Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.537
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211606, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1253158

RESUMO

Aim: The present study sought to investigate dental caries experience and its association with sociodemographic, postnatal and breastfeeding variables in children in the agerange from 6 to 71 months of age, in the Xingu Indigenous Park, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study that used secondary data pertaining to 402 indigenous children of the Low, Middle and Eastern Xingu regions, who participated in the Oral Health Epidemiological Survey in 2013. The dependent variable was dental caries, dichotomized by the median (dmf-t≤1 and dmf-t>1). The data of independent variables were obtained by means of instruments of the Local Health Information System of the Xingu Indigenous Special Sanitary District (DSEI). Raw analyses were performed to test the association of the independent variables with the dependent variable. The variables were tested in the multiple logistic regression model. Results: The mean value of the dmf-t index was 2.60 and the prevalence of affected children was 51%. In the multiple analysis, only children older than 36 months (OR: 6.64; CI95%: 4.11 to 10.73) and those that were breastfed for a longer period of time (OR: 1.88; CI95%: 1.16 to 3.02) showed significant association with the dmf-t>1 index. Conclusion: Childhood dental caries among indigenous children was associated with age and breastfeeding prolonged for over 26 months, therefore, pointing out the need to offer dental follow-up care at earlier ages


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Aleitamento Materno , Índios Sul-Americanos , Saúde Bucal , Cárie Dentária
2.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 28(3): 875-878, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346993

RESUMO

This text uses theoretical contributions from the history of science to discuss aspects of the stages of pandemics understood as social phenomena and how covid-19 moved into the interior of the Amazon region. The arrival of this disease in the vast forest territory made differentiated access to public health more evident, with services and professionals concentrated in the larger cities in the north of Brazil. The rise in coronavirus rates within the forest consequently highlights the history of social inequalities in the region and problems accessing citizenship in Brazilian society.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Florestas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Cidades , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/etiologia , Pandemias/história , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pobreza , Saúde Pública/história , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 28(3): 869-874, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346995

RESUMO

This article describes the emergence of health concerns relating to the epidemics that occurred during the twentieth century in La Pampa, a province in Argentina. Epidemics such as smallpox drove such policies, which frequently originated in Buenos Aires, the country's capital. The spread of many epidemics was due to shortages: water, sewage and adequate refuse disposal, an insufficient number of health care workers, the presence of disease transmission vectors such as mosquitos, and, ultimately, poverty. The historical experience described in this text highlights the importance of analyzing the impact of SARS-CoV-2 beyond the big cities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/história , Epidemias/história , Varíola/história , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Cidades/epidemiologia , Cidades/história , Erradicação de Doenças/história , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/história , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde/história , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , História do Século XX , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/história , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Insetos Vetores , Masculino , Militares/história , Pobreza/história , Eliminação de Resíduos/história , Esgotos , Varíola/epidemiologia , Varíola/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/história , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Abastecimento de Água/história
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e185, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338185

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyse the geographical distribution of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to identify high-risk areas in space and time for the occurrence of cases and deaths in the indigenous population of Brazil. This is an ecological study carried out between 24 March and 26 October 2020 whose units of analysis were the Special Indigenous Sanitary Districts. The Getis-Ord General G and Getis-Ord Gi* techniques were used to verify the spatial association of the phenomena and a retrospective space-time scan was performed. There were 32 041 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 471 deaths. The non-randomness of cases (z score = 5.40; P < 0.001) and deaths (z score = 3.83; P < 0.001) were confirmed. Hotspots were identified for cases and deaths in the north and midwest regions of Brazil. Sixteen high-risk space-time clusters were identified for the occurrence of cases with a higher RR = 21.23 (P < 0.001) and four risk clusters for deaths with a higher RR = 80.33 (P < 0.001). These clusters were identified from 22 May and were active until 10 October 2020. The results indicate critical areas in the indigenous territories of Brazil and contribute to better directing the actions of control of COVID-19 in this population.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009327, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has forced health authorities across the world to take important decisions to curtail its spread. Genomic epidemiology has emerged as a valuable tool to understand introductions and spread of the virus in a specific geographic location. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the sequences of 59 SARS-CoV-2 samples from inhabitants of the Colombian Amazonas department. The viral genomes were distributed in two robust clusters within the distinct GISAID clades GH and G. Spatial-temporal analyses revealed two independent introductions of SARS-CoV-2 in the region, one around April 1, 2020 associated with a local transmission, and one around April 2, 2020 associated with other South American genomes (Uruguay and Brazil). We also identified ten lineages circulating in the Amazonas department including the P.1 variant of concern (VOC). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study represents the first genomic epidemiology investigation of SARS-CoV-2 in one of the territories with the highest report of indigenous communities of the country. Such findings are essential to decipher viral transmission, inform on global spread and to direct implementation of infection prevention and control measures for these vulnerable populations, especially, due to the recent circulation of one of the variants of concern (P.1) associated with major transmissibility and possible reinfections.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Análise Espacial , Fatores de Tempo
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(6): 105778, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oily fish is a major dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and other nutrients that may reduce the expression of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) biomarkers, including white matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin. However, information on this relationship is limited. We aimed to assess the association between oily fish intake and WMH severity in a population of frequent fish consumers. METHODS: The study included 572 individuals aged ≥60 years living in three neighboring rural villages of coastal Ecuador. Dietary oily fish intake was calculated and all participants received a brain MRI. Logistic regression models, adjusted for demographics, level of education, cardiovascular risk factors and other cSVD biomarkers, were fitted to assess the independent association between amounts of oily fish intake and WMH severity. RESULTS: Overall, the mean intake of oily fish was 8.5 ± 4.7 servings per week, and 164 individuals (29%) had moderate-to-severe WMH (according to the modified Fazekas scale). A multivariate logistic regression model disclosed a significant inverse association between the amount of oily fish intake and the presence of moderate-to-severe WMH (OR: 0.89; 95% C.I.: 0.85-0.94; p < 0.001). Predictive margins revealed an almost linear inverse relationship between quartiles of oily fish intake and probabilities of WMH severity, which became significant when the 1st quartile was compared with the 3rd and 4th quartiles. CONCLUSIONS: Increased amounts of oily fish intake are inversely associated with WMH severity. Further studies are warranted to determine whether oily fish intake reduces the risk of cSVD-related cerebrovascular complications.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Índios Sul-Americanos , Leucoencefalopatias/prevenção & controle , Valor Nutritivo , Alimentos Marinhos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucoencefalopatias/etnologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 65, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The new paradigm of intercultural policies focuses on rethinking the common public culture. In Ecuador, the "Buen Vivir" plan seeks to incorporate the ancestral medical knowledge, experience and beliefs of traditional healers into the formal health services. This study explores views on the formal health system from the perspective of the healers belonging to the Kichwa and Shuar ethnicities in the South of Ecuador. METHODS: A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach was performed. Focus groups were conducted in three locations in Southern Ecuador. Shuar, Kichwa and Mestizo ethnic groups were included in the research. RESULTS: Eleven focus groups with a total of 110 participants belonging to the Shuar, Kichwa and Mestizo ethnic groups participated in the study. Six themes were created through analysis: 1) conflicts with health professionals, 2) acceptance of traditional healers, 3) respect, 4) work as a team, 5) environment and patient care, and 6) salary and recognition. CONCLUSION: This study indicated the perceived barriers compromising respectful collaboration between health staff and traditional healers from an indigenous perspective. Power inequalities and a historically unidirectional relationship and, in addition, differences in health beliefs, seem to create misunderstandings regarding each other's approach when faced with health and disease. However, insight in these barriers can create opportunities towards collaboration, which will have a positive effect on patient confidence in one or both systems and support continuity between traditional healers and the formal health system.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Grupos Étnicos , Pessoal de Saúde , Índios Sul-Americanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Medicina Tradicional , Adulto , Idoso , Compreensão , Comportamento Cooperativo , Cultura , Equador , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Políticas , Poder Psicológico , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
Anthropol Med ; 28(1): 78-93, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441023

RESUMO

This paper examines bodily transformation and well-being within the context of a millenarian movement that emerged during the 1840s in the area surrounding Mount Roraima at the periphery of Brazil, Guyana (British Guiana at the time), and Venezuela. The site of this movement was Beckeranta - meaning 'Land of the Whites' - where up to 400 Amerindians were reportedly killed in a quest that is described in its sole historical account as centred around a goal of bodily transformation into white people. In examining this movement, the paper engages with longstanding debates in medical anthropology concerning the body, as well as conversations among Amazonianists concerning the social formation of bodies, and examines sorcery and shamanism as practices that go 'beyond the body'. Notions of bodily transformation in Amazonia, which are often activated by strong emotions, facilitate conceptual expansions of the body in medical anthropology. The paper suggests that bodily transformations tied to sorcery and shamanism are in some contexts, such as at Beckeranta, associated with desires for well-being.Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/13648470.2020.1807726.


Assuntos
Índios Sul-Americanos/etnologia , Bruxaria , Antropologia Médica , Cristianismo/história , Guiana/etnologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
9.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 50, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509206

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reached the Brazilian Amazon and spread among indigenous populations. In the present study, we demonstrate a high prevalence of infection among the Xikrin of Bacajá people (Kayapó). A sample of 100 individuals of both sexes (51 men and 49 women) with ages ranging from 2 to 82 years were clinically evaluated and tested for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody. Among all investigated individuals, 58 were IgG-reactive (58 %) by a rapid test, and 73 (73 %) were reactive in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with no difference between sexes. Oxygen saturation ranged from 82 to 99 %, with the lowest value observed in a two-year-old girl. The results show that as expected, SARS-CoV-2 infection rapidly reached more than 70 % of the population, most likely because of the difficulties of maintaining social distance due to cultural characteristics. These results highlight the importance of indigenous health policies as a means of minimizing the impact of the pandemic on these communities.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/etnologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Legal Med ; 135(3): 779-781, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089341

RESUMO

Population data of the Aymara in the province of Puno were established for 23 autosomal STR markers. DNA was obtained from unrelated individuals (n = 190) who reside in three areas of the Floating Islands of Lake Titicaca, residents on the border with Bolivia and residents who are not from the border with Bolivia. The PENTA E marker presented the highest PD (0.9738), PIC (0.8793), and PM (0.7847) values. The combined PD was greater than 0.99999999 and the combined PE was 0.99999994. The largest distance, based on Fst values, was between the Aymara population and the Ashaninca population (0.04022), and the smallest distance was with the populations of Bolivia (0.00136) and Peru (0.00525).


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Índios Sul-Americanos/etnologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Peru
12.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 175(1): 95-105, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cranial vault modification (CVM), the intentional reshaping of the head, indicated group affiliation in prehistoric Andean South America. This study aims to analyze CVM data from the Cuzco region of Peru to illuminate patterns of early migration and settlement along with the later impact of the Inca Empire (AD 1438-1532) on the ethnic landscape. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 419 individuals from 10 archaeological sites spanning over 2300 years were assessed for CVM using morphological analysis. RESULTS: CVM patterns show distinct temporal attributes: the tabular type of modification appeared first and dominated the early sample (900 BC-AD 600), followed by an influx of unmodified crania during the Middle Horizon (AD 600-1000). The annular type appeared later during the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1438). In the subsequent period of Inca imperialism, modification rates were higher at sites in the Cuzco countryside than in Cuzco city sites. DISCUSSION: The study results, combined with archaeological and ethnohistoric data, reveal the sociopolitical transformations that occurred prior to and during the rise of the Inca Empire. The influx of unmodified crania during the Middle Horizon resulted at least partly from Wari occupation, while the appearance of the annular type during the LIP points to migration into the area, possibly from the Lake Titicaca region. In the Inca Imperial Period, Inca individuals at Cuzco city sites refrained from modification as a sign of their ethnic identity, while modification patterns in the Cuzco countryside likely reflect state-coerced resettlement of different ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Modificação Corporal não Terapêutica/história , Índios Sul-Americanos/história , Crânio/patologia , Arqueologia , Modificação Corporal não Terapêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , História do Século XV , História Antiga , História Medieval , Migração Humana/história , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/etnologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Peru/etnologia
13.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 175(1): 25-35, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze variability in newborn (NB) anthropometry among Jujenean NBs as a function of geographic altitude (500 m to ≈4000 masl), maternal anthropometry and other maternal characteristics within the maternal capital framework. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data obtained from 41,371 mother/child pairs recorded in the Jujuy Perinatal Information System (SIP) between 2009 and 2014, including: NB and maternal weight, length/height and BMI; gestational age (corrected); maternal age, educational level, nutritional status, and marital status; birth interval; and planned pregnancy. Based on the declared place of residence, the prevalence of unsatisfied basic needs (% UBN) was determined and the data was split into two altitudinal groups: highlands (HL, >2500 masl) and lowlands (LL, <2500 masl). ANOVA, Chi-squared and Pearson tests were applied as needed. Statistical associations between the response variables-NB weight, length and BMI-and maternal and environmental variables were tested using a Generalized Additive Mixed Model (GAMM). RESULTS: All NB and maternal anthropometric variables were lower in HL compared to LL; they also presented negative correlations with altitude, except NB length. Apart from gestational age and birth interval, HL and LL presented statistically significant differences in all study variables. GAMM results showed that maternal anthropometry was the main influence on NB weight and length. DISCUSSION: Of all the maternal capital features examined, only maternal anthropometric variables were found to protect offspring against the negative impact of HL environments.


Assuntos
Altitude , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido/fisiologia , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Antropometria , Argentina , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Escolaridade , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Idade Materna , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 174(4): 661-669, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Postpartum amenorrhea (PA) affects the length of interbirth intervals and thus is intimately related to human life history strategies. PA duration appears to be influenced by maternal energetic status. In humans, as in other mammals, sons are costlier than daughters. Thus, we hypothesize that, in energetically constrained environments, a newborn's sex should be associated with PA duration. METHODS: We analyzed data from two natural fertility populations in which mothers have differing energy budgets: Qom women (n = 121) from a periurban village in Argentina, who have a comparatively calorically dense diet and are sedentary (prepregnancy mean BMI = 24.8 ± 4.5 kg/m2 in 1997), and agropastoral Kaqchikel Maya women (n = 88), who have a comparatively calorically restricted diet and high physical activity levels (mean BMI = 21.8 ± 3.7 kg/m2 ). We predict that (a) mothers of sons exhibit longer PA duration than mothers of daughters and (b) this association between offspring sex and PA duration is stronger in the Maya, who have smaller energy budgets. RESULTS: Maya mothers with sons exhibited estimated mean and median PA durations that were 1.34 times the estimated mean and median PA duration of mothers with daughters (p = 0.02). Among the Qom, mean, and median PA duration did not differ significantly in relation to offspring sex (p = 0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Maya mothers with sons exhibited longer PA duration than those with daughters. This phenomenon was not observed in the well-nourished Qom, possibly due to "buffering" effects from larger energy budgets. Offspring sex may influence birth spacing and maternal life history strategies in energetically constrained environments.


Assuntos
Amenorreia/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Argentina , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 174(4): 614-630, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study uses osteological and radiocarbon datasets combined with formal quantitative analyses to test hypotheses concerning the character of conflict in the Nasca highlands during the Late Intermediate Period (LIP, 950-1450 C.E.). We develop and test osteological expectations regarding what patterns should be observed if violence was characterized by intragroup violence, ritual conflict, intermittent raiding, or internecine warfare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Crania (n = 267) were examined for antemortem and perimortem, overkill, and critical trauma. All age groups and both sexes are represented in the sample. One hundred twenty-four crania were AMS dated, allowing a detailed analysis of diachronic patterns in violence among various demographic groups. RESULTS: Thirty-eight percent (102/267) of crania exhibit some form of cranial trauma, a significant increase from the preceding Middle Horizon era. There are distinct trauma frequencies within the three subphases of the LIP, but Phase III (1300-1450 C.E.) exhibits the highest frequencies of all trauma types. Males exhibit significantly more antemortem trauma than females, but both exhibit similar perimortem trauma rates. DISCUSSION: There was chronic, internecine warfare throughout the Late Intermediate Period with important variations in violence throughout the three temporal phases. Evidence for heterogeneity in violent mortality shows a pattern consistent with social substitutability, whereby any and all members of the Nasca highland population were appropriate targets for lethal and sublethal violence. We argue that by testing hypotheses regarding the targets and types of conflict we are better able to explain the causes and consequences of human conflict.


Assuntos
Índios Sul-Americanos/etnologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/história , Violência/etnologia , Violência/história , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , História do Século XV , História Medieval , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/etnologia , Crânio/lesões , Crânio/patologia , Guerra/etnologia , Guerra/história , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 174(1): 35-48, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cuncaicha, a rockshelter site in the southern Peruvian Andes, has yielded archaeological evidence for human occupation at high elevation (4,480 masl) during the Terminal Pleistocene (12,500-11,200 cal BP), Early Holocene (9,500-9,000 cal BP), and later periods. One of the excavated human burials (Feature 15-06), corresponding to a middle-aged female dated to ~8,500 cal BP, exhibits skeletal osteoarthritic lesions previously proposed to reflect habitual loading and specialized crafting labor. Three small tools found in association with this burial are hypothesized to be associated with precise manual dexterity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we tested this functional hypothesis through the application of a novel multivariate methodology for the three-dimensional analysis of muscle attachment surfaces (entheses). This original approach has been recently validated on both lifelong-documented anthropological samples as well as experimental studies in nonhuman laboratory samples. Additionally, we analyzed the three-dimensional entheseal shape and resulting moment arms for muscle opponens pollicis. RESULTS: Results show that Cuncaicha individual 15-06 shows a distinctive entheseal pattern associated with habitual precision grasping via thumb-index finger coordination, which is shared exclusively with documented long-term precision workers from recent historical collections. The separate geometric morphometric analysis revealed that the individual's opponens pollicis enthesis presents a highly projecting morphology, which was found to strongly correlate with long joint moment arms (a fundamental component of force-producing capacity), closely resembling the form of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers from diverse geo-chronological contexts of Eurasia and North Africa. DISCUSSION: Overall, our findings provide the first biocultural evidence to confirm that the lifestyle of some of the earliest Andean inhabitants relied on habitual and forceful precision grasping tasks.


Assuntos
Ossos da Mão/anatomia & histologia , Ossos da Mão/fisiologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/história , Tecnologia/história , Altitude , Antropologia Física , Feminino , Dedos/anatomia & histologia , Dedos/fisiologia , História Antiga , Atividades Humanas/história , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Peru
17.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283954

RESUMO

Introduction: The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) among indigenous communities is an appalling issue related to Brazilian public health, as there is an increasing underreporting and neglect related to the study and care of these people. Objective: To determine the prevalence of STI in the indigenous population of the Alto Rio Solimões. Methods: STI diagnostic records from the database of the Indigenous Health Care Information System - SIASI, of the indigenous communities of the Alto Rio Solimões, belonging to the Nova Itália base, in Amazonas, were evaluated during the period from January 2010 to August 2020. Sociodemographic data were also evaluated to determine the profile of the diagnosed indigenous population and the geographical and temporal distribution of cases. Results: The overall prevalence rate of STIs was 3.91% (113 notifications of STI in the population of 2890 indigenous people). The largest number of diagnosed cases was in Nova Itália (60.17%). The ethnic group with the highest number of cases was Tikuna (92.03%). Among the STI studied, gonorrhea / chlamydia had the highest prevalence (68.14%), followed by Hepatitis B (13.27%) and Syphilis (10.61%). Most cases were found among women (71.7%), aged 30­34 years. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of STIs was observed in indigenous women, mainly from the Nova Itália town and the Tikuna ethnic group.


Introdução: A prevalência das infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) entre comunidades indígenas é um tema consternador relacionado à saúde pública brasileira, pois há crescente subnotificação e negligência relacionada ao estudo e ao cuidado desses povos. Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência de IST na população indígena do Alto Rio Solimões. Métodos: Foram avaliados os registros diagnósticos de IST da base de dados do Sistema de Informação da Atenção à Saúde Indígena (SIASI), das comunidades indígenas do Alto Rio Solimões, pertencentes ao polo-base de Nova Itália, no Amazonas, durante o período de janeiro de 2010 a agosto de 2020. Também foram avaliados dados sociodemográficos para determinação do perfil da população indígena diagnosticada e a distribuição geográfica e temporal dos casos. Resultados: A taxa de prevalência geral de IST foi de 3,91% (113 notificações de IST na população de 2.890 indígenas). O maior número de casos diagnosticados foi em Nova Itália (60,17%). A etnia com maiores números de casos foi a Tikuna (92,03%). Entre as IST estudadas, gonorreia/clamídia tiveram a maior prevalência (68,14%), seguidas por hepatite B (13,27%) e sífilis (10,61%). A maioria dos casos ocorreu entre mulheres (71,7%) e na faixa de 30­34 anos. Conclusão: Observou-se maior prevalência de IST em mulheres indígenas, principalmente do município de Nova Itália e da etnia Tikuna


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Saúde de Populações Indígenas , Brasil/epidemiologia , Índios Sul-Americanos , Prevalência , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(51): 32557-32565, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277433

RESUMO

Western South America was one of the worldwide cradles of civilization. The well-known Inca Empire was the tip of the iceberg of an evolutionary process that started 11,000 to 14,000 years ago. Genetic data from 18 Peruvian populations reveal the following: 1) The between-population homogenization of the central southern Andes and its differentiation with respect to Amazonian populations of similar latitudes do not extend northward. Instead, longitudinal gene flow between the northern coast of Peru, Andes, and Amazonia accompanied cultural and socioeconomic interactions revealed by archeology. This pattern recapitulates the environmental and cultural differentiation between the fertile north, where altitudes are lower, and the arid south, where the Andes are higher, acting as a genetic barrier between the sharply different environments of the Andes and Amazonia. 2) The genetic homogenization between the populations of the arid Andes is not only due to migrations during the Inca Empire or the subsequent colonial period. It started at least during the earlier expansion of the Wari Empire (600 to 1,000 years before present). 3) This demographic history allowed for cases of positive natural selection in the high and arid Andes vs. the low Amazon tropical forest: in the Andes, a putative enhancer in HAND2-AS1 (heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2 antisense RNA1, a noncoding gene related to cardiovascular function) and rs269868-C/Ser1067 in DUOX2 (dual oxidase 2, related to thyroid function and innate immunity) genes and, in the Amazon, the gene encoding for the CD45 protein, essential for antigen recognition by T and B lymphocytes in viral-host interaction.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Altitude , Civilização , Clima , Oxidases Duais/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/genética , Peru/etnologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Floresta Úmida , Seleção Genética , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética
19.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 27(4): 1055-1075, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338177

RESUMO

The article analyzes the travel narratives to the hinterlands of the states of Mato Grosso and Goiás published in 1935 and 1936 by the São Paulo-based explorer Hermano Ribeiro da Silva, which proved a great publishing success and had a considerable impact on lettered society in Brazil. The analysis focuses on his ideas about the relationship between the environment in Central Brazil and the man who inhabited it, the potential economic exploitation of the region, and the role of the State in orchestrating initiatives capable of promoting its effective incorporation into the nationhood. It also seeks to understand how he grounded his discourse on generic scientific concepts and schemas endowed with rhetorical and argumentative power.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Índios Sul-Americanos/história , Viagem/história , Aclimatação , Brasil , Colonialismo/história , Ecossistema , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Pessoas Famosas , Governo Federal/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Povos Indígenas/história , Portugal/etnologia , Seleção Genética
20.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0229370, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326416

RESUMO

The present study applies a dental morphological perspective to the understanding of the complex pre-contact population history of the South Central Andes, through the detection of the underlying dynamics, and the assessment of the biological ties among groups. It presents an analysis of 1591 individuals from 66 sites that date from the Archaic to the Late Intermediate phases from Bolivia, Chile and Peru. The results suggest this area is characterized by significant movement of people and cultures and, at the same time, by long standing population continuity, and highlight the need for wider perspectives capable of taking into account both the different micro-regional realities and the region in its entirety.


Assuntos
Migração Humana/história , Dinâmica Populacional/história , Arqueologia , Bolívia , Chile , Feminino , Fósseis , História Antiga , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Masculino , Peru , Dente
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...