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1.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 13(4): 216-226, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193461

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Academia is experiencing massive reforms globally amid lockdown in COVID-19 outbreak. This study is aimed to apprehend the enabling and impeding factors of these reforms, with a focus on optometry education. It brings together how the Indian optometry educational system has responded to COVID-19 disruptions with findings of the 2020 survey, in light of similar survey done in 2018. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey was designed to find changes in optometry training and adaptations of Indian optometry educators amid COVID 19 lockdown. In the last week of April 2020, on the observation that the majority of optometry institutions have switched their teaching-learning activities on e-learning mode, an online survey was conducted using a validated questionnaire containing a mix of open and close-ended questions. RESULTS: Seventy-three out of 78 optometry educators (93.58%) have switched to e-learning mode in a very short time span with good confidence. Most teaching-learning and assessment activities are carried out using multi-device supporting video conferencing tools, dedicated educational portals and social media apps. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic is proving to be a constructive disruptor, giving an opportunity for restructuring the present conventional, classroom based educational system. The quick transitions to online mode assisted in keeping continuity of optometry education programs, effectively fitting in the purpose of completion of the current academic year. The rapid transition to online education has not only benefited optometry students but also has created a momentum of continued education for practicing optometrist in the country


PROPÓSITO: La Academia está experimentando reformas masivas a nivel mundial en medio del bloqueo del brote del COVID-19. Este estudio tiene como objetivo aprehender los factores favorables y desfavorables de estas reformas, con un enfoque en la educación de la optometría. Reúne cómo el sistema educativo de optometría de la India ha respondido a los trastornos del COVID-19 con los resultados de la encuesta de 2020, a la luz de una encuesta similar realizada en 2018. METODOLOGÍA: Una encuesta transversal fue diseñada para encontrar cambios en la formación de optometría y adaptaciones de los educadores de optometría de la India en medio del cierre del COVID 19. En la última semana de abril de 2020, a partir de la observación de que la mayoría de las instituciones de optometría han cambiado sus actividades de enseñanza-aprendizaje en el modo de aprendizaje electrónico, se realizó una encuesta en línea utilizando un cuestionario validado que contenía una mezcla de preguntas abiertas y cerradas. RESULTADOS: Setenta y tres de 78 educadores de optometría (93,58%) han cambiado a la modalidad de aprendizaje electrónico en un período de tiempo muy corto con buena confianza. La mayoría de las actividades de enseñanza-aprendizaje y evaluación se llevan a cabo utilizando herramientas de videoconferencia de apoyo multidispositivo, portales educativos dedicados y aplicaciones de redes sociales. CONCLUSIÓN: La pandemia del COVID-19 está demostrando ser un disruptor constructivo, que ofrece la oportunidad de reestructurar el actual sistema educativo convencional basado en el aula. Las rápidas transiciones al modo online ayudaron a mantener la continuidad de los programas educativos de optometría, encajando eficazmente en el propósito de completar el año académico actual. La rápida transición a la educación en línea no sólo ha beneficiado a los estudiantes de optometría, sino que también ha creado un impulso de educación continua para los optometristas en ejercicio en el país


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pneumonia Viral , Pandemias , Optometria/educação , Educação a Distância , Acesso à Internet , Comunicação por Videoconferência , Estudos Transversais , Índia
2.
Zootaxa ; 4772(2): zootaxa.4772.2.3, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055613

RESUMO

A checklist of earthworm species hitherto recorded from North Eastern Region (NER) of India is presented. In total, 128 species/subspecies belonging to 26 genera spread over 9 families are listed. Of these, 72 species are recognized as endemics, 18 as near endemics, 5 as native peregrines and 32 as exotics. The checklist includes literature citation to the original description, type locality, important synonyms and the state-wise distributional records for each species/subspecies.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Animais , Índia
3.
Zootaxa ; 4780(1): zootaxa.4780.1.9, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055762

RESUMO

This paper provides a detailed description of a new species of genus Aspidonema isolated from mint leaf beetles (Chrysolina herbacea), and is the first report of a bunonematid nematode from beetles in India. Aspidonema kashmirensis sp. nov. is characterised by females having small, asymmetrical body (L = 224-337µm, a = 13.1-20.3, b = 3.2-4.2, c = 7.2-10.7, c' = 4.0-5.7, V = 53.3-60.0), with the right side body cuticle ornamented with shields, warts and networks while the left side is provided with five longitudinal ridges. The shields are transversely-ovoid, having strongly sclerotized borders and a pair of elliptical slits for the underlying warts. Fine pores observed under SEM are present on the surface of the shields. Males have a bifid tail; long, thin, free spicules, distally hooked gubernaculum; asymmetrical, leptoderan bursa and eight pairs of genital papillae.


Assuntos
Besouros , Mentha , Rabditídios , Animais , Feminino , Genitália , Índia , Masculino
4.
Zootaxa ; 4779(2): zootaxa.4779.2.7, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055791

RESUMO

Mites of the family Athyreacaridae are recorded from Asia for the first time. Two new species of Athyreacarus are described, A. indicus sp. nov., collected on the beetles Bolbohamatum laevicolle and B. marginale in India, and A. brevisetosus sp. nov., collected on a beetle Bolboceras sp. in Sri Lanka. An updated key to species of the genus Athyreacarus is provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Ácaros , Animais , Índia , Sri Lanka
5.
Zootaxa ; 4778(2): zootaxa.4778.2.5, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055823

RESUMO

A new species of the shieldtail snake genus Rhinophis is described based on a type series of seven recently collected specimens from the Wayanad region of the Western Ghats of peninsular India. Rhinophis melanoleucus sp. nov. is diagnosed based on a combination of 15 dorsal scale rows at (or just behind) midbody, more than 215 ventral scales and a long rostral. The new species also has a distinctive (mostly black and white) colouration. A new key to the identification of Indian species of Rhinophis is provided.


Assuntos
Serpentes , Animais , Cor , Ecossistema , Índia
6.
Zootaxa ; 4820(3): zootaxa.4820.3.10, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056063

RESUMO

The adult female and first instar nymph of a new species of Marsipococcus Cockerell Bueker (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) from India, M. christopheri Joshi sp. n. are described and illustrated. A key to separate the three species in this genus is provided.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Piper nigrum , Animais , Feminino , Índia , Ninfa
7.
Zootaxa ; 4822(3): zootaxa.4822.3.11, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056285

RESUMO

Tagasta mizoramensis sp. nov. is described from Dampa Wildlife Sanctuary, Mizoram, India. The type specimens are deposited in the Central Entomological Laboratory, Zoological survey of India.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Índia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4786(3): zootaxa.4786.3.5, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056474

RESUMO

The small braconid subfamily, Ichneutinae is one of the least studied groups within the Braconidae. Old world species of the widely distributed ichneutine genus, Paroligoneurus (unknown from the Neotropical region) is revised along with description of a new species, P. harishi Ranjith van Achterberg sp. nov. We reinstate the genera Anaprixia Mason and Muesebeckia Mason based on the following characters; exodont mandibles and absence of spiracles in the alternate tergites (in Anaprixia) and presence of carinae on propodeum and anterior subalar depression with carina (in Muesebeckia). Five species, Paroligoneurus cosmopterygivorus (He, 2000), P. crassicornis (He, 2000), P. flavifacialis (He, 2000), P. sinensis (He, 2000) and P. songyangensis (He, 2000) were described from the Oriental part of China are transferred from Oligoneurus to Paroligoneurus. A taxonomic key to the Old world species Paroligoneurus and a provisional checklist of extant species are provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Himenópteros , Animais , Índia , Masculino
9.
Zootaxa ; 4780(3): zootaxa.4780.3.6, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056515

RESUMO

A new species of Sarmydus Pascoe, 1867, S. bagh sp. nov., is described from north India and adjacent countries based on the habitus of both male and female, and male genitalia characters. Detailed taxonomic investigations reveal previous misidentification of several specimens from India of the new species as S. antennatus Pascoe, 1867. Accordingly, Sarmydus antennatus Pascoe, 1867 is removed from the Indian fauna. Photographs of the holotype of S. antennatus are provided, and the characters of this species discussed in detail. DNA barcoding analysis of the Himalayan Sarmydus species has been done for the confirmation of the new species. This analysis depicts significant genetic divergences of >14% between S. bagh sp. nov. and its congeners, thus, sufficiently supporting morphological interpretations.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Feminino , Índia , Masculino
10.
Zootaxa ; 4768(2): zootaxa.4768.2.4, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056524

RESUMO

An annotated checklist of the mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda) occurring in India is compiled from published literature and specimens collected from coastal areas of Gujarat state. A total of 72 species, 35 genera, 10 families and 5 superfamilies reported from Indian waters are listed. Four species were recorded for the first time from Gujarat while one species, Erugosquilla hesperia (Manning, 1968), is confirmed for the first time from India. The maximum number of species was reported from Tamil Nadu (48 species), while fewest species were reported from Karnataka (2 species). The results also suggest that the east coast is more diverse (66 species) than the west coast of India (32 species).


Assuntos
Crustáceos , Mantódeos , Animais , Índia
11.
Zootaxa ; 4766(1): zootaxa.4766.1.11, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056613

RESUMO

The little-known spider wasp genus Machaerothrix Haupt, 1938 is recorded for the first time from India with the description and illustrations of both sexes of a seventh species from the World. The biology, habitat, prey preference and transport, nest structure and nesting behaviour of the new species is studied and the association of the wasps with salticid spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) is here validated.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Vespas , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Índia , Masculino , Comportamento de Nidação
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1559, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition among under five children in India is a major public health problem. Despite India's growth in the economy, the child mortality rate due to undernutrition is still high in both urban and rural areas. Studies that focus on urban slums are scarce. Hence the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence and determinants of undernutrition in children under five in Maharashtra, India. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 randomly selected clusters in two districts of Maharashtra state, India. Data were collected through house to house survey by interviewing mothers of under five children. Total 2929 mothers and their 3671 under five children were covered. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify the determinants of child nutritional status seperately in urban and rural areas. RESULTS: The mean age of the children was 2.38 years (±SD 1.36) and mean age of mothers was 24.25 years (± SD 6.37). Overall prevalence of stunting among children under five was 45.9%, wasting was 17.1 and 35.4% children were underweight. Prevalence of wasting, stunting and underweight were more seen in an urban slum than a rural area. In the rural areas exclusive breast feeding (p < 0.001) and acute diarrhea (p = 0.001) were associated with wasting, children with birth order 2 or less than 2 were associated with stunting and exclusive breast feeding (p < 0.05) and low maternal education were associated with underweight. Whereas in the urban slums exclusive breast feeding (p < 0.05) was associated with wasting, sex of the child (p < 0.05) and type of family (p < 0.05) were associated with stunting,and low income of the family (p < 0.05) was associated with underweight. CONCLUSIONS: Factors like sex of the child, birth order,exclusive breast feeding,economic status of the family, type of family,acute diarrhea and maternal education have influence on nutritional status of the child. Improvement of maternal education will improve the nutritional status of the child. Strategies are needed to improve the economic status of the community. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number: CTRI/2017/12/010881 ; Registration date:14/12/2017. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Áreas de Pobreza , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841593

RESUMO

Objective: Amid the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health care workers of multiple disciplines have been designated as frontline doctors. This unforeseen situation has led to psychological problems among these health care workers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mental health status of pan-Indian frontline doctors combating the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted among frontline doctors of tertiary care hospitals in India (East: Kolkata, West Bengal; North: New Delhi; West: Nagpur, Maharashtra; and South: Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala) from May 23, 2020, to June 6, 2020. Doctors involved in clinical services in outpatient departments, designated COVID-19 wards, screening blocks, fever clinics, and intensive care units completed an online questionnaire. The 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the Perceived Stress Scale were used to assess depression and perceived stress. Results: The results of 422 responses revealed a 63.5% and 45% prevalence of symptoms of depression and stress, respectively, among frontline COVID-19 doctors. Postgraduate trainees constituted the majority (45.5%) of the respondents. Moderately severe and severe depression was noted in 14.2% and 3.8% of the doctors, respectively. Moderate and severe stress was noted in 37.4% and 7.6% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis showed working ≥ 6 hours/day (adjusted odds ratio: 3.5; 95% CI, 1.9-6.3; P < .0001) to be a significant risk factor for moderate or severe perceived stress, while single relationship status (adjusted odds ratio: 2.9; 95% CI, 1.5-5.9; P = .002) and working ≥ 6 hours/day (adjusted odds ratio: 10.3; 95% CI, 4.3-24.6; P < .0001) significantly contributed to the development of moderate, moderately severe, or severe depression. Conclusions: The pandemic has taken a serious toll on the physical and mental health of doctors, as evident from our study. Regular screening of medical personnel involved in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COVID-19 should be conducted to evaluate for stress, anxiety, and depression.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Médicos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
14.
Global Health ; 16(1): 93, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak, called coronavirus disease - 2019 (COVID-19), has affected more than 200 countries across the globe with a higher fatality rate among the elderly population. Aim of the study is to highlight the vulnerability of the aged amidst the current COVID-19 pandemic, and in the light of the recent international evidence, suggests what government could do to mitigate their vulnerability. METHODS: Data from the recently released (November 2019) 75th Round National Sample Survey (NSS), which was conducted from July 2017 to June 2018, across 8077 rural villages and 6181 urban wards was used for this study. Data collected from 555,115 individuals (rural: 325,232; urban: 229,232) included 42,762 elderly individuals (60 years or above). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used for the calculation. RESULTS: Of the total sample of elderly individuals, 27.7% reported suffering from an ailment in the last 15 days, whereas 8.5% had been hospitalized during the last 365 days. Among the elderly, hospitalization rate was higher in the urban areas (OR: 1.23), general social category (OR: 1.18), richest economic quintile (OR: 1.69), and among those living alone (OR: 2.40). Also, among the elderly, 64% of those in the scheduled tribe (social group) and 51% in the poorest economic quintile utilized public facilities for hospitalization. Cardiovascular ailments were the major cause for hospitalization (18.1%) and outpatient visit (32%) among the elderly. Ailments related to diabetes and hypertension constituted 55% of outpatient visit for the elderly. Only 18.9% of the elderly had health insurance though chances of facing catastrophic health expenditures were high among the elderly. 6.6% of elderly female and 1.6% male live alone, and 27.5% of age 80 years and above are immobile. 50% of male and 90% of female are financially dependent on others and more so in poorer economic quintiles. CONCLUSIONS: The vulnerability of India's elderly increases across economic levels, and other dimensions such as the place of residence, gender, social group (caste), marital status, living arrangements, surviving children, and economic dependence. The current COVID-19 pandemic poses a greater risk of social isolation among the elderly, which may cause detrimental health impact. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable since the study is based on secondary data.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Equidade em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 709, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068180

RESUMO

This investigation aimed to assess the impacts of integrated industrial wastewater (IIW) irrigation on soil properties in the rural area of Haridwar, India, under cultivation of a leafy vegetable, i.e., spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Based on the field data of two cropping years (2016-2017 and 2017-2018), soil characteristics-based prediction models were developed to evaluate heavy metals (HM) uptake by spinach tissues (roots and leaves) using the multivariate regression method. The results showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the growth and productivity of spinach plants in IIW irrigated soils as compared to normal borewell water irrigation. For the prediction models, soil parameters including pH, organic matter (%), and HM (mg/Kg) availability showed a significant effect on the HM absorption process by spinach tissues. Besides this, the models were tested using ANOVA (P < 0.001), Student's t test, model efficiency (> 0.50), and coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.81) tools. Furthermore, the prediction models were also verified for their applicability in the 2018-2019 cropping year which gave satisfactory outcomes. The findings of this investigation are important in terms of predicting hazardous HM accumulation in the vegetable crops being grown in wastewater irrigated soils.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Índia , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Spinacia oleracea , Águas Residuárias
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 711, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070264

RESUMO

The escalating demand for anthropic needs and urban development has highlighted the importance of monitoring and change detection of land use land cover (LULC). With an increase in agricultural expansion and infrastructural development, every land surface on earth calls for a long-term investigation of land modification patterns and their underlying contributory factors. The present investigation monitors the LULC changes and assesses the process controls in Kohima and Dimapur districts of Nagaland, India. Currently, these two districts encompassing the main urban cities of the hilly state are experiencing rapid urbanization and unplanned developmental activities. Alike any other LULC changes observed in unplanned and developing cities, these districts are likely to face environmental degradation, and particularly, the occurrence of frequent landslides and flash floods. The study has three objectives-(i) LULC mapping of Kohima and Dimapur districts for three periods (1998, 2008, and 2018), (ii) comparative analysis of LULC change patterns in the two districts during the three epochs (1998-2008, 2008-2018, and 1998-2018), and (iii) assessment of the contributory factors. For the study, remotely sensed LANDSAT images (TM and OLI) in Geographical Information System (GIS) platform were utilized along with field surveys. Supervised classification technique was employed and four major LULC classes were identified using Landsat level-1 classification system. The overall accuracy of the classification varied between 91 and 98%. Results showed that Built Up areas have increased significantly in both the districts at the rate of 322.6 ha/year in Kohima and 301.9 ha/year in Dimapur during 1998-2018. On the other hand, Agricultural Land and Forest Land declined in both districts. Changes in LULC were mainly due to marginalization of shifting cultivation, deforestation, infrastructural development, urban migration, and flourishing of aquaculture farming. This study furnishes baseline information on LULC in the data-scarce region of Northeast India and is an insinuation to the policy-makers to ensure sustainable land use planning in the face of rapid urbanization.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Urbanização , Agricultura , Cidades , Índia
17.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4225-4230, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027359

RESUMO

There is credible evidence that the 1984-Bhopal-methyl isocyanate (MIC)-gas-exposed long-term survivors and their offspring born post-exposure are susceptible to infectious/communicable and non-communicable diseases. Bhopal's COVID-19 fatality rate suggests that the MIC-gas tragedy survivors are at higher risk, owing to a weakened immune system and co-morbidities. This situation emboldened us to ponder over what we know, what we don't, and what we should know about their susceptibility to COVID-19. This article aims at answering these three questions that emerge in the minds of public health officials concerning prevention strategies against COVID-19 and health promotion in the Bhopal MIC-affected population (BMAP). Our views and opinions presented in this article will draw attention to prevent and reduce the consequences of COVID-19 in BMAP. From the perspective of COVID-19 prophylaxis, the high-risk individuals from BMAP with co-morbidities need to be identified through a door-to-door visit to the severely gas-affected regions and advised to maintain good respiratory hygiene, regular intake of immune-boosting diet, and follow healthy lifestyle practices.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Isocianatos/toxicidade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sobreviventes , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desastres , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Índia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Autocuidado , Populações Vulneráveis
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 740, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From 2016, the Government of India introduced the oral rotavirus vaccine into the national immunization schedule. Currently, two indigenously developed vaccines (ROTAVAC, Bharat Biotech; ROTASIIL, Serum Institute of India) are included in the Indian immunization program. We report the rotavirus disease burden and the diversity of rotavirus genotypes from 2005 to 2016 in a multi-centric surveillance study before the introduction of vaccines. METHODS: A total of 29,561 stool samples collected from 2005 to 2016 (7 sites during 2005-2009, 3 sites from 2009 to 2012, and 28 sites during 2012-2016) were included in the analysis. Stools were tested for rotavirus antigen using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Genotyping was performed on 65.8% of the EIA positive samples using reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify the G (VP7) and P (VP4) types. Multinomial logistic regression was used to quantify the odds of detecting genotypes across the surveillance period and in particular age groups. RESULTS: Of the 29,561 samples tested, 10,959 (37.1%) were positive for rotavirus. There was a peak in rotavirus positivity during December to February across all sites. Of the 7215 genotyped samples, G1P[8] (38.7%) was the most common, followed by G2P[4] (12.3%), G9P[4] (5.8%), G12P[6] (4.2%), G9P[8] (4%), and G12P[8] (2.4%). Globally, G9P[4] and G12P[6] are less common genotypes, although these genotypes have been reported from India and few other countries. There was a variation in the geographic and temporal distribution of genotypes, and the emergence or re-emergence of new genotypes such as G3P[8] was seen. Over the surveillance period, there was a decline in the proportion of G2P[4], and an increase in the proportion of G9P[4]. A higher proportion of mixed and partially typed/untyped samples was also seen more in the age group 0-11 months. CONCLUSIONS: This 11 years surveillance highlights the high burden of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in Indian children < 5 years of age before inclusion of rotavirus vaccines in the national programme. Regional variations in rotavirus epidemiology were seen, including the emergence of G3P[8] in the latter part of the surveillance. Having pre-introduction data is important to track changing epidemiology of rotaviruses, particularly following vaccine introduction.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Hospitalização , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/genética , Doença Aguda , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia
19.
J Surg Oncol ; 122(5): 839-843, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global health emergency and affected the resources in both the public and private health sectors significantly. The present study aims to assess the impact of the pandemic on the services by the department in the first 3 months since the first COVID case in the region. METHODS: The study period was from 16 March to 15 June 2020. We queried the database for data on site of the tumor, diagnosis, stage, tumor board decisions and planning, surgical procedures, adjuvant treatment, and follow-up details. The change in tumor board decision and actual treatment taken by the patient were all recorded, taking into consideration the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Among the 1567 patient contacts, 1306 were out-patient visits and 261 teleconsultations. Fifty-four patients underwent surgery from the 87 admitted to the hospital. Ten preoperative patients and two postoperative patients were tested for COVID and reported to be negative. CONCLUSIONS: The dilemma of providing cancer surgery services to the patients in this pandemic has been global. Strict measures and guidelines can help to overcome the COVID pandemic time, keeping in mind the locoregional logistics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Oncologia Cirúrgica/organização & administração , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia
20.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(6): 1205-1216, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055410

RESUMO

In the present study, 24 green microalgae strains were isolated from selected aquatic sites of India. These were microscopically identified as Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Chlorella sp., Dictyosphaerium sp. and Dunaliella sp. Nannochloropsis sp. (MCC 25), was used as a reference strain. Results showed that Dictyosphaerium sp. (MCC 10 and MCC 12) showed relatively higher nutritive content. The total soluble proteins in the reference strain was 21.4%, whereas it showed carbohydrate content of 17.2% and the lipids were 3.4% on a dry weight basis. Best performing strains were identified by biochemical characterization. Five genera were selected for molecular identification since they were the most representative based upon their area of isolation and their optimum content of total soluble proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. 18S rRNA sequencing authenticated their identification as Scenedesmus sp., Dictyosphaerium sp. and Chlorella sp. The sequences of these have been submitted in NCBI database with accession numbers as KT808247-KT808251. The correlation matrix showed positive correlation between carbohydrates and lipids, while negative correlation was seen between proteins and carbohydrates and between proteins and lipids. This study emphasizes the need for complete compositional analysis of the biomass for the possible applicability in the area of value addition.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Chlorella/genética , Genes de RNAr , Índia , Microalgas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência
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