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2.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 759-794, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contamination of benzo(a)pyrene in edible vegetable oil from Henan Province. METHODS: A total of 1190 edible vegetable oil samples from Henan Province were collected. The concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was examined by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The concentration of benzo(a)pyrene in prepackaged edible vegetable oils was <0. 3-63. 5 µg/kg with an average of 1. 5 µg/kg. The detection rate of benzo(a)pyrene in samples was 80. 0%, and the over standard rate was 0. 6%. In terms of subclasses of vegetable oil, the sesame seed oil samples were most seriously contaminated with benzo(a)pyrene. The risk of the benzo(a)pyrene contamination of sesame seed oil produced by aqueous extraction method was higher than that by mechanical pressed method. The risk of benzo(a)pyrene contamination in sesame seed oil and rapeseed oil increased as the decrease of quality grade. CONCLUSION: The result suggested that the sesame seed oil produced by aqueous extraction method had high risk in benzo(a)pyrene contamination in Henan Province.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno , Verduras , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Óleos Vegetais
3.
Waste Manag ; 118: 626-636, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011540

RESUMO

Due to its environment-friendly and replenishable characteristics, biodiesel has the potential to substitute fossil fuels as an alternative source of energy. Although biodiesel has many benefits to offer, manufacturing biodiesel on an industrial scale is uneconomical as a high cost of feedstock is required. A novel sulfonated and magnetic catalyst synthesised from a palm kernel shell (PMB-SO3H) was first introduced in this study for methyl ester or biodiesel production to reduce capital costs. The wasted palm kernel shell (PKS) biochar impregnated with ferrite Fe3O4 was synthesised with concentrated sulphuric acid through the sulfonation process. The SEM, EDX, FTIR, VSM and TGA characterization of the catalysts were presented. Then, the optimisation of biodiesel synthesis was catalysed by PMB-SO3H via the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). It was found that the maximum biodiesel yield of 90.2% was achieved under these optimum operating conditions: 65 °C, 102 min, methanol to oil ratio of 13:1 and the catalyst loading of 3.66 wt%. Overall, PMB-SO3H demonstrated acceptable catalysing capability on its first cycle, which subsequently showed a reduction of the reusability performance after 4 cycles. An important practical implication is that PMB-SO3H can be established as a promising heterogeneous catalyst by incorporating an iron layer which can substantially improve the catalyst separation performance in biodiesel production.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Óleos Vegetais , Carvão Vegetal , Esterificação , Fenômenos Magnéticos
4.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 4969-4978, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Brucea javanica (BJO) has shown anti-proliferation efficacy on human carcinoma cells in vitro. The aim of the present study was to evaluate for the first time the efficacy of BJO combined with the first-line chemotherapeutic drug gemcitabine (GEM) on tumor growth-inhibition and survival in a pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pancreatic cancer tumor fragment originated from a patient at the Hefei First People's Hospital (Anhui, PR China). The surgical specimen was transplanted orthotopically in nude mice using surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI). All mice were randomized and assigned to 5 groups: G1: saline vehicle (0.1ml per mouse, oral, once per day); G2: GEM [100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p), twice per week]; G3: GEM+BJO [100 mg/kg GEM, i.p, twice per week+1g/kg BJO, oral, once per day (qd)]; G4: BJO (1g/kg, oral, qd). Group 5 and Group 6 were used to observe survival [G5: saline vehicle (0.1ml per mouse, oral, qd), G6: BJO (1g/kg, oral, qd)]. Body weight and tumor volume were measured twice per week. TUNEL staining was used to determine apoptosis. RESULTS: The combination of GEM + BJO resulted in a reduced tumor growth rate (p<0.05) and greater apoptosis (p<0.05) compared to the vehicle control and GEM monotherapy. In addition, the BJO-treated group showed a statistically significant increase in survival compared to the vehicle control (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: BJO is a promising non-toxic TCM to effectively treat pancreatic cancer, both as monotherapy and in combination with first-line GEM therapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Brucea/química , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3844-3851, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893579

RESUMO

To optimize the formulation and preparation process of icaritin-coix seed oil microemulsion(IC-MEs) based on quality by design(QbD) concept. IC-MEs were prepared by water titration. Firstly, the risk factors that may affect the quality of IC-MEs were evaluated. Then Plackett-Burman design was used to screen out prescription factors and process parameters that had a significant effect on the indicators. Finally, Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the prescription ratio of IC-MEs. Through the risk assessment and Plackett-Burman design, three formulation factors [drug loading efficiency, the ratio of mixed-oil(coix seed oil-Glycerol tributyrate) to mixed-surfactant(HS15-RH40) and water addition] were determined as the key factors affecting IC-MEs. The regression model established by Box-Behnken design had a good predictability. The optimal formula was as following: the drug loading efficiency of 0.92%, the ratio of mixed-oil(coix seed oil-glycerol tributyrate) to mixed-surfactant(HS15-RH40) of 4∶6, and the water addition of 5.7 mL. According to this prescription, IC-MEs were prepared, and its encapsulation efficiency after 1 week was 92.45%±1.00%. Therefore, the stability of IC-MEs could be improved by optimizing prescription and process parameters of IC-MEs based on the QbD concept, which can provide certain reference value for the future development of IC-MEs.


Assuntos
Coix , Emulsões , Flavonoides , Óleos Vegetais
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 317: 124031, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871332

RESUMO

The hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of As enriched Pteris vittata L. (PVL, hyper-accumulator biomass) was performed with the recycled aqueous phase as reaction medium, aiming to dispose the biomass with high water content and produce high-quality bio-oil. After three times of aqueous phase recycling at 275 °C, 30 min, the bio-oil yield increased to 30.32% from 21.54% and the higher heating value (HHV, 28.51 MJ/kg) of the bio-oil was higher than that of the bio-oil from HTL with pure water (26.80 MJ/kg). The main compounds detected in bio-oils were phenols, ketones, hydrocarbons, and aldehydes. Acetic acid (17.21-24.77 mg/mL) was dominant in the aqueous phases, resulting in the low pH (4.31-4.89). The heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd) mainly remained in bio-char whereas As was transferred to aqueous phase. Thus, HTL by aqueous phase recycling could be a promising way for PVL treatment to obtain high-quality bio-oil and arsenic recovery.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Pteris , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Óleos Vegetais , Polifenóis , Temperatura , Água
7.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104679, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980061

RESUMO

Peppermint oil (PO) has widely been reported for their nutritional and biomedical properties. Essential oil (EO) has several properties, usage restricted due to environmental condition, polymer based nanoencapsulation of EOs is developed as one of the promising technique to address this limitation. In this current study emphasizes on developing Peppermint oil (PO) encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs) by ionic gelation method in order to improving its insecticidal potential effective management of two stored grain pest. The nano-encapsulated PO (CS/PO NPs) was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The physicochemical characterization of CS/PO NPs revealed <563.3 nm size, Zeta potential of -12.12 mV, encapsulation efficiency >64% and loading capacity >12.31% respectively. Developed CS/PO NPs demonstrated the toxicity studies have significantly efficacy against both stored product pest compared to control. In-vivo percent inhibition of AChE activity ranged between S. oryzae (52.43% and 37.71% and and T. castaneum (37.80% and 31.29). Overall, these results highlighted that polymer chitosan nanoparticle encapsulated with essential oil is a promising novel design that could be promoted in stored food pest management schedule for T. castaneum and S. oryzae.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Nanopartículas , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Mentha piperita , Controle de Pragas , Óleos Vegetais
8.
Waste Manag ; 116: 157-165, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799097

RESUMO

Hydrothermal treatment for dairy manure into value-added hydrochar and bio-oil is a potential technology for its resource utilization. During the process of treatment, extractant is applied to the separation of hydrochar and bio-oil. In this study, three polar extractants (ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, diethyl ether) and two nonpolar extractants (n-hexane and petroleum ether) were used, and the physico-chemical properties of hydrochar and the composition of bio-oil were investigated. Compared with nonpolar extractants, polar extractants could extract the bio-oil absorbed on the hydrochar exterior and interior surface, resulting in more mass loss of hydrochar and better extraction performance on the production of bio-oil. The decrease of H/C atomic ratio and the increase of O/C atomic ratio indicated the demethanation tendency to occur during the extraction process, and enhanced the hydrochar stability. The scanning electron microscope and specific surface area analysis revealed that polar extractant had a more positive effect than nonpolar extractant on the occurrence of disperse spherical microparticles and the augment of hydrochar specific surface area. The bio-oil from polar extractant mainly consisted of N-containing compounds, ketones, phenols and acids, while the bio-oil from nonpolar extractant mainly consisted of esters, alkanes and aromatics. These results reveal that the hydrochar extracted by polar solvent exerts a greater potential for the production of carbon-based material.


Assuntos
Esterco , Polifenóis , Carbono , Óleos Vegetais
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 316: 123943, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750639

RESUMO

Microalgae offer numerous potential applications, however the industrial scale-up of algal technology still remains a challenge due to high production cost. Optimization of growth conditions and integration with waste streams can improve the economic viability of microalgal production systems. This study investigated on the optimal growth conditions of microalgae Nostoc ellipsosporum cultivated in municipal wastewater with the objective of achieving maximum biomass production, nutrient removal efficiency and bio-oil yield. The effect of light intensity, photoperiod, wavelength, aeration and growth media composition were studied. Different formulations of municipal wastewater blended with Fog's nutrient were used as growth medium. Optimization of growth conditions and acclimatization to wastewater enhanced the biomass yield of Nostoc ellipsosporum from 1.42 to 2.9 g L-1, achieving 87.59% of nitrogen removal and 88.31% of phosphate removal from wastewater. Furthermore, hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass produced bio-oil yield of 24.62% at 300 °C.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Nostoc , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Óleos Vegetais , Polifenóis , Temperatura , Águas Residuárias
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 316: 123914, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768997

RESUMO

This work studied the hydrothermal liquefaction of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and effect of emulsification on upgrading the bio-oil. The fuel properties and storage stability characteristics of emulsion fuels were explored. The combustion characteristic analysis showed that the ignition temperatures of emulsion fuels (139.6-151.3 °C) were lower than that of bio-oil (176.9 °C). Besides, emulsion fuels had higher comprehensive combustion indexes (7.24-14.08 × 10-6 × min-2 × C-3) than bio-oil (1.51 × 10-6 × min-2 × C-3), indicating that emulsion fuels had better combustion performance. The kinetic analysis showed that emulsification could effectively reduce the activation energy, resulting in less energy input for combustion. Based on chemical composition evolution during the storage process, a possible stability mechanism was proposed. The storage stability analysis indicated that the diesel-solvable fractions in bio-oil had better stability. Overall, this work provides a feasible way for bio-oil upgrading through emulsification. In addition, a better understanding of the stability property of emulsion fuel was provided.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Biocombustíveis , Cinética , Óleos Vegetais , Polifenóis , Temperatura
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764795

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with 100ppm sodium monensin or 0.15% of a blend of functional oils (cashew nut oil + castor oil) on the intestinal microbiota of broilers challenged with three different Eimeria spp. The challenge was accomplished by inoculating broiler chicks with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina, and Eimeria maxima via oral gavage. A total of 864, day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb) were randomly assigned to six treatments (eight pens/treatment; 18 broilers/pen) in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, composed of three additives (control, monensin or blend), with or without Eimeria challenge. Intestinal contents was collected at 28 days of age for microbiota analysis by sequencing 16s rRNA in V3 and V4 regions using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Taxonomy was assigned through the SILVA database version 132, using the QIIME 2 software version 2019.1. No treatment effects (p > 0.05) were observed in the microbial richness at the family level estimated by Chao1 and the biodiversity assessed by Simpson's index, except for Shannon's index (p < 0.05). The intestinal microbiota was dominated by members of the order Clostridiales and Lactobacillales, followed by the families Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Lactobacillaceae, regardless of treatment. When the controls were compared, in the challenged control group there was an increase in Erysipelotrichaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Peptostreptococcaceae, and a decrease in Ruminococcaceae. Similar results were found for a challenged group that received monensin, while the blend partially mitigated this variation. Therefore, the blend alleviated the impact of coccidiosis challenge on the microbiome of broilers compared to monensin.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Monensin/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/dietoterapia , Anacardium/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/dietoterapia , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Eimeria/genética , Eimeria/imunologia , Eimeria/patogenicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Masculino , Oocistos/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ricinus/química
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 317: 123993, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799088

RESUMO

Microalgae (MA) was co-liquefied with sweet potato waste (SPW) to improve bio-oil and bio-char qualities via Mannich reaction. The influence of Mannich reaction on combustion performances of bio-oil and bio-char were investigated. Results suggested that the addition of SPW decrease the ignition temperature of bio-oil from 186.6 °C to 165.0 °C. In addition, the denitrification effect of Mannich reaction can decrease the HCN and NO emission of bio-oil, contributing to reducing pollutant emission. As for bio-char, Mannich reaction improved the combustible material content in bio-char, which decreased the risk of slagging problem. The comprehensive combustion indexes of bio-oil (1.23 × 10-6 × min-2×°C-3) and bio-char (4.79 × 10-8 × min-2×°C-3) from co-liquefaction were higher than those from liquefaction of MA (0.91 × 10-6 × min-2×°C-3 for bio-oil and 1.24 × 10-8 × min-2×°C-3 for bio-char), indicating that the combustion performance was promoted by adding SPW. Overall, Mannich reaction can be applied to improve the combustion performance of bio-oil and bio-char.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Microalgas , Biocombustíveis , Carvão Vegetal , Óleos Vegetais , Polifenóis , Temperatura
13.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461380, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823093

RESUMO

Microwave-ultrasonic assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction (MUAAEE) was applied to extract tiger nut oil (TNO). The conditions of MUAAEE were optimized by Plackett-Burman design followed Box-Behnken design. An oil recovery of 85.23% was achieved under optimum conditions of a 2% concentration of mixed enzyme including cellulase, pectinase and hemicellulase (1/1/1, w/w/w), particle size <600 µm, microwave power 300 W, ultrasonic power 460 W, radiation temperature 40 °C, time 30 min, enzymolysis temperature 45 °C, pH 4.9, liquid-to-solid ratio 10 mL/g and time 180 min. Oil by MUAAEE revealed the similar fatty acid compositions, triglyceride compositions, thermal behaviour and flavour compared with oil by Soxhlet extraction (SE), while the oil quality of MUAAEE is superior to that of SE. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that structural disruption of tiger nut caused by MUAAEE facilitated the oil extraction. Results suggest that MUAAEE could be an efficient and environment-friendly method for extraction of TNO.


Assuntos
Cyperus/química , Enzimas/metabolismo , Micro-Ondas , Nozes/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ultrassom , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Celulase/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura , Triglicerídeos/análise , Água/química
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461390, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823096

RESUMO

A dispersive solid phase extraction method was combined with deep eutectic solvent-based solidification of floating organic drop-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and used for the extraction/preconcentration of some organophosphorus pesticides residues from edible oil samples. The extracted analytes were quantified with gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detector. In this procedure, the sample lipids are saponified with a sodium hydroxide solution and then the analytes are adsorbed onto a primary secondary amine sorbent. After that the analytes are desorbed with acetone as an elution/dispersive solvent and mixed with choline chloride: 3,3-dimethyl butyric acid deep eutectic solvent and the mixture is rapidly dispersed into deionized water. Then, the obtained cloudy solution is centrifuged and placed into an ice bath. The extraction solvent is solidified on the top of the solution. Finally, it is removed and dissolved in acetonitrile, and 1 µL of the solution is injected into the separation system. Validation of the method showed that limits of detection and quantification were in the ranges of 0.06-0.24 and 0.20-0.56 ng mL-1, respectively. Enrichment factors and extraction recoveries of the analytes ranged from 170-192 and 68-77%, respectively. The method had an acceptable precision with relative standard deviations less than ≤9.2% for intra- (n=6) and inter-day (n=6) precisions at four concentrations (3, 10, 50, and 250 ng mL-1, each analyte). Finally the method was used for determination of the analytes in five edible oil samples.


Assuntos
Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Solventes/química , Acetonitrilos/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Soluções , Sonicação , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 985-992, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788517

RESUMO

The oxidative stability of sunflower oil containing rosemary essential oil and extracts in the oil during frying were followed by measuring peroxide value. Variation in the values of L* of the frying oil containing extract was less than that of frying oil containing essential oil. a*-Value of the fried oil containing extract highly significant decreased. Increase in the value of b* of 1. and 2. frying oil with 0.5 % rosemary essential oil was less. b* Value of the frying oils containing rosemary extract increased compared to b* values of frying oils containing essential oil. b* Value of the frying oil that the essential oil of rosemary added showed less increase than b* value of the frying oil that extract of rosemary. The viscosity values of frying oils containing rosemary extract changed between 30.3 mPas (1. frying oil containing 0.5% extract) and 35.5 mPas (2. frying oil containing 0.5% extract). In addition, free fatty acidity values of frying oils containing essential oil at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% levels ranged from 0.160% (1. frying oil containing 0.5% essential oil) to 0.320% (1. frying oil containing 0.3% essential oil). Peroxide values of frying oils containing rosemary extracts were determined between 12.84 meq O2/kg (1. frying oil containing 0.1% extract) and 28.98 meq O2/kg (2. frying oil containing 0.1% extract). Peroxide value of frying made with 0.3 % the rosemary essential oil increased less than that of made with the raw sunflower oil (control) (p < 0.05). Whenever rosemary essential oil and rosemary extract compare, the essential oil seems to be more effective on the peroxide value of the frying oil. The essential oil of rosemary have been effected more from the extracts of rosemary on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil.


Assuntos
Culinária , Temperatura Alta , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleo de Girassol/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Oxirredução , Peróxidos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/química
16.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 993-1000, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788518

RESUMO

In this study, seed oils of Thladiantha nudiflora and Thladiantha dubia were found to contain 55.5 and 44.4% mole of conjugated octadecatrienoic fatty acids, respectively. The presence of moieties of conjugated fatty acids was confirmed by a series from physical methods: UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The triacylglycerols (TAGs) isolated of the seed oils were studied by RP-HPLC with diode array and mass spectrometric detections. It was shown that all 15 TAGs of Thladiantha dubia contain moieties of conjugated fatty acids - punicic, (9Z,11E,13Z)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid (35.6% mole) and 8.9% mole α-eleostearic, (9Z,11E,13E)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid. Meanwhile, 24 TAGs of Thladiantha nudiflora seed oil contain both acids in approximately equal proportions (27.4:28.2 % mole). The enrichment for polyunsaturated fatty acids of the hydrolysis product of the seed oils due to urea inclusion complex formation was discussed.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas
17.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 1001-1009, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788519

RESUMO

To determine the food potential of Paeonia ludlowii D.Y.Hong (P. ludlowii) kernel oil, in this study, we analysed the fatty acid composition and volatile components of this oil, compared the antioxidant effects of two natural antioxidants on it, and then predicted its shelf life at room temperature (25°C). The results showed that P. ludlowii kernel oil mainly contained 20 fatty acids, of which linoleic acid, oleic acid and other unsaturated fatty acid contents together made up 86.99%. The aromatic composition of the crude P. ludlowii kernel oil was analysed, and 34 aromatic compounds were obtained, including 5 lipids (2.30%), 9 alcohols (12.64%), 6 aldehydes (14.67%), 2 alkanes (1.30%), 5 acids (2.70%), 1 ketone (0.41), 2 alkenes (39.12%) and 4 other substances (26.85%). The effects of the antioxidants were ranked as follows: 0.04% tea polyphenols + crude oil > 0.04% bamboo flavonoids + crude oil > crude oil. In addition, the shelf lives at room temperature (25℃) of each kernel oil-antioxidant mixture were 200.73 d, 134.90 d and 131.61 d, respectively. Overall, these results reveal that P. ludlowii kernel oil is a potential candidate for a new high-grade edible oil, and its development has broad application prospects.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Paeonia/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/química , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Ácido Oleico/análise , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
18.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461397, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823102

RESUMO

A new and sensitive analytical method for the simultaneous determination of secondary lipid peroxidation aldehydes has been successfully developed and validated. Malondialdehyde, acrolein, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, and pentanal were extracted and derivatized using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) by gas-diffusion microextraction (GDME) combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The experimental conditions have been optimized by experimental designs. The analytical method validation, in accordance to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance, provided good results in terms of linearity with r2≥0.9974, in the range from 0.15 or 0.3 µg·g-1 to 3 µg·g-1. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.05 or 0.10 and 0.15 or 0.3 µg·g-1, respectively. Precision was tested as a relative standard deviation (RSD≤ 9.5%) and recoveries were between 95% and 110%. The method was applied in the characterization of aldehydes in forty-eight edible oil samples; with the highest concentration found in pomace olive oil for malondialdehyde at 6.64 µg·g-1.


Assuntos
Acetaldeído/análise , Acroleína/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Malondialdeído/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Acetaldeído/isolamento & purificação , Acroleína/isolamento & purificação , Aldeídos/análise , Aldeídos/isolamento & purificação , Limite de Detecção , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Malondialdeído/isolamento & purificação , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(3): 283-296, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740897

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Differences in FAE1 enzyme affinity for the acyl-CoA substrates, as well as the balance between the different pathways involved in their incorporation to triacylglycerol might be determinant of the different composition of the seed oil in Brassicaceae. Brassicaceae present a great heterogeneity of seed oil and fatty acid composition, accumulating Very Long Chain Fatty Acids with industrial applications. However, the molecular determinants of these differences remain elusive. We have studied the ß-ketoacyl-CoA synthase from the high erucic feedstock Thlaspi arvense (Pennycress). Functional characterization of the Pennycress FAE1 enzyme was performed in two Arabidopsis backgrounds; Col-0, with less than 2.5% of erucic acid in its seed oil and the fae1-1 mutant, deficient in FAE1 activity, that did not accumulate erucic acid. Seed-specific expression of the Pennycress FAE1 gene in Col-0 resulted in a 3 to fourfold increase of erucic acid content in the seed oil. This increase was concomitant with a decrease of eicosenoic acid levels without changes in oleic ones. Interestingly, only small changes in eicosenoic and erucic acid levels occurred when the Pennycress FAE1 gene was expressed in the fae1-1 mutant, with high levels of oleic acid available for elongation, suggesting that the Pennycress FAE1 enzyme showed higher affinity for eicosenoic acid substrates, than for oleic ones in Arabidopsis. Erucic acid was incorporated to triacylglycerol in the transgenic lines without significant changes in their levels in the diacylglycerol fraction, suggesting that erucic acid was preferentially incorporated to triacylglycerol via DGAT1. Expression analysis of FAE1, AtDGAT1, AtLPCAT1 and AtPDAT1 genes in the transgenic lines further supported this conclusion. Differences in FAE1 affinity for the oleic and eicosenoic substrates among Brassicaceae, as well as their incorporation to triacylglycerol might explain the differences in composition of their seed oil.


Assuntos
3-Oxoacil-(Proteína de Transporte de Acila) Sintase/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis , Vias Biossintéticas , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Thlaspi/enzimologia , Thlaspi/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese , 1-Acilglicerofosfocolina O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , 3-Oxoacil-(Proteína de Transporte de Acila) Sintase/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Ácidos Erúcicos/metabolismo , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenótipo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sementes/genética , Análise de Sequência , Thlaspi/genética , Transcriptoma
20.
Food Chem ; 333: 127501, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682230

RESUMO

Pomegranate seed oil is valuable source of bioactive compounds with health-beneficial effects, but it is sensitive to oxidation due to high content of PUFA. In order to improve stability of pomegranate seed oil, the influence of natural antioxidant (0.1% pomegranate peel extract) and a combination of synthetic antioxidant (0.01% butylhydroxytoluene) and pomegranate peel extract (0.05%) was investigated. The oxidation process was followed by monitoring fatty acid composition and measuring the quality and stability parameters of oil (acid value, peroxide value, anisidine value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value) during storage for 12 days at 65 °C. Furthermore, total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity was measured. Pomegranate peel extract as well as a combination of pomegranate peel extract and BHT can have a significant positive impact (P < 0.05) on improvement of the quality and stability parameters of pomegranate seed oil. Furthermore, such activity was better than BHT used alone.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Romã (Fruta)/química , Antioxidantes/química , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/química , Frutas/química , Oxirredução , Fenóis/química , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/química
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