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1.
Codas ; 31(5): e20180130, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664368

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the level of passive vocabulary in boys and girls belonging to the Mapuche ethnic group, using the Vocabulary Test in Images Revised version (TEVI-R). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out. Twenty-six children, both gender, between 4 to 7 years old participated in the study. The performance of passive vocabulary was measured through the application of the TEVI-R, analyzing the variables age and gender, as well as performing an analysis of the items and the number of errors. RESULTS: The performance of these children is not influenced by gender or age. There are potential sources of error in the items of the instruments related to the cultural, geographical relevance and graphic quality of them. CONCLUSION: No association was observed by gender or differences by age in the study population. The possibility of developing new instruments or revising the available ones is discussed, given the characteristics of their native language, obtaining reliable results and respecting the elements that are part of their culture.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Vocabulário , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chile/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Masculino , Grupos Populacionais
2.
ABCS health sci ; 44(2): 85-91, 11 out 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022335

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: A prevalência da desnutrição infantil vem diminuindo em todo o mundo, mas ainda acomete milhões de crianças, especialmente indígenas. Devido ao elevado número de doenças infecciosas associadas à desnutrição, a antibioticoterapia faz parte da terapêutica recomendada. OBJETIVO: Observar os casos de desnutrição entre crianças indígenas e não indígenas hospitalizadas e a terapêutica empregada durante o tratamento. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo, farmacoepidemiológico, realizado com informações extraídas de prontuários arquivados do período de janeiro de 2012 a dezembro de 2014 de um hospital público. RESULTADOS: Participaram 166 crianças, sendo o número de crianças indígenas aproximadamente seis vezes maior do que não indígenas. Houve maior prevalência entre lactentes e crianças com idade inferior a um ano apresentaram mais chances de serem internadas por desnutrição. Os diagnósticos de desnutrição mais vistos foram os inespecíficos, com uma proporção significativa de óbitos relacionados ao diagnóstico E43. As infecções mais comuns foram do sistema digestório e respiratório. Crianças indígenas tiveram quase cinco vezes mais chances de apresentarem infecção respiratória. A maior proporção recebeu até três antibióticos, havendo crianças que receberam mais que sete antibióticos diferentes durante o período de internação. CONCLUSÃO: A população infantil deve ser acompanhada por meio de inquéritos que possam subsidiar políticas de saúde que atendam suas necessidades. É necessária a capacitação dos profissionais envolvidos no cuidado da criança desnutrida, recursos materiais e financeiros, a fim diminuir o número de diagnósticos inespecíficos e evitar o uso indiscriminado de antibióticos, sendo imprescindível uma política de controle efetiva no uso da politerapia antimicrobiana.


INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of child malnutrition is declining worldwide, but still affects millions of children, especially indigenous people. Due to the high number of infectious diseases associated with malnutrition, antibiotic therapy is part of the recommended therapy. OBJECTIVE: To observe the cases of malnutrition among hospitalized indigenous and non-indigenous children and the therapy used during treatment. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study, pharmacoepidemiological, carried out with information extracted from medical records filed from January 2012 to December 2014 of a public hospital. RESULTS: 166 children participated, with the number of indigenous children being approximately six times higher than that of nonindigenous children. There was a higher prevalence among infants and children under one year of age who were more likely to be hospitalized for malnutrition. The most frequent diagnoses of malnutrition were nonspecific, with a significant proportion of deaths related to diagnosis E43. The most common infections were of the digestive and respiratory system. Indigenous children were almost five times more likely to have respiratory infection. The highest proportion received up to three antibiotics, with children receiving more than seven different antibiotics during the hospitalization period. CONCLUSION: The child population must be accompanied by surveys that can subsidize health policies that meet their needs. It is necessary to train the professionals involved in the care of malnourished children, material and financial resources, in order to reduce the number of non-specific diagnoses and to avoid the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, a policy of effective control in the use of antimicrobial polytherapy is essential.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Índios Sul-Americanos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Desnutrição , Saúde de Populações Indígenas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde da Criança , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 71, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological aspects of HIV infection and AIDS among indigenous peoples of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: This is a descriptive epidemiological study on the occurrence and distribution of HIV infection and AIDS in the indigenous population assisted by the Distrito Sanitário Especial Indígena (Indigenous Special Health District) Mato Grosso do Sul between 2001 and 2014, based on three secondary databases. Annual rates of HIV and AIDS detection and prevalence were calculated, considering case distribution according to village, Health Base Pole and sociodemographic variables. Accumulated rates of detection, mortality and case fatality were calculated by ethnic group and for the Health Base Pole with the highest number of cases. RESULTS: The HIV detection rate fluctuated between 0.0 and 18.0/100 thousand people in the study period. For AIDS, there was no notification before 2007, but in 2012 its rate reached 16.6/100 thousand. HIV prevalence grew between 2001 and 2011, and it continuously grew for AIDS starting from 2007. The highest HIV detection rates occurred among Guarani peoples (167.1/100 thousand) and for AIDS, among the Kaiowá peoples (79.3/100 thousand); mortality and fatality rates were higher among the Kaiowá. Regarding the Dourados Health Base Pole, the AIDS detection rate increased, and the mortality and fatality rates decreased. CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection and AIDS have been increasing among indigenous peoples, with distribution of the disease mainly in the Health Base Poles of the southern region of the state, where greater economic and social vulnerability are also observed. The endemic character of HIV and AIDS can become epidemic in some years given the existence of cases in other villages in the state. Its occurrence among the Guarani and Kaiowá populations indicates the need for expanded diagnosis, access to treatment and prevention measures.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Soroprevalência de HIV/tendências , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190042, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432986

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The epidemiological profile of dental caries for Indigenous Peoples is complex and heterogeneous. The oral health of the Kaingang people, third largest Indigenous population from Brazil, has not been investigated so far. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of dental caries, in addition to the associated factors of the need of dental extraction among Kaingang adult Indigenous. METHODS: A cross-sectional oral health survey was conducted among Kaingang adults aged from 35 to 44 years old living in the Guarita Indigenous Land, Rio Grande do Sul. Clinical exams were performed to analyze the conditions of dental crown and treatment needs. RESULTS: A total of 107 Indigenous adults were examined. Mean DMFT score was 14.45 (± 5.80). Two-thirds of the DMFT score accounted for missing teeth. Anterior lower dentition presented the highest rates of sound teeth, whereas the lower first molars had the lowest. Need for dental extraction was observed in 34.58% and was associated with village location, time of last dental visit, and higher number of decayed teeth. CONCLUSION: The high frequencies of caries and missing teeth observed in this population indicate a lack of adequate assistance. It is essential to discuss health care models in order to combat avoidable social and health injustices.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Extração Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sociológicos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(5): 1875-1883, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166520

RESUMO

This study evaluates the nutritional status of children and women of an indigenous Yanomamigroup, and seeks to clarify associated factors. It was a cross-sectional study, carried out in 17 villages, in 2014. For evaluation of nutritional status we used 2006 growth standards to assign height-for-age (stunting)Z-scores (Z), weight-for-age Z (underweight) and weight-for-height Z (wasting and overweight), using the software WHO-Anthro and WHO-AnthroPlus. Short stature (SS) was defined as values lower 145cm for mothers over the age of 18. The Poisson regression was made in R software. Among children under 60 months the prevalences were: stunting 83.8%; underweight 50%; wasting 5.4%; and overweight 2.7%. In 59.5% of the children there was severe stunting, and 68.1% of the mothers were SS. Prevalence ratio (PR) for severe stunting was higher in age group 36-59 months, in comparison with age group 0.1-23 (PR = 1.3; CI 95%: 1.1-2.3), as did also children of mothers with SS, when compared to the children of mothers without SS (PR = 2.1; CI 95%; 1.2-3.6). The alarming rates of stunting and severe stunting reveal the seriousness of the nutritional situation children. The association of severe stunting in infants and in mothers reflects the intergenerational nature of the problem.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(2): 161-167, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare inequities may hamper physical and mental health. AIM: To examine perceived discrimination in healthcare services in relation to socio-structural and cultural antecedents as well as their effect on psychological processes and health. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Questionnaires on beliefs about physicians, perceived discrimination, emotions and affective states and avoidance consequences in health were answered by 337 child caregivers (85% women) attending preventive health care appointments at primary health care centers. RESULTS: Negative beliefs about healthcare professionals are directly associated with avoidance behaviors in health and perceived discrimination. The latter perception has no direct effects on avoidance behaviors, but it has an indirect effect through negative emotions associated with discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between cultural, psychological and structural factors in health care. These results contribute to understand the phenomenon of discrimination and its negative consequences.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Percepção , Médicos/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Chile/etnologia , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/psicologia , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 459, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that the human T-lymphotropic virus 2 (HTLV-2) is endemic in several indigenous populations of the Brazilian Amazon and molecular analyses have shown the exclusive presence of HTLV-2 subtype 2c among the indigenous groups of this geographical region. METHODS: The present study characterizes the prevalence of HTLV-2 infection in three new villages of the Xikrin tribe, in the Kayapo group, according to their distribution by sex and age. The study included 263 samples from individuals from the Kateté, Djujeko and Oodjã villages. Plasma samples were tested for the presence of anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Seropositive samples were confirmed using real-time PCR, nested PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: The serological and molecular results confirmed the sole presence of HTLV-2 in 77 (29%) samples, with a prevalence of 38% among women and 18% among men. In these communities, it was found that the prevalence of HTLV-2 infection increased with age. Nucleotide sequences (642 bp, 5'LTR) from eight samples were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by the neighbor-joining method to determine the viral subtype, which confirmed the presence of HTLV-2c. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study establish the presence of HTLV-2 infection in three new villages of the Xikrin tribe and confirm the high endemicity of the infection in the Kayapo indigenous group of the Brazilian Amazon.


Assuntos
Infecções por HTLV-II/epidemiologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 2 Humano/genética , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 2 Humano/patogenicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brasil/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 2 Humano/imunologia , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
9.
J Bras Pneumol ; 45(2): e20180185, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of rapid molecular testing as a diagnostic tool and estimate the incidence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis among the indigenous population. METHODS: This is an epidemiological study based on secondary data. We calculated the incidence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis between January 1st, 2011 and December 31, 2016, and the performance of bacilloscopy and rapid molecular testing in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis compared to sputum culture (standard test). RESULTS: We included 4,048 cases of indigenous people with respiratory symptoms who provided sputum samples for analysis. Among them, 3.7%, 6.7%, and 3.7% had positive results for bacilloscopy, sputum culture, and rapid molecular testing, respectively. The mean incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 269.3/100 thousand inhabitants. Rapid molecular testing had 93.1% sensitivity and 98.2% specificity, compared to sputum culture. Bacilloscopy showed 55.1% sensitivity and 99.6% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid molecular testing can be useful in remote areas with limited resources and a high incidence of tuberculosis, such as indigenous villages in rural regions of Brazil. In addition, the main advantages of rapid molecular testing are its easy handling, fast results, and the possibility of detecting rifampicin resistance. Together, these attributes enable the early start of treatment, contributing to reduce the transmission in communities recognized as vulnerable to infection and disease.


Assuntos
Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Distribuição por Sexo , Escarro/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(1): 57-63, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare infant mortality rates of indigenous and non-indigenous children according to microregions in Brazil. METHOD: The study was based on data from the 2010 Population Census and from the Mortality Information System. Rates and proportions were calculated using data from 558 microregions. RESULTS: Indigenous children presented a higher risk of dying before completing one year of age (60% higher compared to non-indigenous), and rates were higher in microregions with < 1%  of indigenous population. Seven out of 10 deaths were in children over one month of age and were mostly caused by infectious diseases. CONCLUSION: In general, indigenous children die mostly due to preventable causes. The study shows that there are important differences in the levels of infant mortality between indigenous and non-indigenous children in Brazil, even in geographical areas with increased presence of indigenous population.


Assuntos
Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Brasil/etnologia , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/etnologia , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido
12.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(6): 1254-1269, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895292

RESUMO

Extensive European and African admixture coupled with loss of Amerindian lineages makes the reconstruction of pre-Columbian history of Native Americans based on present-day genomes extremely challenging. Still open questions remain about the dispersals that occurred throughout the continent after the initial peopling from the Beringia, especially concerning the number and dynamics of diffusions into South America. Indeed, if environmental and historical factors contributed to shape distinct gene pools in the Andes and Amazonia, the origins of this East-West genetic structure and the extension of further interactions between populations residing along this divide are still not well understood. To this end, we generated new high-resolution genome-wide data for 229 individuals representative of one Central and ten South Amerindian ethnic groups from Mexico, Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina. Low levels of European and African admixture in the sampled individuals allowed the application of fine-scale haplotype-based methods and demographic modeling approaches. These analyses revealed highly specific Native American genetic ancestries and great intragroup homogeneity, along with limited traces of gene flow mainly from the Andes into Peruvian Amazonians. Substantial amount of genetic drift differentially experienced by the considered populations underlined distinct patterns of recent inbreeding or prolonged isolation. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that all non-Andean South Americans are compatible with descending from a common lineage, while we found low support for common Mesoamerican ancestors of both Andeans and other South American groups. These findings suggest extensive back-migrations into Central America from non-Andean sources or conceal distinct peopling events into the Southern Continent.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Migração Humana , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Filogeografia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Componente Principal , América do Sul
13.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(2): 383-392, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726371

RESUMO

The Brazilian development model, based on commodities and electro-intensive industries for trade in global markets, generates social and environmental inequalities that trigger various conflicts between indigenous peoples and communities and economic groups involving disputes over territory and common assets in contexts that influence the health situation of these communities. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of environmental conflicts involving the Brazilian indigenous peoples, their strategies to ensure the sustainability and demarcation of their territories and discuss the forms of pressure of the population on this Subsystem of Indigenous Healthcare (SASI) or alternatives they have proposed to tackle the problems generated. This analysis is based on a mapping of environmental conflicts based on the bibliographical revision of secondary sources (by indigenous movements or their partners) that supported the construction of reports on conflicts and analysis of the indigenous narratives about the territory where they live and their struggles. The conclusion drawn is that the health control strategies of Brazilian indigenous peoples are influenced by their socio-environmental disputes and are part of the mobilization of these peoples for the full recognition of their rights.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Nível de Saúde , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(2): e0007068, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tungiasis is a parasitic skin disease caused by penetrating female sand fleas. By nature, tungiasis is a self-limiting infection. However, in endemic settings re-infection is the rule and parasite load gradually accumulates over time. Intensity of infection and degree of morbidity are closely related. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This case series describes the medical history, the clinical pathology, the socio-economic and the environmental characteristics of very severe tungiasis in five patients living in traditional Amerindian communities in the Amazon lowland of Colombia. Patients had between 400 and 1,300 penetrated sand fleas. The feet were predominantly affected, but clusters of embedded sand fleas also occurred at the ankles, the knees, the elbows, the hands, the fingers and around the anus. The patients were partially or totally immobile. Patients 1 and 3 were cachectic, patient 2 presented severe malnutrition. Patient 3 needed a blood transfusion due to severe anemia. All patients showed a characteristic pattern of pre-existing medical conditions and culture-dependent behavior facilitating continuous re-infection. In all cases intradomiciliary transmission was very likely. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Although completely ignored in the literature, very severe tungiasis occurs in settings where patients do not have access to health care and are stricken in a web of pre-existing illness, poverty and neglect. If not treated, very severe tungiasis may end in a fatal disease course.


Assuntos
Dimetilpolisiloxanos/uso terapêutico , Tungíase/epidemiologia , Tungíase/patologia , Adolescente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Colômbia , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Masculino , Tunga , Tungíase/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(2): e00020918, 2019 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785485

RESUMO

Teenage childbearing has been increasing, especially among girls aged 10 to 14 years, slowing the improvements in public health and propelling social marginalization. The objective of this article is to study adolescent pregnancy in Colombia and suggest possible policy interventions. The study comprises univariate and multivariate analyses that examine trends and correlates of teenage childbirth and related infant mortality in Colombia between 2001-2011 using complete vital statistics. The study compares, by relative risk analysis as well, two groups of teenage mothers, aged 10 to 14 years and 15 to 19 years, with a reference group of mothers aged 20 to 34 years. During the study period, the average of annual birth rates increased 2.6% and 0.8% in mothers aged 10 to 14 years, and 15 to 19 years respectively, whereas it declined at an average rate of 0.2% annually for mothers aged 20 to 35 years. Simultaneously, while the overall rate declined, the infant mortality rate (IMR) of the youngest group was consistently higher during the entire period compared to the IMR of older groups. Compared with the other groups, mothers aged from 10 to 14 were more likely to be unmarried, rural, indigenous or afro-descendant, and have less access to health care. The study demonstrates that early teenage childbirth is a growing challenge at least in Colombia. These mothers are at higher risk of losing their babies while being poor and remaining poor. The study suggests the need for policy that targets appropriate education and health care to poor girls as early as age 10 and even younger.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Coeficiente de Natalidade/etnologia , Criança , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/etnologia , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 29(6): 886-896, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770586

RESUMO

Our aim was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of CT (ie, high-intensity interval and resistance training) in Mapuche adults from Chile and in their peers of European descent. In total, 96 hyperglycemic adult women (mean age 46 years [95% confidence interval; 38, 53]) were divided in four groups: Mapuche CT (Map-CT, n = 14) or control group (Map-CG, n = 44), and European CT (Eur-CT, n = 14) or control group (Eur-CG, n = 23). The following endpoints were analyzed at baseline and after 12 weeks: anthropometric (body mass, body mass index, waist circumference), body composition (fat mass, muscle mass, lean mass), cardiovascular (systolic [SBP]/diastolic [DBP] blood pressure), metabolic (blood fasting glucose and total cholesterol), and muscle strength (handgrip of dominant/non-dominant arm). There were significant positive changes in body mass, body fat, and muscle mass (P < 0.0001) in both Map-CT and Eur-CT groups, whereas waist circumference was decreased significantly only in the Eur-CT group (P < 0.0001). Both Map-CT and Eur-CT groups showed decreased levels of fasting glucose (P < 0.05) and total cholesterol after the intervention (P < 0.0001). Also, both Map-CT (P < 0.05) and Eur-CT (P = 0.01) groups showed a lowered SBP. Finally, significant increases were observed after training in handgrip strength (dominant arm) in Map-CT and Eur-CT groups (both P < 0.0001). CT led to similar improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors for metabolic syndrome development in Mapuche and European participants, with additional improvements in other anthropometric, body composition, cardiovascular, metabolic, and muscle strength parameters related to the prevention of metabolic syndrome. These results suggest future more complex studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Hiperglicemia/etnologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Chile , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/fisiopatologia , Índios Sul-Americanos , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(5): 1311-1316, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence of a greater incidence of stroke in native populations and minorities. A total of 34% of the population in the Araucanía Region is indigenous. The association between Mapuche ethnicity and stroke is unknown. The aim of the study was to estimate the magnitude of the association between Mapuche ethnicity and stroke occurrence in patients admitted to the Dr. Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital (HHHA) in Temuco, Chile. METHODS: We performed an incident case-control-paired study with patients hospitalized with an acute stroke in the internal medicine service and controls from other medical services at the HHHA. One control was selected for each case, matched by gender and age (±5 years). RESULTS: A total of 104 nonconsecutive cases of stroke were included. The proportion of Mapuche individuals was similar between cases and controls (27.9% and 32.7%, respectively, P = .45). Hypertension and overweight-obesity were associated with stroke. Low socioeconomic status, rurality, diabetes, and smoking were associated with Mapuche ethnicity. In the conditional logistic regression model, Mapuche ethnicity was not associated with stroke. The odds ratio was .75 (P = .47, 95% confidence intervals: .35-1.62). CONCLUSIONS: There is no statistically significant evidence in the study to support the hypothesis of an association between Mapuche ethnicity and stroke. None of the control variables modified the effect of ethnicity on stroke.


Assuntos
Índios Sul-Americanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Chile/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da População Rural/etnologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia , Classe Social , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Saúde da População Urbana/etnologia
19.
Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp ; 70(1): 32-35, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571523

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Congenital Aural Atresia (CAA) or microtia is a malformation that results in esthetic and functional problems. There is little information on prevalence, considering that Latin American is the most affected region in the world. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of microtia, considering the different ethnical structure of the population. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of the clinical reports of newborn infants (public hospitals) in three different regions. RESULTS: The incidence of CAA in Argentina was 1 case per 7500 new births (i.e. 1.3/10,000). Marked differences were found per geographical area. The means were calculated per year by bilateral parametric estimation, according to the ethnical origins of the population. In the Caucasoid area: 02.47/10,000 (±1.2), in the Mestizo area: 03.99/10,000 (±0.0) and finally in the Amerindian area: 20.93/10,000 (±0.1). CONCLUSION: This study shows different incidences according to the demographic features of the population from 1.90/10,000 to 20.9/10,000. This data indicates that CAA is associated with a genetic problem (ethnic differences).


Assuntos
Microtia Congênita/epidemiologia , África/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Argentina/epidemiologia , Microtia Congênita/etnologia , Microtia Congênita/genética , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Casamento , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(1)2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561321

RESUMO

Trachoma is among the most common infectious causes of blindness. During January-May 2018, a total of 4 trachoma cases were diagnosed among Amerindians of the Yanomami ethnic group in 3 communities of southern Venezuela. This country has social and environmental conditions conducive to the endemicity of this neglected tropical disease.


Assuntos
Cegueira/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Tracoma/diagnóstico , Adulto , Cegueira/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas , Tracoma/microbiologia , Medicina Tropical , Venezuela , Adulto Jovem
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