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1.
Zootaxa ; 4741(1): zootaxa.4741.1.1, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230226

RESUMO

This paper presents an updated catalog of all taxa of Leiodidae (s.lat.) reported from the Neotropical Region. Keys are presented for the identification of all subfamilies, tribes, and 62 described genera. Three undescribed genera are included in the keys. A total of 600 valid named species are listed, with type localities, type depositories, synonyms, distributions, and biologies where known, and some unnamed species as recorded in the literature. Many species remain to be described. In this work we formally establish no new synonyms and no new combinations although we may indicate the existence of these; but we add new records for described species, and we make spelling corrections of scientific names, when appropriate. A brief review of distribution patterns is given. The fauna has been derived partly from some Nearctic elements that have penetrated as far south as Bolivia. A few genera in the Neotropical element have penetrated the Nearctic Region as far north as the northern U.S.A. or southeastern Canada. Most of the Neotropical genera are autochthonous. In southern South America there is a diverse Neo-Austral fauna with clear "Transantarctic" relationships to Australia and New Zealand and weakly to southern Africa. Some genera variously occur on other continents.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , América Latina , México , América do Sul , Índias Ocidentais
2.
Zootaxa ; 4742(1): zootaxa.4742.1.1, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230388

RESUMO

Detection of previously unknown, dimorphic setal patterns on the carpus of the fifth thoracic endopod in types of Parvimysis bahamensis Brattegard, 1969, representing the type species of the genus Parvimysis Brattegard, 1969, required revision of this genus together with taxonomic verification of materials previously assigned to this species from all around the Caribbean. Study of this material together with new samples from marine waters of Curaçao led to the detection of five new species. Four of these species have a dimorphic carpus of the fifth endopod and are here described as P. pricei sp. nov., P. laminata sp. nov., P. brattegardi sp. nov., and P. ornata sp. nov. One species with non-dimorphic setal patterns is described as P. nuda sp. nov. Two species groups are defined based on structural differences of the carapace, mandibular and maxillary palpus, oostegites and telson: the P. bahamensis group with six species from marine waters of the Caribbean and an additional one from brackish-freshwaters of Surinam, versus the P. amazonica group with seven species from freshwaters of Amazonia. A key to the 14 species currently known from the genus Parvimysis is provided.


Assuntos
Moluscos , Animais , Região do Caribe , Índias Ocidentais
3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282845

RESUMO

The historic use of chlordecone (C10Cl10O) as a pesticide to control banana weevil infestations has resulted in pollution of large land areas in the French West Indies. Although currently banned, chlordecone persists because it adsorbs strongly to soil and its complex bis-homocubane structure is stable, particularly under aerobic conditions. Abiotic chemical transformation catalyzed by reduced vitamin B12 has been shown to break down chlordecone by opening the cage structure to produce C9 polychloroindenes. More recently these C9 polychloroindenes were also observed as products of anaerobic microbiological transformation. To investigate the anaerobic biotransformation of chlordecone by microbes native to the French West Indies, microcosms were constructed anaerobically from chlordecone impacted Guadeloupe soil and sludge to mimic natural attenuation and eletron donor-stimulated reductive dechlorination. Original microcosms and transfers were incubated over a period of 8 years, during which they were repeatedly amended with chlordecone and electron donor (ethanol and acetone). Using LC-MS, chlordecone and degradation products were detected in all the biologically active microcosms. Observed products included monohydro-, dihydro- and trihydrochlordecone derivatives (C10Cl10-nO2Hn; n = 1,2,3), as well as "open cage" C9 polychloroindene compounds (C9Cl5-nH3+n n = 0,1,2) and C10 carboxylated polychloroindene derivatives (C10Cl4-nO2H4+n, n = 0-3). Products with as many as 9 chlorine atoms removed were detected. These products were not observed in sterile (poisoned) microcosms. Chlordecone concentrations decreased in active microcosms as concentrations of products increased, indicating that anaerobic dechlorination processes have occurred. The data enabled a crude estimation of partitioning coefficients between soil and water, showing that carboxylated intermediates sorb poorly and as a consequence may be flushed away, while polychlorinated indenes sorb strongly to soil. Microbial community analysis in microcosms revealed enrichment of anaerobic fermenting and acetogenic microbes possibly involved in anaerobic chlordecone biotransformation. It thus should be possible to stimuilate anaerobic dechlorination through donor amendment to contaminated soils, particularly as some metabolites (in particular pentachloroindene) were already detected in field samples as a result of intrinsic processes. Extensive dechlorination in the microcosms, with evidence for up to 9 Cl atoms removed from the parent molecule is game-changing, giving hope to the possibility of using bioremediation to reduce the impact of CLD contamination.


Assuntos
Clordecona/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Anaerobiose , Biodegradação Ambiental , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Guadalupe , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Índias Ocidentais
6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229246, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In September 2017, the Hurricane Irma devastated the islands of Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthelemy (French West Indies). This was a particularly distressing time for the local healthcare staff in charge of rescuing the population. The aim of this study was to identify the explanatory factors of post-traumatic distress and burnout in hospital staff. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was sent to all 509 hospital workers of Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthelemy. Post-traumatic distress and burnout was assessed using the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-S) and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) scales. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the explanatory variables for these two psychological disorders. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-two questionnaires were completed (response rate of 51.7%). The explanatory factors of post-traumatic distress were female gender (OR = 12.93, 95% CI: 2.70-232.10), electricity shortages (OR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.13-8.19) and home damage (OR = 1.16, 95% CI [1.02-1.33]). In parallel, the explanatory factors of burnout were post-traumatic distress (OR: 10.42, 95% CI: 4.72-25.58), female gender (OR = 2,41, 95% CI: 1.24-5.02) and paramedical staff (OR = 2,53, 95% CI: 1.15-6.21). In the multivariate analysis, only burnout was significantly associated with post-traumatic distress (OR = 9.26, 95% CI: 4.11-23.14). CONCLUSIONS: Six months after Irma, post-traumatic distress among hospital staff was strongly linked to burnout. This study revealed the lack of electricity as a new factor related to post-traumatic distress. It also suggested that psychological intervention should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
7.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126151, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092563

RESUMO

The use of chlordecone (CLD), a chlorinated polycyclic pesticide used in the French West Indies banana fields between 1972 and 1993, resulted in a long-term pollution of agricultural areas. It has been observed that this persistent organic pollutant (POP) can transfer from contaminated soils to food chain. Indeed, CLD is considered almost fully absorbed after involuntary ingestion of contaminated soil by outdoor reared animals. The aim of this study was to model toxicokinetics (TKs) of CLD in growing pigs using both non-compartmental and nonlinear mixed-effects approaches (NLME). In this study, CLD dissolved in cremophor was intravenously administrated to 7 Creole growing pigs and 7 Large White growing pigs (1 mg kg-1 body weight). Blood samples were collected from time t = 0 to time t = 84 days. CLD concentrations in serum were measured by GCMS/MS. Data obtained were modeled using Monolix (2019R). Results demonstrated that a bicompartmental model best described CLD kinetics in serum. The influence of covariates (breed, initial weight and average daily gain) was simultaneously evaluated and showed that average daily gain is the main covariate explaining inter-individual TKs parameters variability. Body clearance was of 76.7 mL kg-1 d-1 and steady-state volume of distribution was of 6 L kg-1. This modeling approach constitutes the first application of NLME to study CLD TKs in farm animals and will be further used for rearing management practices in contaminated areas.


Assuntos
Clordecona/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Animais , Clordecona/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Poluentes Ambientais , Inseticidas/análise , Cinética , Modelos Químicos , Musa , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Suínos , Toxicocinética , Índias Ocidentais
8.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51857

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To assess the distribution of Mayaro virus (MAYV) in Latin America and the Caribbean and evaluate existing country-level MAYV surveillance mechanisms. Methods. Research was conducted from May 2018 through May 2019 to collect data from academic literature on Mayaro fever in Latin America and the Caribbean. PubMed, ClinicalKey, Scopus, Nature, SciELO, LILACS, and Google Scholar were searched for peer-reviewed journal articles, and data from health authorities, including the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and ministries of health, was also sought. MAYV-related publications published from 1954 through 2019 were screened. Publications that added to the overall understanding of MAYV, including its geographical and epidemiological distribution, were included in this report. Results. A total of 901 MAYV cases have been reported in humans in countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Since its discovery in 1954 in Trinidad and Tobago, MAYV has been isolated from individuals living in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, Haiti, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela. Of those 901 cases, 42 of them were reported exclusively by health authorities. In contrast, 843 confirmed and presumptive autochthonous cases and an additional 16 imported cases were identified in academic literature. No country-level surveillance mechanisms for MAYV were recorded in academic literature or by health authorities. Conclusions. This report demonstrates that MAYV surveillance efforts are limited in comparison to the virus’s presence in Latin America and the Caribbean, highlighting the importance of enhancing arboviral surveillance systems in the affected countries.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Evaluar la distribución del virus Mayaro (MAYV) en América Latina y el Caribe y los mecanismos de vigilancia de nivel nacional. Métodos. Entre mayo de 2018 y mayo de 2019 se llevó a cabo una revisión bibliográfica sobre la fiebre de Mayaro en América Latina y el Caribe en las bases de datos PubMed, ClinicalKey, Scopus, Nature, SciELO, LILACS y Google Académico para identificar artículos en revistas arbitradas; también se revisó información suministrada por las autoridades sanitarias, entre ellas la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y los ministerios de salud. Se revisaron artículos relacionados con MAYV publicados entre 1954 y 2019. En este informe se incluyeron artículos que contribuyeran a la comprensión general sobre el MAYV, incluida su distribución geográfica y su epidemiología. Resultados. Se han reportado 901 casos de MAYV en seres humanos en 11 países de América Latina y el Caribe. Desde su descubrimiento en 1954 en Trinidad y Tobago, MAYV ha sido aislado de personas en Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Ecuador, Guayana Francesa, Haití, México, Panamá, Perú y Venezuela. De estos 901 casos, 42 fueron reportados exclusivamente por las autoridades sanitarias. A la vez, en la bibliografía se identificaron 844 casos autóctonos confirmados o presuntivos y 15 casos importados. A través de la bibliografía o las autoridades sanitarias no se identificaron mecanismos de vigilancia de nivel nacional para el MAYV. Conclusiones. En América Latina y el Caribe la vigilancia del MAYV es limitada en comparación con la presencia del virus en la región; es necesario mejorar los sistemas de vigilancia de arbovirus en los países afectados.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Analisar a distribuição do vírus Mayaro (MAYV) na América Latina e Caribe e avaliar os mecanismos nacionais de vigilância. Métodos. Dados da literatura acadêmica sobre a febre Mayaro na América Latina e Caribe foram coletados de maio de 2018 a maio de 2019. Foram pesquisadas as bases de dados PubMed, ClinicalKey, Scopus, Nature, SciELO, LILACS e Google Acadêmico para identificar artigos em revistas revisadas por pares; também foram examinados dados de autoridades sanitárias, incluindo a Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), e dos ministérios de saúde. Artigos relacionados com MAYV publicados de 1954 a 2019 foram revisados. Este relatório incluiu artigos que contribuíssem para o entendimento geral do MAYV, com informações sobre distribuição geográfica e epidemiologia. Resultados. Foram registrados 901 casos de MAYV em humanos em 11 países da América Latina e do Caribe. Desde a sua descoberta em 1954 em Trinidad e Tobago, o MAYV foi isolado em indivíduos na Argentina, Bolívia, Brasil, Equador, Guiana Francesa, Haiti, México, Panamá, Peru e Venezuela. Desses 901 casos, 42 foram comunicados exclusivamente pelas autoridades sanitárias. Por sua vez, 844 casos autóctones confirmados ou suspeitos e 15 casos importados foram descritos na literatura. Nenhum mecanismo nacional de vigilância do MAYV foi identificado na literatura ou pelas autoridades sanitárias. Conclusões. Na América Latina e Caribe, a vigilância do MAYV é limitada em contraste com a presença do vírus na região; é importante melhorar os sistemas de vigilância desse arbovírus nos países afetados.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Arbovirus , Infecções , América Latina , Índias Ocidentais , Surtos de Doenças , Arbovirus , Infecções , América Latina , Índias Ocidentais , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções , Índias Ocidentais
9.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229673, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106244

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a neglected disease causing severe infections in humans and animals. Due in part to misdiagnosis, this infectious disease results in nearly 60,000 deaths per year around the globe. This study represents the first effort to describe the diversity of pathogenic Leptospira in Cuba based on whole-genome sequencing. We have collected nineteen whole-blood samples from patients that were diagnosed as having leptospirosis between 2008 and 2012 in Cuba. In addition, we have enhanced our sample set by three historical strains that were used for the development of a human vaccine in 1990s. The Leptospira strains were grown and serotyped by the microscopic agglutination test, and the draft genomes were generated by NGS (Illumina). Subsequently, the core genomes were analyzed and compared to the genetic data available from other Caribbean islands and countries in Central America. Core genome Multi-locus Sequence Typing (cgMLST) revealed four different core genome clonal groups (cgCGs), with the highest number of samples belonging to L. interrogans, followed by L. borgpetersenii and L. kirschneri. All cgCGs that were found in Cuba have been also identified from multiple origins across the globe, except in neighbor countries and Central America. Serotyping divided the samples into the serogroups Canicola, Ballum and Pomona. The most frequent cgCGs, cgCG28, associated with serogroup Canicola, and cgCG15, associated with serogroup Ballum, have also been identified from samples isolated from dogs, rodents, and pigs; suggesting that these hosts represent the major source of human infection in Cuba. The vaccine strains did not significantly differ from the recent patient isolates. However, the increasing prevalence of samples belonging to the serogroup Ballum combined with the fact that the available vaccine in Cuba represents inactivated Leptospira belonging to serogroups other than Ballum, should be a valuable information for the National and Regional Leptospirosis Control Programs.


Assuntos
Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Animais , América Central , Cuba/epidemiologia , Cães , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Suínos , Índias Ocidentais , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1920): 20192806, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075529

RESUMO

By their past and present diversity, rodents are among the richest components of Caribbean land mammals. Many of these became extinct recently. Causes of their extirpation, their phylogenetic affinities, the timing of their arrival in the West Indies and their biogeographic history are all ongoing debated issues. Here, we report the discovery of dental remains from Lower Oligocene deposits (ca 29.5 Ma) of Puerto Rico. Their morphology attests to the presence of two distinct species of chinchilloid caviomorphs, closely related to dinomyids in a phylogenetic analysis, and thus of undisputable South American origin. These fossils represent the earliest Caribbean rodents known thus far. They could extend back to 30 Ma the lineages of some recently extinct Caribbean giant rodents (Elasmodontomys and Amblyrhiza), which are also retrieved here as chinchilloids. This new find has substantial biogeographic implications because it demonstrates an early dispersal of land mammals from South America to the West Indies, perhaps via the emergence of the Aves Ridge that occurred ca 35-33 Ma (GAARlandia hypothesis). Considering both this new palaeontological evidence and recent molecular divergence estimates, the natural colonization of the West Indies by rodents probably occurred through multiple and time-staggered dispersal events (chinchilloids, then echimyid octodontoids (spiny rats/hutias), caviids and lastly oryzomyin muroids (rice rats)).


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Filogenia , Roedores , Animais , Fósseis , Paleontologia , Índias Ocidentais
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(3): 1587-1595, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907312

RESUMO

Many large-bodied marine fishes that form spawning aggregations, such as the Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus), have suffered regional overfishing due to exploitation during spawning. In response, marine resource managers in many locations have established marine protected areas or seasonal closures to recover these overfished stocks. The challenge in assessing management effectiveness lies largely in the development of accurate estimates to track stock size through time. For the past 15 y, the Cayman Islands government has taken a series of management actions aimed at recovering collapsed stocks of Nassau grouper. Importantly, the government also partnered with academic and nonprofit organizations to establish a research and monitoring program (Grouper Moon) aimed at documenting the impacts of conservation action. Here, we develop an integrated population model of 2 Cayman Nassau grouper stocks based on both diver-collected mark-resight observations and video censuses. Using both data types across multiple years, we fit parameters for a state-space model for population growth. We show that over the last 15 y the Nassau grouper population on Little Cayman has more than tripled in response to conservation efforts. Census data from Cayman Brac, while more sparse, show a similar pattern. These findings demonstrate that spatial and seasonal closures aimed at rebuilding aggregation-based fisheries can foster conservation success.


Assuntos
Bass/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pesqueiros , Peixes/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Oceanos e Mares , Densidade Demográfica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Índias Ocidentais
12.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991915

RESUMO

Ticks transmit a wide variety of pathogens including bacteria, parasites and viruses. Over the last decade, numerous novel viruses have been described in arthropods, including ticks, and their characterization has provided new insights into RNA virus diversity and evolution. However, little is known about their ability to infect vertebrates. As very few studies have described the diversity of viruses present in ticks from the Caribbean, we implemented an RNA-sequencing approach on Amblyomma variegatum and Rhipicephalus microplus ticks collected from cattle in Guadeloupe and Martinique. Among the viral communities infecting Caribbean ticks, we selected four viruses belonging to the Chuviridae, Phenuiviridae and Flaviviridae families for further characterization and designing antibody screening tests. While viral prevalence in individual tick samples revealed high infection rates, suggesting a high level of exposure of Caribbean cattle to these viruses, no seropositive animals were detected. These results suggest that the Chuviridae- and Phenuiviridae-related viruses identified in the present study are more likely tick endosymbionts, raising the question of the epidemiological significance of their occurrence in ticks, especially regarding their possible impact on tick biology and vector capacity. The characterization of these viruses might open the door to new ways of preventing and controlling tick-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Flaviviridae/isolamento & purificação , Ixodidae/virologia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , Rhipicephalus/virologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Flaviviridae/genética , Flaviviridae/imunologia , Genoma Viral , Martinica , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de RNA/imunologia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infestações por Carrapato/imunologia , Índias Ocidentais
13.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 947-955, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926527

RESUMO

Feces (n = 226; 2004-2015) from healthy captive and wild blue iguanas (Cyclura lewisi) from Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, were examined for endoparasites. Parasites identified included Nyctotherus sp. and Entamoeba sp. cysts and trophozoites, trichomonad trophozoites, and oxyurid and trichostrongylid eggs. Endoparasites from postmortem examinations (n = 13) included adult and larval nematodes: Ozolaimus megatyphlon, Ozolaimus monhystera, Alaeuris travassosi, Atractis mega, and an unidentified species of Oswaldocruzia. Entamoeba spp. were more likely in captive juveniles of both sexes than captive or wild adults of either sex; Entamoeba spp. were more likely in captive adult females than captive adult males; trichomonad trophozoites were more likely in adult captive and wild iguanas of both sexes than in captive juveniles of either sex; and Nyctotherus spp. were more likely in juvenile captive males than captive adult males or females and more likely in adult wild males than captive juvenile males. Trichostrongylid eggs were more likely in adult wild females than adult captive females and more likely in captive and wild adults of both sexes than in captive juveniles of both sexes. Oxyurid eggs were more likely in adult captive and wild iguanas of both sexes than captive juveniles of either sex. Blue iguanas have a variety of endoparasites regardless of age, sex, or captive vs wild status, with no type found exclusively in either captive or wild populations. Ectoparasites from wild adults included adult ticks (Amblyomma torrei) and a single adult mite (Hirstiella trombidiformis). All are new host records for this species and Grand Cayman. Knowledge of parasite status of captive and wild populations is important to evaluate the relative risk of introduction of captive animals into wild populations.


Assuntos
Iguanas/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 93: 28-39, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe and analyse the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of imported human angiostrongyliasis in Europe. METHODS: A systematic literature review of cases of human angiostrongyliasis in Europe was performed. Seven databases were searched. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics were extracted from included records and simple summary statistics were performed on extracted data. RESULTS: Twenty-two cases reported between 1988 and 2019 were identified. They were mainly from French Polynesia, Southeast Asia, and the Caribbean Islands. The dominant suspected mode of transmission was ingestion of prawns, shrimp, or salad. For patients with data, 90% had a history of headache, often lasting, and half had paresthesia. Eighty-nine percent had eosinophilia, 93% had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia, and 92% had elevated CSF protein. Central nervous system (CNS) imaging was normal in most cases. Two-thirds received albendazole or mebendazole treatment, although this is not currently recommended. CONCLUSIONS: We have increased previous numbers to 22 reported cases in total since 1988. Angiostrongyliasis should generally be suspected in patients with a lasting headache who have returned from Southeast Asia, China, the Caribbean Islands, Australia, or French Polynesia, as well as parts of North America and Tenerife, Spain, although one autochthonous case from mainland Europe has also been reported. A dietary history should focus on prawns, shrimp, and salad, whilst also including slugs and snails and other paratenic hosts where relevant. The clinical diagnosis is supported by the presence of blood eosinophilia, CSF eosinophilia, and elevated CSF protein. A definitive laboratory diagnosis should be sought, and CNS imaging should be used to support, not to rule out the diagnosis. The most up-to-date evidence should always be consulted before initiating treatment. Current recommendations include analgesics, corticosteroids, and periodic removal of CSF for symptom relief, while antihelminthic treatment is debated.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Eosinofilia/parasitologia , Meningite/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Austrália , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Meningite/diagnóstico , Meningite/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polinésia , Alimentos Marinhos , Caramujos , Infecções por Strongylida/complicações , Infecções por Strongylida/transmissão , Índias Ocidentais
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(5): 2243-2244, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969450
16.
J Sports Sci Med ; 18(4): 758-771, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827361

RESUMO

This qualitative investigation sought to explore through a socio-cultural lens the perceived early training and competition environment, and support network of world-class Caribbean track and field athletes and the influence on their sport engagement and progression during early childhood and adolescence. Sixteen world-class track and field athletes (8 males and 8 females; M age = 29, SD = 5 years) from 6 English-speaking Caribbean islands took part in semi-structured interviews. A thematic analysis was performed on the transcribed data. Three superordinate themes were identified as key factors that influenced the early sporting development of world-class Caribbean athletes: (1) conducive sporting environment, (2) functional social support network, and (3) key organizational input. Findings revealed that perceived high levels of deliberate play activity in childhood (6 - 12 years) and an intense track and field competition culture in adolescence (13 - 20 years) were conducive to the continued engagement and progression of world-class Caribbean track and field athletes at the junior level. Furthermore, world-class athletes perceived themselves to be positively influenced by the support received from their immediate social support network and key organizations during this period. This study showed that a conducive sporting environment coupled with optimal social and organizational support may have encouraged world-class Caribbean athletes to remain engaged in track and field and to successfully progress within the sport at the junior level. Findings shed light on the sporting culture at the junior level within the Caribbean region and provide insight into key environmental factors that can influence and foster the development of future World Champions and Olympians.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Características Culturais , Apoio Social , Atletismo/fisiologia , Atletismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aptidão , Família , Feminino , Apoio Financeiro , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Motivação , Grupo Associado , Jogos e Brinquedos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Atletismo/economia , Índias Ocidentais , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1620, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and metabolic diseases represent a major health burden in the Caribbean, particularly since a large part of the population is disadvantaged. However, socioeconomic inequalities in chronic diseases are poorly explored in this region. We investigated the association between socioeconomic position and metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence and explored the contribution of diet quality to explain this association, among adults in the French West Indies. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis included 1144 subjects (≥16 y) from a multistage sampling survey conducted in 2013-2014 on a representative sample of the Guadeloupean and Martinican population. MetS prevalence was assessed using the Joint Interim Statement. Dietary intakes were estimated from 24 h-dietary recalls, and diet quality was assessed through the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Associations between socioeconomic indicators (education, employment, social assistance benefits) and MetS prevalence, and the potential contribution of diet quality in this association were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: MetS prevalence adjusted for age and sex was 21 and 30% among Guadeloupean and Martinican, respectively. Compared to high-educated participants, low-educated subjects were more likely to be at risk of MetS (OR = 2.4; 95%CI = [1.3-4.4], respectively), as were recipients of social assistance benefits compared to non-recipients (OR = 2.0; 95%CI = [1.0-4.0]). The DQI-I explained 10.5% of the overall variation in MetS due to education. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic inequalities in MetS prevalence, reflected by education and social assistance benefits, were found. However, diet quality contributed only to socioeconomic inequalities due to education underlining that education may impact health through the ability to generate overall dietary behavior, long-term beneficial. Our work identified subgroups with higher risk of MetS, which is needed when implementing public health measures, particularly in this Caribbean population with of high poverty rates. Further prospective studies are needed to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of social inequalities in MetS in a high poverty rates context.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226949, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881075

RESUMO

Morphological convergence is an intensely studied macroevolutionary phenomenon. It refers to the morphological resemblance between phylogenetically distant taxa. Currently available methods to explore evolutionary convergence either: rely on the analysis of the phenotypic resemblance between sister clades as compared to their ancestor, fit different evolutionary regimes to different parts of the tree to see whether the same regime explains phenotypic evolution in phylogenetically distant clades, or assess deviations from the congruence between phylogenetic and phenotypic distances. We introduce a new test for morphological convergence working directly with non-ultrametric (i.e. paleontological) as well as ultrametric phylogenies and multivariate data. The method (developed as the function search.conv within the R package RRphylo) tests whether unrelated clades are morphologically more similar to each other than expected by their phylogenetic distance. It additionally permits using known phenotypes as the most recent common ancestors of clades, taking full advantage of fossil information. We assessed the power of search.conv and the incidence of false positives by means of simulations, and then applied it to three well-known and long-discussed cases of (purported) morphological convergence: the evolution of grazing adaptation in the mandible of ungulates with high-crowned molars, the evolution of mandibular shape in sabertooth cats, and the evolution of discrete ecomorphs among anoles of Caribbean islands. The search.conv method was found to be powerful, correctly identifying simulated cases of convergent morphological evolution in 95% of the cases. Type I error rate is as low as 4-6%. We found search.conv is some three orders of magnitude faster than a competing method for testing convergence.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Algoritmos , Animais , Gatos/anatomia & histologia , Gatos/genética , Gatos/fisiologia , Fósseis , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/genética , Lagartos/fisiologia , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Índias Ocidentais
19.
Zootaxa ; 4691(4): zootaxa.4691.4.2, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719386

RESUMO

The heteronemertean genus Dushia Corrêa, 1963 was established for what was identified as D. atra (Girard, 1851) (originally Meckelia atra) based on material from littoral, shallow waters in Curaçao, while the nominal species Meckelia atra was originally described from deep water off Florida Cape. In this paper, we conclude that the type species for Dushia has been misidentified. Based on specimens from the Caribbean, we establish D. wijnhoffae Schwartz Norenburg sp. nov. to represent the true identity of the genus, according to Article 70.3.2 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; Meckelia atra should be regarded as a nomen dubium. While the genus has remained monotypic since its establishment, our molecular analysis discovered a second member-or rather a group of members-from the West Pacific. This 'group of members', herein termed Dushia nigra (Stimpson, 1855) species complex comb. nov., involves i) at least two genetically separated biological entities, 0.136-0.148 (p-distance) and 0.152-0.168 (K2P) apart in terms of 513-bp COI sequences, which we interpret as likely to represent cryptic species, ii) three color forms, orange, brown, and black, with the last one occurring most frequently, and iii) four nominal species, Meckelia nigra Stimpson, 1855 (now Cerebratulus niger), Meckelia rubella Stimpson, 1855 (now Cerebratulus rubellus), Micrura formosana Yamaoka, 1939, and Micrura japonica Iwata, 1952. At present, however, we have no objective ground as to which of the four potentially available names (i.e., formosana, japonica, nigra, and rubella) should be allotted to the two cryptic species discovered in the analysis, because i) a single locality can harbor two cryptic species, ii) a single cryptic species may contain three different color morphs (i.e., orange, brown, black), and iii) no data from the type localities for these four nominal species are available at the moment. Our multi-locus analysis of heteronemerteans-for which 16S rRNA, COI, 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, histone H3 genes are available in public databases-shows that Dushia wijnhoffae sp. nov. and Dushia nigra species complex comb. nov. form a clade, which is closely related to Gorgonorhynchus albocinctus Kajihara, 2015 and an undetermined heteronemertean that has been misidentified as Cerebratulus leucopsis (Coe, 1901). Members of Dushia thus show a vicariant Caribbean-West-Pacific distribution, indicating that the lineage predates the rise of the Isthmus of Panama.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Animais , Região do Caribe , Curaçao , Florida , Invertebrados/genética , Panamá , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Índias Ocidentais
20.
Zootaxa ; 4688(3): zootaxa.4688.3.10, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719444

RESUMO

A new species of Elaphidion, E. antiguensis sp. nov. is described from Antigua (West Indies). The host plants and larval biology of E. antiguensis are described and compared to those of E. excelsum, Gahan.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Antígua e Barbuda , Guadalupe , Larva , Índias Ocidentais
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