies of the management of the small intestinal microbiota and improvements in the health and production of ducks.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Patos/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Duodeno/microbiologia , Íleo/microbiologia , Jejuno/microbiologia , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
16.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 6028606, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104535

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii (LAB) on intestinal morphology, barrier function, immune response, and antioxidant capacity in weaned piglets challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 36 two-line crossbred (Landrace × large Yorkshire) weaned piglets (28 days old) were divided into three groups: (1) nonchallenged control (CON); (2) LPS-challenged control (LPS); and (3) LAB+LPS treatment (0.2% LAB+LPS). Compared to the LPS piglets, the LAB+LPS piglets improved intestinal morphology, indicated by greater (P < 0.05) villus height in the duodenum and ileum; villus height : crypt depth ratio in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, as well as decreased (P < 0.05) crypt depth in the jejunum and ileum; and better intestinal barrier function, indicated by upregulated (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of tight junction proteins in the intestinal mucosa. Moreover, compared to the LPS piglets, LAB significantly decreased (P < 0.05) concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1ß in the small intestine and increased (P < 0.05) IL-10 levels in the jejunum and ileum. Additionally, LAB increased (P < 0.05) T-AOC activities of the colon, GSH concentrations of the jejunum, and mRNA expression of CAT and Cu/Zn-SOD, while reduced (P < 0.05) MDA concentrations in the jejunum and ileum in LPS-changed piglets. Collectively, our results indicate that supplementation of LAB improved intestinal integrity and immune response and alleviated intestinal oxidative damage in LPS-challenged piglets.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/fisiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Duodeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Duodeno/metabolismo , Duodeno/microbiologia , Feminino , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/metabolismo , Íleo/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/metabolismo , Jejuno/microbiologia , Masculino , Suínos , Desmame
17.
FASEB J ; 34(1): 1430-1446, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914707

RESUMO

Gut microbiota and intestinal barrier co-develop after birth, establishing a homeostatic state whereby mucosal cells cohabit with commensal bacteria. We hypothesized that this post-natal co-development follows different timings depending on the intestinal site considered. Jejunal, ileal, and colonic luminal contents and mucosa were sampled in suckling piglets at post-natal day (PND) 0, 2, 7, 14, and 28. Jejunal, ileal, and colonic luminal microbiota (evaluated by 16S DNA sequencing followed by beta-diversity analysis) clustered at PND2 but colonic microbiota diverge afterwards (P < .05). Mucosal permeability, evaluated in Ussing chambers, increased with age in the jejunum and ileum (P < .05) but not the colon. Expression of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) exhibited different patterns (gradual or sharp increase, decrease, or no change with age, P < .05) depending on PRR and intestinal site considered. Principal component analysis of mucosa data revealed clear clustering of colonic samples, irrespective of the age and clustering of jejunal and ileal samples, with gradual changes with age. Correlation analysis highlighted three families correlating with mucosal parameters: Enterobacteriaceae in the jejunum, Peptostreptococcaceae in the ileum, and Micrococcaceae in the colon. In conclusion, small and large intestine display close microbiota composition early in life but distinct mucosal phenotype and follow very different post-natal development.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Colo/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Íleo/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Jejuno/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos
18.
Can J Microbiol ; 66(4): 288-302, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986063

RESUMO

Characterization of the microbiota of chickens is of current interest. The goals of the current study were to apply anaerobic isolation methods to comprehensively isolate and identify bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of chickens and their environment. Bacterial communities within the drinking water were dominated by Escherichia, whereas communities in litter were more representative of the cecum. The crop and small intestine (jejunum and ileum) were dominated by Lactobacillus and Enterococcus spp., and the cecum was dominated by Proteus spp. The collection of bacteria isolated was dominated by Enterococcus spp., Escherichia/Shigella spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Proteus spp.; however, many rare taxa were observed. These included members of the Clostridiales and Clostridium spp., which were commonly isolated from the ileum and cecum. Bacteria isolated by enrichment and direct plating differed. The selective de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe agar was commonly associated with the isolation of Lactobacillus spp. and yielded the lowest diversity of all methods utilized. Increased diversity and frequency of Clostridium spp. was observed in enrichments of blood and mucus or by plating on Columbia agar supplemented with 10% blood and gentamicin. The bacteria isolated from this study provide source material for genomic and functional studies in chicken hosts.


Assuntos
Bactérias Anaeróbias/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Anaeróbias/classificação , Bactérias Anaeróbias/genética , Ceco/microbiologia , Íleo/microbiologia , Filogenia
19.
Animal ; 14(6): 1147-1155, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937375

RESUMO

Wheat bran (WB) is an important side product of the milling industry and can serve as dietary fiber compound for monogastric animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of native or fermented WB on the gut physiology and microbiology of laying hens. To accomplish this, 24 laying hens were fed the following diets: conventional diet without WB; 15% native WB in the diet; 15% WB fermented with Pleurotus eryngii; and 15% WB fermented with P. eryngii and a lactic acid bacterial culture. Immediately after slaughtering, digesta samples were taken from the jejunum, ileum and cecum, respectively. Total DNA was extracted and subsequently investigated with 16S DNA amplicon sequencing. Neither native nor fermented WB supplementations negatively affected the feed conversion ratio, laying performance or the relative abundances and alpha-diversity of microbiota in the intestine. Effects of WB-based diets on gut morphology were only recognized in the jejunum (reduced villum height and mucosa thickness). Likewise, WB supplementation decreased the digestibility of DM and starch. Based on these findings, it was demonstrated that different WB variants are applicable without exerting practically negative consequences on performance or on gut microbiota. Fermentation improved the digestibility/retention of dietary fat and phosphorus. However, no further beneficial effects were observed. This study also allowed a more in-depth view on the laying hens' gut microbiome and its variation within the gut segments.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/microbiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Fermentação , Íleo/microbiologia , Jejuno/microbiologia
20.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778535

RESUMO

An acidic thermostable xylanase (AT-xynA) which was stable at low pH and high temperature was considered to have great potential in animal feed. For large-scale production, AT-xynA activity was enhanced about 1-fold in Pichia pastoris by constructing a double-copy expression strain in this study. Furthermore, impacts of different AT-xynA levels on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, short-chain fatty acids, and bacterial community in weaned piglets were determined. Compared with the control group, ADFI and ADG were higher for the pigs fed 4,000 or 6,000 U/kg AT-xynA (P < 0.05). AT-xynA supplementation also significantly increased the digestibility of OM, GE, and DM (P < 0.05). AT-xynA supplementation increased the concentrations of acetate in ileal (P < 0.01) and cecal digesta (P < 0.05). Isobutyrate (P < 0.05) and valerate (P < 0.05) concentrations in colonic digesta also significantly increased compared with the control group. AT-xynA supplementation increased the abundance of Lactobacillus in the ileal, cecal, and colonic digesta of weaned piglets (P < 0.05). AT-xynA alleviated anti-nutritional effects of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) by preventing the growth of Pateurella and Leptotrichia in the ileum (P < 0.05). AT-xynA increased the abundance of NSP-degrading bacteria, such as Ruminococcaceae, Prevotella in the cecum and colon (P < 0.05). In summary, AT-xynA addition could improve the growth performance of weaned piglets by altering gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Pichia/enzimologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Íleo/microbiologia , Masculino , Nutrientes , Polissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
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