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3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18359-18368, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661160

RESUMO

Ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis provides a powerful means of investigating human migration, social organization, and a plethora of other crucial questions about humanity's past. Recently, specialists have suggested that the ideal research design involving aDNA would include multiple independent lines of evidence. In this paper, we adopt a transdisciplinary approach integrating aDNA with archaeological, biogeochemical, and historical data to investigate six individuals found in two cemeteries that date to the Late Horizon (1400 to 1532 CE) and Colonial (1532 to 1825 CE) periods in the Chincha Valley of southern Peru. Genomic analyses indicate that these individuals are genetically most similar to ancient and present-day populations from the north Peruvian coast located several hundred kilometers away. These genomic data are consistent with 16th century written records as well as ceramic, textile, and isotopic data. These results provide some of the strongest evidence yet of state-sponsored resettlement in the pre-Colonial Andes. This study highlights the power of transdisciplinary research designs when using aDNA data and sets a methodological standard for investigating ancient mobility in complex societies.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , DNA Antigo/química , Migração Humana , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/história , Hispano-Americanos , História Antiga , Humanos , Peru
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233808, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673320

RESUMO

Similarly to other populations across the Americas, Argentinean populations trace back their genetic ancestry into African, European and Native American ancestors, reflecting a complex demographic history with multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. However, little is known about the sub-continental origins of these three main ancestries. We present new high-throughput genotyping data for 87 admixed individuals across Argentina. This data was combined to previously published data for admixed individuals in the region and then compared to different reference panels specifically built to perform population structure analyses at a sub-continental level. Concerning the Native American ancestry, we could identify four Native American components segregating in modern Argentinean populations. Three of them are also found in modern South American populations and are specifically represented in Central Andes, Central Chile/Patagonia, and Subtropical and Tropical Forests geographic areas. The fourth component might be specific to the Central Western region of Argentina, and it is not well represented in any genomic data from the literature. As for the European and African ancestries, we confirmed previous results about origins from Southern Europe, Western and Central Western Africa, and we provide evidences for the presence of Northern European and Eastern African ancestries.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Genoma Humano , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Casamento , Linhagem , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Argentina , Colonialismo , DNA/genética , Escravização , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Migração Humana , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/etnologia , Modelos Genéticos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236033, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673332

RESUMO

In recent years, the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has declined worldwide, although this disease still occurs at relatively high rates in Amerindian populations. This suggests that the genetic ancestry of Amerindians may be an important factor in the development of infections, and may account for at least some of the variation in infection rates in the different populations. The present study investigated the potential influence of Amerindian genetic ancestry on susceptibility to tuberculosis in an Amazon population. The study included 280 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and 138 asymptomatic hospital employees with no history of TB, but who were in contact with bacterially active TB patients. Ancestry analysis was run on a set of 61 Ancestry-Informative Markers to estimate European, African, and Amerindian genetic ancestry using STRUCTURE v2.2. The TB group had significantly higher Amerindian ancestry in comparison with the control group, and significantly lower European ancestry. Amerindian ancestry in the 20-60% range was found to be the principal risk factor for increased susceptibility to TB. The results of the study indicate that Amerindian ancestry is an important risk factor for susceptibility to TB in the admixed population of the Brazilian Amazon region.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose/genética , Tuberculose/microbiologia
6.
Nature ; 583(7817): 572-577, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641827

RESUMO

The possibility of voyaging contact between prehistoric Polynesian and Native American populations has long intrigued researchers. Proponents have pointed to the existence of New World crops, such as the sweet potato and bottle gourd, in the Polynesian archaeological record, but nowhere else outside the pre-Columbian Americas1-6, while critics have argued that these botanical dispersals need not have been human mediated7. The Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl controversially suggested that prehistoric South American populations had an important role in the settlement of east Polynesia and particularly of Easter Island (Rapa Nui)2. Several limited molecular genetic studies have reached opposing conclusions, and the possibility continues to be as hotly contested today as it was when first suggested8-12. Here we analyse genome-wide variation in individuals from islands across Polynesia for signs of Native American admixture, analysing 807 individuals from 17 island populations and 15 Pacific coast Native American groups. We find conclusive evidence for prehistoric contact of Polynesian individuals with Native American individuals (around AD 1200) contemporaneous with the settlement of remote Oceania13-15. Our analyses suggest strongly that a single contact event occurred in eastern Polynesia, before the settlement of Rapa Nui, between Polynesian individuals and a Native American group most closely related to the indigenous inhabitants of present-day Colombia.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Migração Humana/história , Índios Centro-Americanos/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Ilhas , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/genética , América Central/etnologia , Colômbia/etnologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Genética Populacional , História Medieval , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Polinésia , América do Sul/etnologia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200038, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578709

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study compares the clinical response to antimicrobials between indigenous and non-indigenous Kichwa children under 5 years old with CAP in Otavalo, Ecuador. METHODS: All children with CAP who met the inclusion criteria and were admitted at the San Luis de Otavalo Hospital between March 2017 and June 2018 were evaluated. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in clinical responses between indigenous and non-indigenous children. CONCLUSIONS: The improved healthcare access of the Otavalo's Kichwa population may have contributed to the observed clinical response to CAP treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pré-Escolar , Equador , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Masculino
8.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200040, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the agreement between body self-image (based on the Stunkard figure rating scale) and nutritional status and to evaluate body satisfaction among the Khisêdjê indigenous people of Parque Indígena do Xingu (Xingu Indigenous Park). METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 131 natives aged 20 and older. Data on body image, body mass index and waist circumference were collected. Kappa statistics, χ2 (p < 0.05), crude and adjusted prevalence ratios and Student's t-test were used for data analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was respectively 42 and 5.3%. The percentage of satisfaction with body profile was 61.8% with no difference between the sexes. There was good agreement between actual and ideal self-image (p < 0.001), but poor agreement between actual and ideal self-image with nutritional status for both sexes. A higher prevalence of body dissatisfaction due to overweight was detected in individuals with central obesity and overweight. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that body self-image evaluated by the Stunkard silhouette scale has little applicability as an indicator of nutritional status among the indigenous Khisêdjê of Xingu Indigenous Park.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/psicologia , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nature ; 582(7811): 234-239, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499652

RESUMO

On average, Peruvian individuals are among the shortest in the world1. Here we show that Native American ancestry is associated with reduced height in an ethnically diverse group of Peruvian individuals, and identify a population-specific, missense variant in the FBN1 gene (E1297G) that is significantly associated with lower height. Each copy of the minor allele (frequency of 4.7%) reduces height by 2.2 cm (4.4 cm in homozygous individuals). To our knowledge, this is the largest effect size known for a common height-associated variant. FBN1 encodes the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin 1, which is a major structural component of microfibrils. We observed less densely packed fibrillin-1-rich microfibrils with irregular edges in the skin of individuals who were homozygous for G1297 compared with individuals who were homozygous for E1297. Moreover, we show that the E1297G locus is under positive selection in non-African populations, and that the E1297 variant shows subtle evidence of positive selection specifically within the Peruvian population. This variant is also significantly more frequent in coastal Peruvian populations than in populations from the Andes or the Amazon, which suggests that short stature might be the result of adaptation to factors that are associated with the coastal environment in Peru.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Fibrilina-1/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Seleção Genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Masculino , Microfibrilas/química , Microfibrilas/genética , Peru
10.
Acta bioeth ; 26(1): 51-60, mayo 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114598

RESUMO

Este trabajo analiza la forma en que el derecho y la Constitución del 80 tratan a la naturaleza. Esta visión se contrapone con los enfoques de las filosofías de los pueblos indígenas andinos y mapuche, las cuales apuntan a la interrelación, interdependencia y reciprocidad en las relaciones entre sociedad y naturaleza. A partir de los problemas ambientales que la ciencia ha sistematizado y que afectan al mundo y al país, este trabajo elabora propuestas para una nueva configuración de lo ambiental y la naturaleza en la Constitución.


This paper assesses how the law and the 1980 Constitution deal with nature. This view contrasts with the perspective of the philosophies of the indigenous Andean and Mapuche peoples which consider the interrelation, interdependence and reciprocity in the relationships between society and nature. From the standpoint of the environmental problems that science has systematized and that affect the world and the country, this paper puts forward proposals for a new configuration for issues concerning the environment and nature in the Constitution.


Este trabalho analisa a forma como o Direito e a Constituição dos anos 80 tratam a natureza. Esta visão se contrapõe com o enfoque das filosofías dos povos indígenas andinos e mapuche, as quais apontam para a interrelação, interdependencia e reciprocidade nas relações entre sociedade e a natureza. A partir dos problemas ambientais que a ciencia sistematizou e que afetam o mundo e o país, este trabalho elabora propostas para uma nova configuração do ambiental e da natureza na Constituição.


Assuntos
Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Constituição e Estatutos , Povos Indígenas , Direitos Humanos , Chile , Natureza , Inter-Relação , Alteração Ambiental , Cultura Indígena , Cosmovisão
11.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 157(5): 619-630, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354435

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine the role of dentofacial morphology in discriminating semi-isolated indigenous groups. These populations present a similar pattern of dietary habits. Studies in human genetics have reported a large intertribal genetic distance and low intratribal variation. METHODS: This study was conducted following the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. Face dimensions were measured through facial photogrammetry, and dental arches and tooth size were evaluated using plaster models. A total of 98 subjects in the permanent dentition and belonging to 4 indigenous groups were analyzed: Arara-Iriri (n = 20), Arara-Laranjal (n = 33), Assurini (n = 25), and Xicrin-Kayapó (n = 20). The random and systematic errors were verified using the Dahlberg formula and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively. In order to evaluate the discrimination of the variables to identify the indigenous groups, a discriminant analysis was performed (P <0.05). RESULTS: A small causal error (Dahlberg, 0.13-1.81) and excellent replicability (ICC, 0.75-0.99) for face dimensions as well as for models (Dahlberg, 0.10-0.68; ICC, 0.94-0.99) were observed. The discriminant analysis allowed the identification of 4 populations by facial and dental arch dimensions and tooth size. Dentofacial biometry revealed an accuracy of 98% for females and 100% for males, which confirms a high intragroup homogeneity and considerable intergroup heterogeneity for dentofacial features. CONCLUSIONS: Biometric measurements of the human face added with tooth size and dental arch dimensions are very useful to identify remote indigenous populations with high accuracy. Supported by previous studies in human genetics, these findings reinforce the role of genetic variation in the determination of dentofacial features.


Assuntos
Biometria , Grupos Populacionais , Arco Dental/anatomia & histologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Masculino , Fotogrametria
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236386

RESUMO

The aim of study was to assess the prevalence of Treponema pallidum and HIV infection in Amerindian people (Mbya Guarani) over the age of 11 in Puerto Iguazu (Argentina) and to describe the contact tracking of cases. The method was a cross-sectional study in the Mbya Guarani people living in three villages of Puerto Iguazu (community A, pop. 1,146; community B, pop. 369; and community C, pop. 149). Participants were randomly invited to participate in the survey and in blood testing. Of the 551 participants, 48 were infected by T. pallidum (8.71%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.38-10.04). The infection prevalence decreased with age, standing at 9.66% in the 11-19 age group, 8.42% in 20-39 age group and 4.54% in people aged 40 and older. We tracked 130 contacts for the 48 T. pallidum cases; 39/40 (97.5%) sexual contacts tested positive for syphilis. Among the 90 children born to infected mothers, 76 aged 18 months or older tested negative, while 8/14 younger children were still at risk for congenital syphilis. There were four cases of HIV infection (0.72%, 95% CI 0.31-1.13). Prevalence of T. pallidum infection and HIV infection are relevant in this indigenous community of Argentina, representing a public health concern.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
15.
Biol Res ; 53(1): 13, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common tumor of the biliary tract. The incidence of GBC shows a large geographic variability, being particularly frequent in Native American populations. In Chile, GBC represents the second cause of cancer-related death among women. We describe here the establishment of three novel cell lines derived from the ascitic fluid of a Chilean GBC patient, who presented 46% European, 36% Mapuche, 12% Aymara and 6% African ancestry. RESULTS: After immunocytochemical staining of the primary cell culture, we isolated and comprehensively characterized three independent clones (PUC-GBC1, PUC-GBC2 and PUC-GBC3) by short tandem repeat DNA profiling and RNA sequencing as well as karyotype, doubling time, chemosensitivity, in vitro migration capability and in vivo tumorigenicity assay. Primary culture cells showed high expression of CK7, CK19, CA 19-9, MUC1 and MUC16, and negative expression of mesothelial markers. The three isolated clones displayed an epithelial phenotype and an abnormal structure and number of chromosomes. RNA sequencing confirmed the increased expression of cytokeratin and mucin genes, and also of TP53 and ERBB2 with some differences among the three cells lines, and revealed a novel exonic mutation in NF1. The PUC-GBC3 clone was the most aggressive according to histopathological features and the tumorigenic capacity in NSG mice. CONCLUSIONS: The first cell lines established from a Chilean GBC patient represent a new model for studying GBC in patients of Native American descent.


Assuntos
Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/genética , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Líquido Ascítico/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Testes de Carcinogenicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/metabolismo , Chile , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Células Clonais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes erbB-2/genética , Humanos , Queratina-19/genética , Queratina-7/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
16.
Biol Res ; 53(1): 15, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current South American populations trace their origins mainly to three continental ancestries, i.e. European, Amerindian and African. Individual variation in relative proportions of each of these ancestries may be confounded with socio-economic factors due to population stratification. Therefore, ancestry is a potential confounder variable that should be considered in epidemiologic studies and in public health plans. However, there are few studies that have assessed the ancestry of the current admixed Chilean population. This is partly due to the high cost of genome-scale technologies commonly used to estimate ancestry. In this study we have designed a small panel of SNPs to accurately assess ancestry in the largest sampling to date of the Chilean mestizo population (n = 3349) from eight cities. Our panel is also able to distinguish between the two main Amerindian components of Chileans: Aymara from the north and Mapuche from the south. RESULTS: A panel of 150 ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) of SNP type was selected to maximize ancestry informativeness and genome coverage. Of these, 147 were successfully genotyped by KASPar assays in 2843 samples, with an average missing rate of 0.012, and a 0.95 concordance with microarray data. The ancestries estimated with the panel of AIMs had relative high correlations (0.88 for European, 0.91 for Amerindian, 0.70 for Aymara, and 0.68 for Mapuche components) with those obtained with AXIOM LAT1 array. The country's average ancestry was 0.53 ± 0.14 European, 0.04 ± 0.04 African, and 0.42 ± 0.14 Amerindian, disaggregated into 0.18 ± 0.15 Aymara and 0.25 ± 0.13 Mapuche. However, Mapuche ancestry was highest in the south (40.03%) and Aymara in the north (35.61%) as expected from the historical location of these ethnic groups. We make our results available through an online app and demonstrate how it can be used to adjust for ancestry when testing association between incidence of a disease and nongenetic risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: We have conducted the most extensive sampling, across many different cities, of current Chilean population. Ancestry varied significantly by latitude and human development. The panel of AIMs is available to the community for estimating ancestry at low cost in Chileans and other populations with similar ancestry.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Genética Populacional/organização & administração , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Grupos Populacionais/genética , Chile , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Filogeografia , Saliva
17.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(2): 359-373, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190602

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: sedentary behavior (SB) has been independently associated with detrimental health outcomes in different regions worldwide. The aim of this systematic review was to examine whether domain-specific SB is associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) and related biomarkers in South American adults. METHODS: nine electronic databases were searched to identify all studies that analyzed the association between SB and CMD -e.g. obesity, diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and clustering of chronic diseases (CCD) - and related biomarkers in South American adults. Two independent reviewers performed the necessary Abstract/full-text screening, data abstraction, and quality assessments. The review protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42018099319). RESULTS: from the 1,262 articles identified in the search 262 were reviewed in full and 20 were used in the analysis in accordance to the inclusion criteria. High SB (mainly sitting and TV time) was associated with an increased likelihood of obesity (n = 8), diabetes (n = 6), and CCD (n = 3), as well as high values of BMI (n = 8), WC (n = 7), % BF (n = 4), plasma lipids (n = 4), and glycemia (n = 5). Eleven out of 20 studies were of higher quality. CONCLUSION: long time spent in SB, mainly sitting and TV time, was positively associated with the occurrence of CMD and related biomarkers in South American adults


INTRODUCCIÓN: el comportamiento sedentario (CS) se ha asociado de forma independiente con resultados perjudiciales para la salud en diferentes regiones del mundo. El objetivo de esta revisión sistemática fue examinar si el CS específico de cada dominio se asocia o no a enfermedades cardiometabólicas (ECM) y sus biomarcadores relacionados en adultos sudamericanos. MÉTODOS: se realizaron búsquedas en nueve bases de datos electrónicas para identificar todos los estudios que habían analizado la asociación entre CS y ECM -por ejemplo, obesidad, diabetes, hipertensión, síndrome metabólico y agrupación de enfermedades crónicas (AEC)- y sus biomarcadores relacionados en adultos sudamericanos. Dos revisores independientes realizaron evaluaciones de los resúmenes/textos completos, el resumen de los datos y evaluaciones de calidad. El protocolo de revisión está registrado en la base de datos PROSPERO (CRD42018099319). RESULTADOS: de los 1262 artículos identificados en la búsqueda, 262 se revisaron en su totalidad y 20 se utilizaron en el análisis de acuerdo con los criterios de inclusión. El gran CS diabetes (n = 6) y AEC (n = 3), así como a valores altos de IMC (n = 8), WC (n = 7), % BF (n = 4), lípidos plasmáticos (n = 4) y glucemia (n = 5). Once de los 20 estudios fueron de alta calidad. CONCLUSIÓN: la gran cantidad de tiempo invertido en el CS, principalmente el tiempo sentado y de televisión, se asoció positivamente con la aparición de ECM y sus biomarcadores relacionados en adultos de América del Sur


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Comportamento Sedentário , Biomarcadores , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Razão de Chances
18.
Cancer Res ; 80(9): 1893-1901, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245796

RESUMO

Women of Latin American origin in the United States are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer and have a higher risk of mortality than non-Hispanic White women. Studies in U.S. Latinas and Latin American women have reported a high incidence of HER2 positive (+) tumors; however, the factors contributing to this observation are unknown. Genome-wide genotype data for 1,312 patients from the Peruvian Genetics and Genomics of Breast Cancer Study (PEGEN-BC) were used to estimate genetic ancestry. We tested the association between HER2 status and genetic ancestry using logistic and multinomial logistic regression models. Findings were replicated in 616 samples from Mexico and Colombia. Average Indigenous American (IA) ancestry differed by subtype. In multivariate models, the odds of having an HER2+ tumor increased by a factor of 1.20 with every 10% increase in IA ancestry proportion (95% CI, 1.07-1.35; P = 0.001). The association between HER2 status and IA ancestry was independently replicated in samples from Mexico and Colombia. Results suggest that the high prevalence of HER2+ tumors in Latinas could be due in part to the presence of population-specific genetic variant(s) affecting HER2 expression in breast cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: The positive association between Indigenous American genetic ancestry and HER2+ breast cancer suggests that the high incidence of HER2+ subtypes in Latinas might be due to population and subtype-specific genetic risk variants.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/análise , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Colômbia/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , América Latina/etnologia , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , México/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/etnologia , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/sangue , Receptores de Progesterona/sangue , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Vascular ; 28(4): 405-412, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Information on the associations among arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaques as biomarkers of atherosclerosis is limited in diverse populations. We aimed to assess whether aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) - as a surrogate of arterial stiffness - is associated with increased cIMT and the presence of carotid plaques in a cohort of older adults of Amerindian ancestry. METHODS: Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years (n = 320) underwent aPWV determinations, and carotid ultrasounds for cIMT and plaque assessment. Multivariate models were fitted to assess the independent association between the aPWV, and cIMT and carotid plaques, after adjusting for relevant confounders. Differences in risk factors across these biomarkers were investigated. RESULTS: Mean values of aPWV were 10.3 ± 1.8 m/s, and those of cIMT were 0.91 ± 0.21 mm (24% had a cIMT >1 mm). Carotid plaques were observed in 118 (37%) subjects. In univariate analyses, risk factors associated with an increased aPWV included age, female gender, poor physical activity and high blood pressure. An increased cIMT was associated with age, male gender, a poor diet, high blood pressure and severe tooth loss. The presence of carotid plaques was associated with increasing age, poor physical activity and high blood pressure. Multivariate models showed a significant association between aPWV and cIMT (ß: 0.028; 95% C.I.: 0.001-0.056; p = 0.047) but not between aPWV and carotid plaques (OR: 1.14; 95% C.I.: 0.83-1.56; p = 0.423). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows an independent association between aPWV and cIMT but not with carotid plaques. These biomarkers may indicate distinct phenotypes for atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Placa Aterosclerótica , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Rigidez Vascular , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/etnologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Equador , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Vida Independente , Índios Sul-Americanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
20.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 207-220, mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104204

RESUMO

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo confirmar la evidencia científica existente de las propiedades terapéuticas de plantas chilenas que son utilizadas como medicamento por Machis de las regiones de La Araucanía y Los Ríos. El estudio se realizó en dos períodos en cuatro comunidades mapuches de esas regiones, entre Julio 2015 a marzo 2016 y segunda etapa entre agosto a diciembre 2017. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas con las Machis, donde las informaciones entregadas sobre las aplicaciones medicinales fueron consensuadas entre los participantes. Las plantas identificadas fueron comparadas en sus propiedades con la evidencia experimental conocida, verificando científicamente las propiedades indicadas. Los resultados ofrecen un criterio adicional para la selección y uso de plantas en dolencias existentes en la población chilena. Los resultados de este estudio corroboran para algunas especies de plantas utilizadas, sus propiedades medicinales declaradas en enfermedades oncológicas. Dichos efectos exigen un estudio clínico necesario para su uso terapéutico.


The objective of this study was to confirm the existing scientific evidence of the therapeutical properties of Chilean plants to be used as medicine by Machis of the Araucanía and Los Ríos Chilean regions. The study was performed in two periods at four mapuche communities of these regions, between July 2015 to March 2016 and the second stage from August to December 2017. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the Machis, where the information delivered on the medicinal applications it was agreed among all participants. The identified plants were compared in their properties with the experimental evidence reported, verifying the indicated properties. The results offer an additional criteria for selecting plants to be used in the corresponding diseases of Chilean population. The results of this study support for some species of plants used their medicinal properties on oncological diseases. These facts require the necessary clinical support in order to prove as therapeutic treatment.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/química , Índios Sul-Americanos , Cultura , Chile
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