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1.
Ophthalmologe ; 117(3): 199-209, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940059

RESUMO

Visual stimulation and communication with the surroundings are crucial factors for childhood development. In children with intellectual disability the developmental delay can be exacerbated by visual impairment leading to visual autism. Uncorrected refractive error is one of the leading causes of visual impairment and spectacles are the gold standard for treatment. For some children with developmental delay or intellectual disability, the fitting and wearing of spectacles can be impossible due to severe craniofacial malformations, poor neck control or involuntary head movements. In these cases, if wearing contact lenses is also impossible the refractive error remains untreated and the child visually impaired. In certain situations cornea-based laser refractive surgery or lens-based refractive surgery can treat these refractive errors to enable better unaided visual acuity and therefore enhanced stimulation and integration of these developmentally delayed children. This article describes and discusses the indications, technical aspects and results of refractive surgery for children with developmental delay and intellectual disability.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato , Erros de Refração , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Refrativos , Criança , Óculos , Humanos , Acuidade Visual
2.
Mol Cell ; 77(2): 207-209, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951545

RESUMO

Live-cell RNA imaging is a powerful approach to observe the real-time dynamics of RNA metabolism. Two recent papers describe an optimized fluorescence-based CRISPR-Cas13 approach to image colocalized or repeat-containing RNAs in real time, as well as demonstrate simultaneous RNA-DNA labeling by using Cas13 and Cas9 in tandem.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , RNA , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , DNA , Óculos
3.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110055, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785512

RESUMO

Body fluid analysis has played a crucial role in ascertaining various characteristics and has greatly aided in reconstructing events during crime scene investigation. It is often presumed that crimes that involve violence and mental disturbances such as murder or sexual assault provide good sources of body fluids such as blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, urine and tears. Tears are secreted in response to any emotional or stressful situations and may be found deposited on surfaces such as bedding, tissue paper or cloth. In the absence of the commonly noted body fluids such as blood or saliva, tears can play an important role that can lead to personal identification by examining the biochemistry and molecular aspects to obtain a full DNA profile. Additionally, identification of an individual may be done by carefully observing certain unique eye characteristics such as heterochromia which is highly individualistic. Characteristics of eyewear such as spectacles and contact lenses have unique properties and prescription criteria for correcting an individual's eyesight that can provide vital clues in understanding the visual ability of an individual. In crime scene investigation, the presence or absence of eyewear provides immense evidentiary value that has greatly aided in solving cases such as Janet Abaroa's Murder. This paper provides a systematic review of the possibility of using tears and eyewear for the purpose of forensic investigation and to statistically support the inferences with prescription databases which may be initiated across different populations. Forensic Optometry is yet to get streamlined along with the routinely followed investigative techniques and scientifically explored although no standard protocols exist to analyse eyewear. The use of behavioural optometry is gaining attention in the context of driving laws of different countries and is a simple but powerful indicator of abnormal behaviour. It is speculated that the last seen image referred to as an 'Optogram' of an individual may be captured in the retina since our eyes functions like a camera. Although this claim is considerably unexplored, it is quite possible that the last seen image of a criminal, objects or a place may be noted that can positively help in linking individuals at the scene of crime or identify the primary crime location. In this review, the potential for new insights into the analysis of tears, eye and eyewear characteristics have been explored.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato , Impressões Digitais de DNA , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Óculos , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Lágrimas/química , Bases de Dados Factuais , Epitélio Anterior/química , Olho/patologia , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Prescrições , Manejo de Espécimes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Corpo Vítreo/química
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contact lenses (CLs) are more popular than spectacles for vision correction amongst the youth. Knowledge about the risks of wearing CLs is critical especially for those with poor access to public health education. This study investigates the patterns of use and level of knowledge about CL wear amongst teenagers living in rural areas in Selangor, Malaysia using a set of validated questionnaires. METHODS: A total of 8500 self-administered questionnaires were distributed in eight selected secondary schools. The results were analysed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: A total of 2474 (29%) completed questionnaires were collected. The mean age of the respondents was 14.8 ± 1.5 years, and approximately 7.2% were CL wearers. The majority of the wearers were females (76.0%) and wore soft CLs (92.2%). Cosmetic purposes (58.1%) and comfort (24.6%) were the main reasons for wearing CLs. Many of the respondents purchased their lenses from optical shops (50.1%) and beauty accessory shops (15.6%), and approximately 10% did not disinfect their lenses properly. Regarding knowledge about CL care, approximately 56% of the respondents responded correctly. CONCLUSION: Half of the respondents do not have sufficient knowledge about the risks of wearing CLs. Thus, aggressive public health education aimed at teenagers is needed to prevent improper CL usage.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato , População Rural , Adolescente , Comportamento do Consumidor , Óculos , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 135(5): 46-53, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714512

RESUMO

Peripheral defocus plays a significant role in the formation of refraction. Perifocal spectacles allow differentiating correction of central and peripheral refraction of the eye along the horizontal meridian and can correct or reduce peripheral hyperopia. PURPOSE: To study the long-term results of wearing perifocal spectacles on the refraction in children with progressive myopia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Perifocal spectacles were assigned to children of 7-14 years old with progressive myopia from -1.0 to -6.0 D in terms of refractive spherical equivalent. The children were examined before the prescription of perifocal spectacles and after 6 months, 12-18 months, 2 years, 3 years and 4-5 years. We measured visual acuity, the character of vision, refractive error before and after cycloplegia, performed biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy and biometry. Peripheral refraction was studied at 15° and 30° points in the nasal (N15 and N30) and temporal (T15 and T30) meridians without correction and while wearing perifocal spectacles. RESULTS: In perifocal spectacles, in the 15° zone, 100% of the eyes formed myopic defocus, which averaged -0.05±0.1 D in T15°, -0.25±0.16 D in N15° and -0.44±0.03 D in T30°. In the N30° zone, the hypermetropic defocus decreased by 4 times and amounted to 0.38±0.03 D. The rate of progression of myopia decreased from 0.8 D of baseline values to 0.17 D at 4-5 years of follow-up. After 6 months of wearing perifocal spectacles, the refraction gain was -0.2±0.02 D (in the control group it was -0.38±0.04 D), after 12-18 months - (-)0.38±0.04 D (-0.63±0.09 D in the control group), after 2 years - (-)0,78±0,06 D (-1.18±0,15 D in the control group), after 3 years - (-)0.99±0.12 D (-1.65±0.20D in the control group). During the 4-5 years of the follow-up, the refractive error in the main group was -1.16±0.2 D, which is 60% less than in the control group (-1.95±0.2 D). CONCLUSION: Constant wearing of perifocal spectacles reduces the rate of myopia progression in children by 4.5 times compared with the initial rate, and by 1.6 times (by 60%) in comparison with the control group. Perifocal spectacles are recommended as optical means to slow the progression of myopia.


Assuntos
Hiperopia , Miopia Degenerativa , Adolescente , Criança , Olho , Óculos , Humanos , Refração Ocular
6.
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd ; 236(12): 1461-1471, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745943

RESUMO

Lens exchange surgery is the most common performed surgical ophthalmological procedure worldwide. The intraocular lens (IOL) is placed into the capsular bag. The power of the IOL decides whether afterwards the patient will be able to see objects in the far or near distance without glasses. Due to constant development of the IOL design in nowadays it is however possible to implant a lens which has multiple foci and consequently allows the patient to see in several distances. In this review article we summarize the most critical points which need to be considered when placement of a multifocal lens is planned in lens exchange surgery. Additionally, we present an overview of the currently available trifocal IOLs and IOLs with an extended depth of focus. We furthermore discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the multifocal IOLs as compared to monofocal IOLs.


Assuntos
Lentes Intraoculares , Lentes Intraoculares Multifocais , Facoemulsificação , Olho Artificial , Óculos , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese , Acuidade Visual
7.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 135(4): 60-69, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573558

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Peripheral defocus was experimentally found to control the development of refraction. PURPOSE: To evaluate peripheral refraction (PR) of myopic eyes in terms of different means of correction and the direction of gaze. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study examined 128 patients (256 eyes) aged 8-14 years (average 11.07±0.39 years) with myopia from -1.0 to -7.0 (average -3.57±0.27 D). PR was measured without correction, in perifocal (PF), monofocal (MF), progressive glasses (PAL), monofocal soft contact lenses (ΜCL) and after orthokeratological (OCL) correction with the gaze directed straightforward or head angled outward, inward, upward and downward; all measurements were performed using binocular open-field auto ref/keratometer. RESULTS: PR profile without correction and with contact (OCL, ΜCL) correction does not depend on the direction of the gaze. In glasses, peripheral defocus is different with straightforward and skewed gaze directions. OCL forms a significant myopic defocus throughout the periphery of the retina. When using MCL, hyperopic defocus increases in all zones except the extreme temporal. In MF glasses, hyperopic defocus is formed and enhanced in all areas, significantly greater with skewed gaze than with straightforward. In PALs, myopic defocus is formed with gaze directed upward and downward, as well as at the extreme temporal periphery of the retina with straightforward gaze. In all other zones, hypermetropic defocus increases. In PF, in most zones myopic defocus is formed with all gaze directions. The greatest inhibitory effect on myopia progression is provided by OCL (YPR=0.28 D/year) and PF glasses (YPR=0.26 D/year). CONCLUSION: In contrast to correction with contact lenses, PR in glasses does depend on the direction of gaze. The inhibitory effect of the optics correlates with correction of hypermetropic defocus in myopic eyes.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas , Hiperopia , Miopia , Adolescente , Criança , Óculos , Humanos , Refração Ocular
8.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(13): 4109-4119, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574139

RESUMO

Purpose: We measure neural responses associated with form and motion processing in children with anisometropia before and after treatment with spectacles and occlusion. Methods: In this prospective, case-control treatment study, 10 children with anisometropia and amblyopia and 16 age-matched visually normal children participated. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (VEP) were recorded from electrodes over the occipital cortex. The visual stimulus comprised a horizontal bar grating into which Vernier offsets were introduced and withdrawn periodically at 3.75 Hz. The VEP amplitude at 3.75 Hz (first harmonic [1F]) and 7.5 Hz (second harmonic [2F]) were recorded to index the sensitivity of form/position-sensitive versus motion/transient-sensitive neural populations, respectively. Response amplitude at 1F and 2F were recorded over a series of 10 logarithmically spaced offset sizes before and after treatment. Main outcome measures are VEP amplitude versus displacement functions, interocular response amplitude differences. Results: After relaxing into spectacles (minimally-treated state), form/position-sensitive responses in the dominant/less ametropic eye of the children with anisometropia were larger and responses in the more ametropic eye were smaller than those of controls. Motion-transient responses were equal to those of controls in the less ametropic eye, but were smaller than controls in the more ametropic eye. After treatment, responses did not differ from those of controls. Conclusions: Form and motion responses are differentially susceptible to neural deprivation via optical blur. Form responses are more plastic than motion responses in minimally-treated children with anisometropic amblyopia. Most treatment effects occurred above threshold range, suggesting some treatment effects are not detected clinically.


Assuntos
Ambliopia/fisiopatologia , Anisometropia/fisiopatologia , Óculos , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Ambliopia/reabilitação , Anisometropia/reabilitação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Acuidade Visual , Córtex Visual/fisiologia
9.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 39(10): 1137-40, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621270

RESUMO

The new style spectacle frame for eye moxibustion is designed, which is characterized by adjustable direction, constant temperature and smoke absorption. Combined with mechanical structure design and physical and chemical technology, a new style of moxibustion spectacle frame is designed by means of spring mechanism, damping bearing, filter cotton, etc. The moxibustion spectacle frame includes the right and left eye frames, spectacle legs, nose mask, eye mask, slide rod, screw rod, spring structure, damping bearing, support rod and pin. The eye mask can prevent from the risks induced by the burning moxa stick. A ventilate hole is designed in the lower part of the nose mask to keep breathing unobstructed. In the upper end of the ventilate hole, a filter cotton is placed to prevent from moxa smoke penetrating to the nasal cavity. The spring structure can keep relatively the fixed distance between the combustion area and the acupoints. Such device ensures the safety of eye moxibustion, reduces the complexity of operation and is suitable for moxibustion treatment for all kinds of eye diseases.


Assuntos
Óculos , Moxibustão , Pontos de Acupuntura , Humanos , Fumaça , Temperatura Ambiente
10.
J Craniofac Surg ; 30(7): e605-e607, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503122

RESUMO

The authors innovated a simple device that hooks the bridge of eyeglasses to a snapback cap (EHS) so that the nose-pads of glasses do not rest upon the nose.A snapback cap with 2 eyelets on the front panel is prepared. A fishing line or IV tubing is introduced through 2 eyelets and a loop is made inside of the cap. A paper clip is bent to make a J-shaped hook that holds the bridge of the glasses. A loop of line is connected through the J-hook and the length is adjusted to prevent the nose-pads of glasses from directly resting on the nose.The eyeglass-holding hook on a snapback cap pulls the eyeglasses, and the direction of the vector can be adjusted through the eyelets on the front panel and the strap on the back.Our EHS is simple and cheap. It is considered that patients themselves can produce this device.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento , Óculos , Nariz , Desenho de Equipamento/instrumentação , Humanos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484296

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to assess the eye health needs of school teachers in the Asutifi districts of Ghana. Presenting distance visual acuity was measured in each eye. Those with visual acuity of <6/12 in one or both eyes had subjective refraction. All underwent basic eye examination and near functional vision was assessed for teachers aged ≥35 years using the Near Activity Visual Questionnaire (NVAQ). Teachers with uncorrected presbyopia were given a near correction and NVAQ was assessed again at two weeks. Three hundred teachers were examined with mean (SD) age of 36.5 (9.7) years, 54.3% were male and 6.3% (95% CI: 3.8 to 9.8%) had a presenting acuity of <6/12 in one or both eyes. The estimated prevalence of moderate visual impairment was 0.7% (95% CI: 0.08 to 2.4%). Lens opacities (50%) and refractive error (18%) were the main causes of visual loss. Seventy-five out of 136 (55.1%, 95% CI: 46.6 to 63.4%) of teachers aged ≥35 years were presbyopic, 45.3% (95% CI: 36.9 to 53.7%) of whom had presbyopic correction. Lack of awareness was the major barrier to presbyopic correction. Median Rasch score for teachers given presbyopic correction (n = 39) decreased by 60.6% from 46.0 (IQR: 10.7 to 72.8) to 18.1 (IQR: 0 to 58.9) and overall satisfaction with near vision improved at follow up. Prevalence of presbyopia was high, and spectacles improved satisfaction with near vision.


Assuntos
Presbiopia/epidemiologia , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Catarata/epidemiologia , Óculos , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
14.
Ophthalmologe ; 116(12): 1231-1234, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552468

RESUMO

Technical innovations, such as computer games and shutter glasses open up elegant treatment options for amblyopia. The lack of monitoring of compliance means that there is no scientific basis on which a comparative study between a new therapeutic approach and occlusion therapy as the standard of care could be designed. An easy to use microsensor for measurement of compliance could have a broad spectrum of applications in scientific studies as well as in routine clinical practice. This article gives a brief overview about emerging and innovative approaches.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Ambliopia/diagnóstico , Ambliopia/terapia , Óculos , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente , Privação Sensorial , Resultado do Tratamento , Jogos de Vídeo
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(11): 104296, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395425

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate the effect of prism adaptation (PA) combined with continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) on the neglect recovery of stroke patients with unilateral neglect. METHODS: A total of 14 stroke patients with unilateral neglect were randomly assigned to 2 groups including an intervention group undergone PA combined with cTBS over the left intact parietal cortex and a control group. PA combined with sham cTBS was perfomed for 2 weeks in 10 daily sessions. Before and after the intervention, patients were evaluated for visuospatial neglect measured using the Star Cancellation Test (SCT), Line Bisection Task (LBT), Figure Copying Test, and Clock Drawing Task. Neurological function was evaluated using the Modified Rankin Scale (MRS). RESULTS: Both groups (PA alone and PA+ cTBS) showed improvement in their neglected symptoms (measured by SCT, LBT, Figure Copying Test, and Clock Drawing Task), and in their disability in the neurological function (measured by MRS) (P< .05). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study showed that, transcranial magnetic stimulation did not increase the effect of PA on neglect symptoms in stroke patients.


Assuntos
Agnosia/reabilitação , Ritmo beta , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Óculos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/instrumentação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Visão Ocular , Percepção Visual , Idoso , Agnosia/diagnóstico , Agnosia/fisiopatologia , Agnosia/psicologia , Terapia Combinada , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Projetos Piloto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Strabismus ; 27(2): 78-87, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379274

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine whether the Sbisa bar (Sbisa Ophthalmic Instruments) (referred to in this article as the BF(Sbisa) bar) and Bagolini Filter bar (C.O.I. Vision) (referred to in this article as the BF(new) bar) are repeatable and comparable, for measuring density of suppression or strength of abnormal binocular single vision (BSV), in a pediatric population. Methods: Using a spot photometer, percentage light transmittance of filters on two BF(Sbisa) bars and two BF(new) bars was measured. Thirty-three participants aged 5-12 years with unilateral strabismus were recruited. Density of suppression or strength of abnormal BSV was measured with two of each bar, in addition to a repeated measure with one of each bar. Results: Light transmittance did not reduce consistently with increasing filter number (the number assigned to each filter by the manufacturer). Using data as filter numbers, a BF(Sbisa) bar was not comparable to a BF(new) bar (ᵶ = -3.936, p < 0.001, r = -0.28); different BF(Sbisa) bars were not comparable (ᵶ = -3.103, p = 0.005, r = -0.22) but different BF(new) bars were comparable (ᵶ = -1.165, p = 1.285, r = -0.08). Using light transmittance values, a BF(Sbisa) bar was comparable to a BF(new) bar (ᵶ = -0.385, p = 3.535, r = -0.03); different BF(Sbisa) bars were comparable (ᵶ = -1.476, p = 0.720, r = -0.10) but different BF(new) bars were not comparable (ᵶ = -3.354, p < 0.001, r = -0.24). The BF(Sbisa) and BF(new) bars were not repeatable using filter numbers (ᵶ = -3.648, p < 0.001, r = -0.26 and ᵶ = -3.099, p = 0.005, r = -0.22, respectively) or light transmittance values (ᵶ = -3.743, p < 0.001, r = -0.27 and ᵶ = -2.727, p = 0.025, r = -0.19, respectively). An order effect existed using filter numbers (ᵶ = -4.473, p < 0.001, r = -0.32) and light transmittance values (ᵶ = -4.525, p < 0.001, r = -0.32). Conclusion: There is a need for the production of bars with consistently reducing and comparable light transmittance of filters if measurement of density of suppression or strength of abnormal BSV with filter bars is to continue, because the current bars show inconsistencies, particularly at lower filter numbers. In the meantime, the bars are limited by their lack of comparability or repeatability. Using only BF(new) bars is preferable to using BF(Sbisa) bars or a mixture of the two types of bar because two different BF(new) bars may be comparable using filter number readings, but filter number readings from different BF(Sbisa) bars or from a BF(Sbisa) and BF(new) bar are not comparable. As the BF(Sbisa) and BF(new) bars are currently labeled, a second measure of density of suppression or strength of abnormal BSV is not recommended within 2 min of an initial measurement, because the measurement procedure seems to cause a reduction in suppression or abnormal BSV that does not recover with repeated measurements 2 min apart.


Assuntos
Ambliopia/terapia , Diplopia/prevenção & controle , Óculos , Filtração/instrumentação , Luz , Ortóptica/instrumentação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Fotometria , Estudos Prospectivos , Visão Binocular/fisiologia
19.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(12): 1287-1291, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the reliability and effect of exercise on sideline dynamic visual performance measures of ocular-motor function using a portable visual assessment system (EYE-SYNC®). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Healthy student athletes, ages 18-25 years, performed eye-tracking six times-three times consecutively prior to and after practice-using EYE-SYNC® goggles. Ocular-motor performance was assessed by calculating five gaze error outcomes between target position and actual gaze position to inform dynamic visual synchronization. We assessed reliability by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for each outcome (we defined the standard deviation of tangential error (SDTE) as our primary outcome) and calculated differences in mean pre- and post-practice scores. RESULTS: ICCs for the SDTE score were 0.86 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.82-0.9) and 0.88 (0.84-0.91) at pre- and post-practice, respectively. 133 (89%) and 135 (90%) of 150 athletes had at least one measurement at pre- and post-practice, respectively. 117 (78%) and 122 (81%) athletes had more than one SDTE score at pre- and post-practice, respectively. The absolute mean (SD) differences between pre- and post-practice mean scores ranged from 0.02 (0.05) for horizontal gain to 0.1 (0.5) for SDTE. CONCLUSIONS: We observed high ICC scores indicating excellent reliability of visual synchronization measurements, suggesting that one measurement would be sufficient. Most athletes had similar scores before and after practice, indicating little change in visual performance following exercise. EYE-SYNC® goggles have the potential for use in obtaining objective visual performance measures of ocular-motor function for sideline assessment of concussion and return to play decisions.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/instrumentação , Exercício , Fixação Ocular , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Atletas , Óculos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
20.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 67(9): 1392-1399, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436180

RESUMO

Amblyopia is the most common cause of monocular visual impairment affecting 2-5% of the general population. Amblyopia is a developmental cortical disorder of the visual pathway essentially due to abnormal visual stimulus, reaching the binocular cortical cells, which may be multivariate. Ganglion cells are of two types: parvocellular (P cells) and magnocellular (M cells); they are the first step where the light energy is converted in to neural impulse. P cells are involved in fine visual acuity, fine stereopsis, and color vision and M cells are involved in gross stereopsis and movement recognition. Strabismus, refractive error, cataract, and ptosis, occurring during critical period are highly amblyogenic. The critical period extends from birth to 7--8 years. The earlier the clinically significant refractive error and strabismus are detected and treated, the greater the likelihood of preventing amblyopia. Treatment for amblyopia in children includes: optical correction of significant refractive errors, patching, pharmacological treatment, and alternative therapies which include: vision therapy, binocular therapy, and liquid crystal display eyeglasses are newer treatment modalities for amblyopia. Age of starting the treatment is not predictive of outcome, instituting treatment on detection and early detection plays a role in achieving better outcomes. This review aims to give a simplified update on amblyopia, which will be of use to a clinician, in understanding the pathophysiology of the complex condition. We also share the cortical aspects of amblyopia and give recent developments in the treatment of amblyopia.


Assuntos
Ambliopia/fisiopatologia , Atropina/administração & dosagem , Privação Sensorial , Acuidade Visual , Ambliopia/terapia , Óculos , Humanos , Midriáticos/administração & dosagem , Soluções Oftálmicas
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