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1.
N Engl J Med ; 382(8): 697-705, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The causative agents for the current national outbreak of electronic-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) have not been established. Detection of toxicants in bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with EVALI can provide direct information on exposure within the lung. METHODS: BAL fluids were collected from 51 patients with EVALI in 16 states and from 99 healthy participants who were part of an ongoing study of smoking involving nonsmokers, exclusive users of e-cigarettes or vaping products, and exclusive cigarette smokers that was initiated in 2015. Using the BAL fluid, we performed isotope dilution mass spectrometry to measure several priority toxicants: vitamin E acetate, plant oils, medium-chain triglyceride oil, coconut oil, petroleum distillates, and diluent terpenes. RESULTS: State and local health departments assigned EVALI case status as confirmed for 25 patients and as probable for 26 patients. Vitamin E acetate was identified in BAL fluid obtained from 48 of 51 case patients (94%) in 16 states but not in such fluid obtained from the healthy comparator group. No other priority toxicants were found in BAL fluid from the case patients or the comparator group, except for coconut oil and limonene, which were found in 1 patient each. Among the case patients for whom laboratory or epidemiologic data were available, 47 of 50 (94%) had detectable tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or its metabolites in BAL fluid or had reported vaping THC products in the 90 days before the onset of illness. Nicotine or its metabolites were detected in 30 of 47 of the case patients (64%). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin E acetate was associated with EVALI in a convenience sample of 51 patients in 16 states across the United States. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Vitamina E/análise , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros , Óleo de Coco/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Limoneno/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593521

RESUMO

Coconut oil has properties that are beneficial to human health. It assists in reducing total cholesterol, triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipids, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol in serum and tissues. So its production, and consequently consumption, have increased in recent years. However, it has been a target for intentional adulteration with lower priced oils and fats, such as soybean oil and palm kernel oil (PKO). Coconut oil (CO) and PKO have similar chemical and physical characteristics that make it difficult to verify adulteration of CO with PKO. This study demonstrates a simple, sensitive, and fast technique that uses direct infusion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in conjunction with principal component analysis (PCA), in order to detect CO adulterated with PKO. Among the seven commercial coconut oil samples analysed, three were adulterated with PKO. Therefore, the suggested direct infusion ESI-MS method can be used in routine analysis to guarantee the quality of coconut oil.


Assuntos
Óleo de Coco/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleo de Coco/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
3.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 21(2): 97-103, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29256925

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intravenous lipid emulsions (IVLEs) are an essential component of parenteral nutrition. With the recent incorporation of new lipid emulsions into the Canadian and American market, the clinician responsible for prescribing these lipids should be educated regarding the different fatty acid (FA) profiles of these lipids, as well as their metabolic and functional effects. RECENT FINDINGS: New IVLEs contain a mix of soybean oil and olive oil, or a mix of soybean oil, coconut oil, olive oil and fish oil. These new lipid emulsions provide less essential fatty acids (FAs) (linoleic and alpha linolenic acids) than in pure soybean oil, yet incorporation of fish oil into an IVLE may decrease the amount of essential FAs required. Fish oil is a treatment for hypertriglyceridemia, and therefore, IVLEs that include fish oil may decrease serum triglycerides. Historical perspective is that fish oil can be associated with increased bleeding time. Evidence suggests that there is no association between fish oil and increased bleeding in patients, even those who are using anticoagulants. New IVLEs provide less vitamin K than soybean oil alone. Patients, or the parenteral nutrition solutions that include these new IVLEs should be supplemented with vitamin K. SUMMARY: Canadian and American Guidelines for IVLEs were based on soybean oil. Current practice should be tailored to which IVLE is being prescribed.


Assuntos
Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/química , Óleos de Peixe/análise , Nutrição Parenteral , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Canadá , Óleo de Coco/análise , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/efeitos adversos , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipertrigliceridemia/sangue , Hipertrigliceridemia/terapia , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Óleo de Soja/análise , Estados Unidos , Vitamina K/análise , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 245: 798-805, 2018 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287444

RESUMO

This study aimed at evaluating the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination of commercial vegetable oils and examined the identity through the fatty acids profiles. Coconut, safflower, evening primrose, and linseed oils marketed in São Paulo (Brazil) were investigated totaling 69 samples. Four PAHs, benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chr), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), were detected in 96% of the samples at individual levels ranging from not detected to 14.99 µg kg-1. Chrysene was the abundant hydrocarbon found among all types of oils, with the highest median values. The results of the fatty acid profiles revealed that 43% showed different profiles according to the ones on their labels, with a higher incidence of adulteration of evening primrose oils. The maximum tolerable limits by European Regulation No. 835/2011 were exceeded for BaP in 12%, and for total 4 PAHs in 28%, with a greater contribution of adulterated samples.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Óleo de Semente do Linho/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Brasil , Crisenos , Óleo de Coco/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Ácidos Linoleicos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleo de Cártamo/análise , Ácido gama-Linolênico/análise
5.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 41(3): 489-495, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26041821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous fat emulsions (IVFE) with different fatty acid compositions contain vitamin E as a by-product of vegetable and animal oil during the refining processes. Likewise, other lipid-soluble vitamins may be present in IVFE. No data, however, exist about phytonadione (vitamin K1) concentration in IVFE information leaflets. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the phytonadione content in different IVFE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analyses were carried out in triplicate on 6 branded IVFE as follows: 30% soybean oil (100%), 20% olive-soybean oil (80%-20%), 20% soybean-medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) coconut oil (50%-50%), 20% soybean-olive-MCT-fish oil (30%-25%-30%-15%), 20% soybean-MCT-fish oil (40%-50%-10%), and 10% pure fish oil (100%). Phytonadione was analyzed and quantified by a quali-quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method after its extraction from the IVFE by an isopropyl alcohol-hexane mixture, reverse phase-liquid chromatography, and specific multiple-reaction monitoring for phytonadione and vitamin d3 (as internal standard). This method was validated through specificity, linearity, and accuracy. RESULTS: Average vitamin K1 content was 500, 100, 90, 100, 95, and 70 µg/L in soybean oil, olive-soybean oil, soybean-MCT coconut oil, soybean-olive-MCT-fish oil, soybean-MCT-fish oil, and pure fish oil intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs), respectively. The analytical LC-MS method was extremely effective in terms of specificity, linearity ( r = 0.99), and accuracy (coefficient of variation <5%). CONCLUSIONS: Phytonadione is present in IVFE, and its intake varies according to IVFE type and the volume administered. It can contribute to daily requirements and become clinically relevant when simultaneously infused with multivitamins during long-term parenteral nutrition. LC-MS seems adequate in assessing vitamin K1 intake in IVFE.


Assuntos
Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/química , Vitamina K 1/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Óleo de Coco/análise , Óleos de Peixe/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Nutrição Parenteral , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Óleo de Soja/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise
6.
Drug Deliv Transl Res ; 6(3): 254-62, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26813671

RESUMO

Microemulsions are interesting formulations for cosmeceutical applications due to their good appearance, high solubilization power, thermodynamic stability, and enhancement of skin penetration. In addition, they can spontaneously form when suitable types and amounts of components are simply mixed. In this study, the phase behavior of the nonionic systems with various parameters was studied by construction of phase diagrams using titration method. Natural oils, i.e., coconut oil (CO), rice bran oil (RBO), and palm oil (PO), were analyzed for their fatty acid compositions and then mixed with blends of nonionic surfactants (Tween80: Span80) and water or mixtures of water and a cosolvent, propylene glycol (PG), to find the microemulsion regions. Subsequently, some microemulsions were selected for physical characterization. The largest microemulsion regions which were obtained from CO, RBO, and PO covered the sizes of 11.65, 9.84, and 9.24 %, respectively. The surfactant mixture at weight ratio of 1:1 was the most suitable for CO and PO, but for RBO, it was 2:1. PG could increase the microemulsion regions of PO from 9.24 to 15.33 %, depending on PG concentrations. Hence, the sizes of the microemulsion regions were related to oil types, surfactant mixtures, and ratios between water and PG. The studied microemulsions were water-in-oil (w/o) type, and their internal droplets were in the nanosize range. They exhibited Newtonian flow behavior and their mean viscosity values were from 247.53 to 690.35 cP which were correlated with the types and concentrations of the components in the formulations. In conclusion, natural oils could form w/o microemulsions with nonionic surfactants. The microemulsion formation and characteristics were related to many parameters of the components.


Assuntos
Cosmecêuticos/química , Emulsões/química , Química Farmacêutica , Óleo de Coco/análise , Óleo de Coco/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Óleo de Palmeira/análise , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Propilenoglicol/química , Reologia , Óleo de Farelo de Arroz/análise , Óleo de Farelo de Arroz/química , Tensoativos/química , Viscosidade , Água/química
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