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1.
Hum Biol ; 91(4): 225-247, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767894

RESUMO

Genetic studies on pre-Hispanic populations of the Southern Andes have been increasing steadily in the last decade. Nevertheless, ancient DNA characterization of Formative Period archaeological human remains is particularly scant, especially for Northwest Argentina. To expand current information on genetic characterization of the first agricultural communities of the southern Calchaquí Valleys, we present and discuss the first mitochondrial ancient DNA information obtained on samples dated to ca. 3,600-1,900 years before present from the Cajón Valley, Catamarca Province. Reproducible mtDNA hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1) sequences were obtained in seven individuals. Mitochondrial HVR-1 haplotypes were assigned to three of the four founding haplogroups, D1 (57.1%), C1 (28.5%), and B2 (14.2%), with absence of A2. Our results show that the Cajón Valley sample, with predominance of D1 and C1, differs from that commonly observed in ancient and modern Andean populations, which usually show a high prevalence of haplogroup B2. The fact that the Cajón Valley and Pampa Grande (Salta Province, Argentina) share a prevalence of haplogroup D1 could provide additional evidence to support possible genetic affinities between the valleys and the eastern sub-Andean region during the Formative Period in Northwest Argentina, expanding the archaeological evidence of contact between both populations. Future complete mitogenomic analysis will provide substantial information to formulate new hypotheses about the origins and phylogenetic relationships between the individuals of the Cajón Valley and other groups from the Andes, Gran Chaco, and the Amazon.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Adulto , Arqueologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Mitocondrial/história , Feminino , Variação Genética , História Antiga , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18359-18368, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661160

RESUMO

Ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis provides a powerful means of investigating human migration, social organization, and a plethora of other crucial questions about humanity's past. Recently, specialists have suggested that the ideal research design involving aDNA would include multiple independent lines of evidence. In this paper, we adopt a transdisciplinary approach integrating aDNA with archaeological, biogeochemical, and historical data to investigate six individuals found in two cemeteries that date to the Late Horizon (1400 to 1532 CE) and Colonial (1532 to 1825 CE) periods in the Chincha Valley of southern Peru. Genomic analyses indicate that these individuals are genetically most similar to ancient and present-day populations from the north Peruvian coast located several hundred kilometers away. These genomic data are consistent with 16th century written records as well as ceramic, textile, and isotopic data. These results provide some of the strongest evidence yet of state-sponsored resettlement in the pre-Colonial Andes. This study highlights the power of transdisciplinary research designs when using aDNA data and sets a methodological standard for investigating ancient mobility in complex societies.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , DNA Antigo/química , Migração Humana , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/história , Hispano-Americanos , História Antiga , Humanos , Peru
3.
Nature ; 583(7817): 572-577, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641827

RESUMO

The possibility of voyaging contact between prehistoric Polynesian and Native American populations has long intrigued researchers. Proponents have pointed to the existence of New World crops, such as the sweet potato and bottle gourd, in the Polynesian archaeological record, but nowhere else outside the pre-Columbian Americas1-6, while critics have argued that these botanical dispersals need not have been human mediated7. The Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl controversially suggested that prehistoric South American populations had an important role in the settlement of east Polynesia and particularly of Easter Island (Rapa Nui)2. Several limited molecular genetic studies have reached opposing conclusions, and the possibility continues to be as hotly contested today as it was when first suggested8-12. Here we analyse genome-wide variation in individuals from islands across Polynesia for signs of Native American admixture, analysing 807 individuals from 17 island populations and 15 Pacific coast Native American groups. We find conclusive evidence for prehistoric contact of Polynesian individuals with Native American individuals (around AD 1200) contemporaneous with the settlement of remote Oceania13-15. Our analyses suggest strongly that a single contact event occurred in eastern Polynesia, before the settlement of Rapa Nui, between Polynesian individuals and a Native American group most closely related to the indigenous inhabitants of present-day Colombia.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Migração Humana/história , Índios Centro-Americanos/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Ilhas , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/genética , América Central/etnologia , Colômbia/etnologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Genética Populacional , História Medieval , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Polinésia , América do Sul/etnologia , Fatores de Tempo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233808, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673320

RESUMO

Similarly to other populations across the Americas, Argentinean populations trace back their genetic ancestry into African, European and Native American ancestors, reflecting a complex demographic history with multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. However, little is known about the sub-continental origins of these three main ancestries. We present new high-throughput genotyping data for 87 admixed individuals across Argentina. This data was combined to previously published data for admixed individuals in the region and then compared to different reference panels specifically built to perform population structure analyses at a sub-continental level. Concerning the Native American ancestry, we could identify four Native American components segregating in modern Argentinean populations. Three of them are also found in modern South American populations and are specifically represented in Central Andes, Central Chile/Patagonia, and Subtropical and Tropical Forests geographic areas. The fourth component might be specific to the Central Western region of Argentina, and it is not well represented in any genomic data from the literature. As for the European and African ancestries, we confirmed previous results about origins from Southern Europe, Western and Central Western Africa, and we provide evidences for the presence of Northern European and Eastern African ancestries.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Genoma Humano , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Casamento , Linhagem , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Argentina , Colonialismo , DNA/genética , Escravização , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Migração Humana , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/etnologia , Modelos Genéticos
5.
Nature ; 582(7811): 234-239, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499652

RESUMO

On average, Peruvian individuals are among the shortest in the world1. Here we show that Native American ancestry is associated with reduced height in an ethnically diverse group of Peruvian individuals, and identify a population-specific, missense variant in the FBN1 gene (E1297G) that is significantly associated with lower height. Each copy of the minor allele (frequency of 4.7%) reduces height by 2.2 cm (4.4 cm in homozygous individuals). To our knowledge, this is the largest effect size known for a common height-associated variant. FBN1 encodes the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin 1, which is a major structural component of microfibrils. We observed less densely packed fibrillin-1-rich microfibrils with irregular edges in the skin of individuals who were homozygous for G1297 compared with individuals who were homozygous for E1297. Moreover, we show that the E1297G locus is under positive selection in non-African populations, and that the E1297 variant shows subtle evidence of positive selection specifically within the Peruvian population. This variant is also significantly more frequent in coastal Peruvian populations than in populations from the Andes or the Amazon, which suggests that short stature might be the result of adaptation to factors that are associated with the coastal environment in Peru.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Fibrilina-1/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Seleção Genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Masculino , Microfibrilas/química , Microfibrilas/genética , Peru
6.
Biol Res ; 53(1): 15, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current South American populations trace their origins mainly to three continental ancestries, i.e. European, Amerindian and African. Individual variation in relative proportions of each of these ancestries may be confounded with socio-economic factors due to population stratification. Therefore, ancestry is a potential confounder variable that should be considered in epidemiologic studies and in public health plans. However, there are few studies that have assessed the ancestry of the current admixed Chilean population. This is partly due to the high cost of genome-scale technologies commonly used to estimate ancestry. In this study we have designed a small panel of SNPs to accurately assess ancestry in the largest sampling to date of the Chilean mestizo population (n = 3349) from eight cities. Our panel is also able to distinguish between the two main Amerindian components of Chileans: Aymara from the north and Mapuche from the south. RESULTS: A panel of 150 ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) of SNP type was selected to maximize ancestry informativeness and genome coverage. Of these, 147 were successfully genotyped by KASPar assays in 2843 samples, with an average missing rate of 0.012, and a 0.95 concordance with microarray data. The ancestries estimated with the panel of AIMs had relative high correlations (0.88 for European, 0.91 for Amerindian, 0.70 for Aymara, and 0.68 for Mapuche components) with those obtained with AXIOM LAT1 array. The country's average ancestry was 0.53 ± 0.14 European, 0.04 ± 0.04 African, and 0.42 ± 0.14 Amerindian, disaggregated into 0.18 ± 0.15 Aymara and 0.25 ± 0.13 Mapuche. However, Mapuche ancestry was highest in the south (40.03%) and Aymara in the north (35.61%) as expected from the historical location of these ethnic groups. We make our results available through an online app and demonstrate how it can be used to adjust for ancestry when testing association between incidence of a disease and nongenetic risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: We have conducted the most extensive sampling, across many different cities, of current Chilean population. Ancestry varied significantly by latitude and human development. The panel of AIMs is available to the community for estimating ancestry at low cost in Chileans and other populations with similar ancestry.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Genética Populacional/organização & administração , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Grupos Populacionais/genética , Chile , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Filogeografia , Saliva
7.
Biol Res ; 53(1): 13, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common tumor of the biliary tract. The incidence of GBC shows a large geographic variability, being particularly frequent in Native American populations. In Chile, GBC represents the second cause of cancer-related death among women. We describe here the establishment of three novel cell lines derived from the ascitic fluid of a Chilean GBC patient, who presented 46% European, 36% Mapuche, 12% Aymara and 6% African ancestry. RESULTS: After immunocytochemical staining of the primary cell culture, we isolated and comprehensively characterized three independent clones (PUC-GBC1, PUC-GBC2 and PUC-GBC3) by short tandem repeat DNA profiling and RNA sequencing as well as karyotype, doubling time, chemosensitivity, in vitro migration capability and in vivo tumorigenicity assay. Primary culture cells showed high expression of CK7, CK19, CA 19-9, MUC1 and MUC16, and negative expression of mesothelial markers. The three isolated clones displayed an epithelial phenotype and an abnormal structure and number of chromosomes. RNA sequencing confirmed the increased expression of cytokeratin and mucin genes, and also of TP53 and ERBB2 with some differences among the three cells lines, and revealed a novel exonic mutation in NF1. The PUC-GBC3 clone was the most aggressive according to histopathological features and the tumorigenic capacity in NSG mice. CONCLUSIONS: The first cell lines established from a Chilean GBC patient represent a new model for studying GBC in patients of Native American descent.


Assuntos
Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/genética , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Líquido Ascítico/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Testes de Carcinogenicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/metabolismo , Chile , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Células Clonais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes erbB-2/genética , Humanos , Queratina-19/genética , Queratina-7/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1476, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001805

RESUMO

Resistant hypertension (RH) is defined as uncontrolled blood pressure despite treatment with three or more antihypertensive medications, including, if tolerated, a diuretic in adequate doses. It has been widely known that race is associated with blood pressure control. However, intense debate persists as to whether this is solely explained by unadjusted socioeconomical variables or genetic variation. In this scenario, the main aim was to evaluate the association between genetic ancestry and resistant hypertension in a large sample from a multicenter trial of stage II hypertension, the ReHOT study. Samples from 1,358 patients were analyzed, of which 167 were defined as resistant hypertensive. Genetic ancestry was defined using a panel of 192 polymorphic markers. The genetic ancestry was similar in resistant (52.0% European, 36.7% African and 11.3% Amerindian) and nonresistant hypertensive patients (54.0% European, 34.4% African and 11.6% Amerindian) (p > 0.05). However, we observed a statistically suggestive association of African ancestry with resistant hypertension in brown patient group. In conclusion, increased African genetic ancestry was not associated with RH in Brazilian patients from a prospective randomized hypertension clinical trial.


Assuntos
Vasoespasmo Coronário/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Vasoespasmo Coronário/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 65: 101643, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first large-scale genome-wide association study of gallbladder cancer (GBC) recently identified and validated three susceptibility variants in the ABCB1 and ABCB4 genes for individuals of Indian descent. We investigated whether these variants were also associated with GBC risk in Chileans, who show the highest incidence of GBC worldwide, and in Europeans with a low GBC incidence. METHODS: This population-based study analysed genotype data from retrospective Chilean case-control (255 cases, 2042 controls) and prospective European cohort (108 cases, 181 controls) samples consistently with the original publication. RESULTS: Our results confirmed the reported associations for Chileans with similar risk effects. Particularly strong associations (per-allele odds ratios close to 2) were observed for Chileans with high Native American (=Mapuche) ancestry. No associations were noticed for Europeans, but the statistical power was low. CONCLUSION: Taking full advantage of genetic and ethnic differences in GBC risk may improve the efficiency of current prevention programs.


Assuntos
Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Chile/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(5): 2372-2377, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932419

RESUMO

In the 15th century, ∼900,000 Native Americans, mostly Tupí speakers, lived on the Brazilian coast. By the end of the 18th century, the coastal native populations were declared extinct. The Tupí arrived on the east coast after leaving the Amazonian basin ∼2,000 y before present; however, there is no consensus on how this migration occurred: toward the northern Amazon and then directly to the Atlantic coast, or heading south into the continent and then migrating to the coast. Here we leveraged genomic data from one of the last remaining putative representatives of the Tupí coastal branch, a small, admixed, self-reported Tupiniquim community, as well as data of a Guaraní Mbyá native population from Southern Brazil and of three other native populations from the Amazonian region. We demonstrated that the Tupiniquim Native American ancestry is not related to any extant Brazilian Native American population already studied, and thus they could be considered the only living representatives of the extinct Tupí branch that used to settle the Atlantic Coast of Brazil. Furthermore, these data show evidence of a direct migration from Amazon to the Northeast Coast in pre-Columbian time, giving rise to the Tupí Coastal populations, and a single distinct migration southward that originated the Guaraní people from Brazil and Paraguay. This study elucidates the population dynamics and diversification of the Brazilian natives at a genomic level, which was made possible by recovering data from the Brazilian coastal population through the genomes of mestizo individuals.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Dinâmica Populacional , Brasil , Variação Genética , Genômica , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica
11.
Gut Microbes ; 11(2): 191-204, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311405

RESUMO

Cardiometabolic affections greatly contribute to the global burden of disease. The susceptibility to obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type-2 diabetes, conditions that add to the cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS), was associated with the ancestral genetic composition and gut microbiota. Studies explicitly testing associations between genetic ancestry and gut microbes are growing. We here examined whether the host genetic ancestry was associated with gut microbiota composition, and distinguished the effects of genetic ancestry and non-genetic factors on human cardiometabolic health. We performed a cross-sectional study with 441 community-dwelling Colombian mestizos from five cities spanning the Andes, Pacific, and Caribbean coasts. We characterized the host genetic ancestry by genotyping 40 ancestry informative markers; characterized gut microbiota through 16S rRNA gene sequencing; assessed diet intake, physical activity, cigarette, and medicament consumption; and measured cardiometabolic outcomes that allowed calculating a CMS risk scale. On average, each individual of our cohort was 67 ± 6% European, 21 ± 5% Native American and 12 ± 5% African. Multivariable-adjusted generalized linear models showed that individuals with higher Native American and African ancestries had increased fasting insulin, body mass index and CMS risk, as assessed by the CMS risk scale. Furthermore, we identified 21 OTUs associated to the host genetic ancestry and 20 to cardiometabolic health. While we highlight novel associations between genetic ancestry and gut microbiota, we found that the effect of intestinal microbes was more likely to explain the variance in CMS risk scale than the contributions of European, Native American and African genetic backgrounds.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Fatores de Risco , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/microbiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Metagenômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Adulto Jovem
12.
Biol. Res ; 53: 13, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common tumor of the biliary tract. The incidence of GBC shows a large geographic variability, being particularly frequent in Native American populations. In Chile, GBC represents the second cause of cancer-related death among women. We describe here the establishment of three novel cell lines derived from the ascitic fluid of a Chilean GBC patient, who presented 46% European, 36% Mapuche, 12% Aymara and 6% African ancestry. RESULTS: After immunocytochemical staining of the primary cell culture, we isolated and comprehensively characterized three independent clones (PUC-GBC1, PUC-GBC2 and PUC-GBC3) by short tandem repeat DNA profiling and RNA sequencing as well as karyotype, doubling time, chemosensitivity, in vitro migration capability and in vivo tumorigenicity assay. Primary culture cells showed high expression of CK7, CK19, CA 19-9, MUC1 and MUC16, and negative expression of mesothelial markers. The three isolated clones displayed an epithelial phenotype and an abnormal structure and number of chromosomes. RNA sequencing confirmed the increased expression of cytokeratin and mucin genes, and also of TP53 and ERBB2 with some differences among the three cells lines, and revealed a novel exonic mutation in NF1. The PUC-GBC3 clone was the most aggressive according to histopathological features and the tumorigenic capacity in NSG mice. CONCLUSIONS: The first cell lines established from a Chilean GBC patient represent a new model for studying GBC in patients of Native American descent.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/genética , Líquido Ascítico/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Testes de Carcinogenicidade , Chile , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Células Clonais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Genes erbB-2/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/metabolismo , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Queratina-19/genética , Queratina-7/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia
13.
Biol. Res ; 53: 15, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current South American populations trace their origins mainly to three continental ancestries, i.e. European, Amerindian and African. Individual variation in relative proportions of each of these ancestries may be confounded with socio-economic factors due to population stratification. Therefore, ancestry is a potential confounder variable that should be considered in epidemiologic studies and in public health plans. However, there are few studies that have assessed the ancestry of the current admixed Chilean population. This is partly due to the high cost of genome-scale technologies commonly used to estimate ancestry. In this study we have designed a small panel of SNPs to accurately assess ancestry in the largest sampling to date of the Chilean mestizo population (n = 3349) from eight cities. Our panel is also able to distinguish between the two main Amerindian components of Chileans: Aymara from the north and Mapuche from the south. RESULTS: A panel of 150 ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) of SNP type was selected to maximize ancestry informativeness and genome coverage. Of these, 147 were successfully genotyped by KASPar assays in 2843 samples, with an average missing rate of 0.012, and a 0.95 concordance with microarray data. The ancestries estimated with the panel of AIMs had relative high correlations (0.88 for European, 0.91 for Amerindian, 0.70 for Aymara, and 0.68 for Mapuche components) with those obtained with AXIOM LAT1 array. The country's average ancestry was 0.53 ± 0.14 European, 0.04 ± 0.04 African, and 0.42 ± 0.14 Amerindian, disaggregated into 0.18 ± 0.15 Aymara and 0.25 ± 0.13 Mapuche. However, Mapuche ancestry was highest in the south (40.03%) and Aymara in the north (35.61%) as expected from the historical location of these ethnic groups. We make our results available through an online app and demonstrate how it can be used to adjust for ancestry when testing association between incidence of a disease and nongenetic risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: We have conducted the most extensive sampling, across many different cities, of current Chilean population. Ancestry varied significantly by latitude and human development. The panel of AIMs is available to the community for estimating ancestry at low cost in Chileans and other populations with similar ancestry.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Grupos Populacionais/genética , Genética Populacional/organização & administração , Saliva , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Chile , Filogeografia , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genótipo
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17559, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772268

RESUMO

Argentina hosts more than 30 Native American groups, who are widely distributed throughout the country. Mataco-Guaycurú speakers settled in the ecoregion of Gran Chaco and represent 26.7% of the extant aboriginal population of the country. To further investigate the genetic attributes of these speakers, we focused our attention on four aboriginal groups, namely, Wichí, Toba, Pilagá and Mocoví, belonging to the Mataco-Guaycurú linguistic group. Our main goal was to evaluate the interrelationships among the groups and the relationships of these groups with admixed urban populations and to assess correspondences between molecular analysis and historical information. A total of 890 samples (282 Native Americans and 608 inhabitants of admixed urban areas) were analysed. Genetic information was gathered from 15 autosomal STRs, 17 Y-STRs, entire mtDNA control region sequences, 24 AIM-SNPs and 46 AIM-DIPs. Native American signatures were detected in 97.9% of mtDNA lineages, 89.1% of Y-haplotypes and 90.3% to 96.9% of autosomal markers. Wichí exhibited the genetic composition with the largest Native American contribution among the groups and a weak signal of gene flow. This work provides extended genetic information of potential interest in the fields of molecular anthropology and forensic genetics.


Assuntos
Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Idioma , Argentina , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(9): 2593-2604, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328768

RESUMO

After the colonization of the Americas by Europeans and the consequent Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, most Native American populations in eastern Brazil disappeared or went through an admixture process that configured a population composed of three main genetic components: the European, the sub-Saharan African, and the Native American. The study of the Native American genetic history is challenged by the lack of availability of genome-wide samples from Native American populations, the technical difficulties to develop ancient DNA studies, and the low proportions of the Native American component in the admixed Brazilian populations (on average 7%). We analyzed genome-wide data of 5,825 individuals from three locations of eastern Brazil: Salvador (North-East), Bambui (South-East), and Pelotas (South) and we reconstructed populations that emulate the Native American groups that were living in the 16th century around the sampling locations. This genetic reconstruction was performed after local ancestry analysis of the admixed Brazilian populations, through the rearrangement of the Native American haplotypes into reconstructed individuals with full Native American ancestry (51 reconstructed individuals in Salvador, 45 in Bambui, and 197 in Pelotas). We compared the reconstructed populations with nonadmixed Native American populations from other regions of Brazil through haplotype-based methods. Our results reveal a population structure shaped by the dichotomy of Tupi-/Jê-speaking ancestry related groups. We also show evidence of a decrease of the diversity of nonadmixed Native American groups after the European contact, in contrast with the reconstructed populations, suggesting a reservoir of the Native American genetic diversity within the admixed Brazilian population.


Assuntos
Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Brasil , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Geografia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica
16.
Am J Hum Biol ; 31(4): e23262, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the diversity of paternal lineages in Jujuy province (Argentina) by analyzing Y chromosome markers. Furthermore, we examined among-population genetic variability based both on paternally (NRY haplotypes) and maternally (mtDNA haplogroups) inherited markers. We sought to evaluate the impact of sex-biased gene flow on genetic background in Jujuy, and contribute data on the microevolutionary forces acting in this zone. METHODS: DNA from 149 males from five Jujuy regions were analyzed for 12 non-recombining Y (NRY) markers. Genetic heterogeneity among Jujuy regions was evaluated through population differentiation tests. To identify potential genetic boundaries in Jujuy, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and the Monmonier's algorithm implemented in the Barrier v2.2 software were employed. RESULTS: A clear divergence between Jujuy highlands and lowlands for NRY haplotypes was found. A marked discrepancy between genetic structuring for paternal lineages and the lack of geographical pattern for mitogenomes was confirmed by all statistical analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic structuring of paternal lineages is most likely caused by admixture processes that have occurred since colonial times in the Jujuy lowlands. Immigrants were predominantly male that settled in the lower altitude zones, due to the steep orography of the region. Input of allochthonous male lineages because of gene flow toward the lowlands would have increased diversity of NRY markers, thus compensating for drift effects. Likewise, limited input of allochthonous mitogenomes would have promoted genetic drift, a key factor in the shaping of diversity of maternal lineages across Jujuy subpopulations, irrespective of altitude.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico , Deriva Genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Herança Paterna , Argentina , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7201, 2019 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076604

RESUMO

The variation in the allelic frequencies of polymorphic pharmacogenes among different ethnic groups may be responsible for severe adverse reactions to or altered efficacy of a wide variety of drugs. Amazonian Amerindian populations have a unique genetic profile that may have a fundamental on the efficacy and safety of certain drugs. The genetic characteristics of these populations are poorly known, which can negatively impact the systematic application of treatments guided by pharmacogenomic guidelines. We investigated the diversity of 32 polymorphisms in genes responsible for drug Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME) in Amazonian Amerindians, and compared the findings with populations from other continents available in the 1000 Genomes database. We found significantly different (P ≤ 1.56E-03) allelic frequencies and genotype distributions in many study markers in comparison with African, European, American and Asian populations. Based on FST values, the Amerindian population was also the most distinct (mean FST = 0.09917). These data highlight the unique genetic profile of the indigenous population from the Brazilian Amazon region, which is potentially important from a pharmacogenetic viewpoint. Understanding the diversity of ADME- related genetic markers is crucial to the implementation of individualized pharmacogenomic treatment protocols in Amerindian populations, as well as populations with a high degree of admixture with this ethnic group, such as the general Brazilian population.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Brasil/etnologia , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
Am J Hum Biol ; 31(3): e23243, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The major aim of this article was to estimate the demographic impact of European arrival and colonization over Native American populations from southern Brazil and Uruguay. We also compared the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic diversity, structure, and demography of Native American lineages present in current indigenous (Natives) and nonindigenous admixed (Admixed) populations to estimate the effective population size (Ne ) of contemporary and ancestral (pre-Columbian) Native American populations. METHODS: We retrieved published mtDNA sequences from Native (n = 396) and Admixed (n = 309) populations from southern Brazil, Uruguay, and surrounding areas. We conducted genetic diversity, structure, and demographic analyses. Finally, we used Approximate Bayesian Computation to estimate the Ne for current Native, Admixed, and pre-Columbian Native American populations. RESULTS: We found higher Native American mtDNA genetic diversity in admixed rather than in indigenous populations (131/309 vs 27/396 different haplotypes, respectively). Only Admixed populations maintained ancient signals of the Native American population expansion approximately 14 to 17 kya, which have decayed in Natives. Our Ne estimates suggest that Natives represent only 0.33% (0.18%-1.19%) of the Ne for ancestral pre-Columbian indigenous populations. CONCLUSIONS: Admixed populations represent an important genetic reservoir of Native American lineages, many of which are extinct in contemporary indigenous populations. In addition, the Native American lineages present in Admixed populations retain part of the past demographic history of Native Americans. The intensity of the reduction is congruent with historical accounts of strong indigenous depopulation during the colonization process.


Assuntos
Colonialismo/história , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Densidade Demográfica , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Uruguai
19.
Transfusion ; 59(7): 2415-2421, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human FUT2 gene, which encodes a secretor type α(1,2)fucosyltransferase, is reported to have several population-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variations. However, little is known about genetic variation of FUT2 in Native Americans. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: To detect SNPs and copy number variations of the FUT2 gene in Peruvians, direct sequencing and digital polymerase chain reaction were performed. Haplotypes of observed SNPs were estimated by PHASE software or cloning into plasmids. The functional significance of nonsynonymous SNPs was examined by transient transfection assay. RESULTS: We identified three novel nonfunctional alleles (se178,357 , se841 , and sedel4 ) due to two nonsynonymous SNPs (178C > T and 841G > A) and a novel long terminal repeat-mediated recombination with a 4.3-kb deletion in 70 Peruvians. The frequency of nonfunctional alleles was relative low (20.7%). Because se841 has a relatively high frequency (5.7%), it might be a suitable genetic marker for Peruvians. CONCLUSION: We identified three novel nonfunctional alleles in 70 Peruvians. To our knowledge, this is the first time a long terminal repeat-mediated gene recombination event at the FUT2 locus has been detected.


Assuntos
Sequência de Bases , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Deleção de Sequência , Sequências Repetidas Terminais , Alelos , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Masculino , Peru
20.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(6): 1254-1269, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895292

RESUMO

Extensive European and African admixture coupled with loss of Amerindian lineages makes the reconstruction of pre-Columbian history of Native Americans based on present-day genomes extremely challenging. Still open questions remain about the dispersals that occurred throughout the continent after the initial peopling from the Beringia, especially concerning the number and dynamics of diffusions into South America. Indeed, if environmental and historical factors contributed to shape distinct gene pools in the Andes and Amazonia, the origins of this East-West genetic structure and the extension of further interactions between populations residing along this divide are still not well understood. To this end, we generated new high-resolution genome-wide data for 229 individuals representative of one Central and ten South Amerindian ethnic groups from Mexico, Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina. Low levels of European and African admixture in the sampled individuals allowed the application of fine-scale haplotype-based methods and demographic modeling approaches. These analyses revealed highly specific Native American genetic ancestries and great intragroup homogeneity, along with limited traces of gene flow mainly from the Andes into Peruvian Amazonians. Substantial amount of genetic drift differentially experienced by the considered populations underlined distinct patterns of recent inbreeding or prolonged isolation. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that all non-Andean South Americans are compatible with descending from a common lineage, while we found low support for common Mesoamerican ancestors of both Andeans and other South American groups. These findings suggest extensive back-migrations into Central America from non-Andean sources or conceal distinct peopling events into the Southern Continent.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Migração Humana , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Filogeografia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Componente Principal , América do Sul
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