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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3149-3162, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062961

RESUMO

Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO), which is widely consumed as both food and herbal medicine in tropical and subtropical regions, has a wide spectrum of health benefits. Yet, whether the oil obtained from MO seeds could affect (improve) the sleep activity remains unclear. Herein, we used the locomotor activity, pentobarbital-induced sleeping, and pentetrazol-induced convulsions test to examine sedative-hypnotic effects (SHE) of MO oil (MOO) and explored the underlying mechanisms. Besides, the main components of MOO like oleic acid, ß-Sitosterol, and Stigmasterol were also evaluated. The results showed that they possessed good SHE. Except for oleic acid and Stigmasterol, they could significantly elevate γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and reduce glutamic acid (Glu) levels in the hypothalamus of mice. Moreover, SHE was blocked by picrotoxin, flumazenil, and bicuculline, except for oleic acid, which could not be antagonized by picrotoxin. Molecular mechanisms showed that MOO and ß-Sitosterol significantly upregulated the amount of protein-level expression of Glu decarboxylase-65 (GAD65) and α1-subunit of GABAA receptors in the hypothalamus of mice, not affecting GAD67, γ2 subunits. These data indicated that MOO modulates sleep architectures via activation of the GABAA-ergic systems.


Assuntos
Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Moringa oleifera/química , Pentobarbital/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Sementes/química , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/genética
2.
Exp Parasitol ; 210: 107845, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004533

RESUMO

Vegetable oils are frequently used as solvents for lipophilic materials; accordingly, the effects of their components should be considered in animal experiments. In this study, the effects of various vegetable oils on the course of Trypanosoma congolense infection were examined in mice. C57BL/6J mice were orally administered four kinds of oils (i.e., coconut oil, olive oil, high oleic safflower oil, and high linoleic safflower oil) with different fatty acid compositions and infected with T. congolense IL-3000. Oil-treated mice infected with T. congolense showed significantly higher survival rates and lower parasitemia than those of control mice. Notably, coconut oil, which mainly consists of saturated fatty acids, delayed the development of parasitemia at the early stage of infection. These results indicated that vegetable oil intake could affect T. congolense infection in mice. These findings have important practical implications; for example, they suggest the potential effectiveness of vegetable oils as a part of the regular animal diet for controlling tropical diseases and indicate that vegetable oils are not suitable solvents for studies of the efficacy of lipophilic agents against T. congolense.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Trypanosoma congolense/efeitos dos fármacos , Tripanossomíase Africana/dietoterapia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleo de Coco/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Coco/química , Óleo de Coco/farmacologia , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ácido Oleico/análise , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Azeite de Oliva/química , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia , Parasitemia/prevenção & controle , Óleos Vegetais/classificação , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Óleo de Cártamo/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Cártamo/química , Óleo de Cártamo/farmacologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/prevenção & controle
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2303-2314, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954586

RESUMO

Different inclusion rates of oregano essential oil (OEO) were investigated for their effects on ruminal in vitro fermentation parameters, total gas, methane production, and bacterial communities. Treatments were (1) control, 0 mg/L of OEO (CON); 13 mg/L (OEO1); 52 mg/L (OEO2); 91 mg/L (OEO3); and 130 mg/L (OEO4), each incubated with 150 mL of buffered rumen fluid and 1,200 mg of substrate for 24 h using the Ankom in vitro gas production system (Ankom Technology Corp., Fairport, NY). Treatment responses were statistically analyzed using polynomial contrasts. Digestibility of DM, NDF, and ADF increased quadratically with increasing OEO inclusion rates. Digestibility of DM and NDF were highest for OEO2, whereas ADF digestibility was highest for OEO3, compared with CON, with the remaining treatments being intermediate and similar. Ammonia nitrogen concentrations decreased from CON at a quadratic rate with increasing OEO inclusion rates, and OEO2 had the lowest concentration compared with the other groups. Total VFA, acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, and isovalerate concentrations linearly decreased with increasing OEO inclusion rates. Total gas production levels by CON and OEO4 were greater than those of OEO1, OEO2, and OEO3 in a quadratic response, and methane production linearly decreased from CON, compared with OEO4, at a decreasing rate with OEO inclusion rates. As determined by 16S rRNA sequencing, the α biodiversity of ruminal bacteria was similar among OEO inclusion rates. Increasing OEO inclusion rates linearly increased the relative abundance of Prevotella and Dialister bacteria. Several bacteria demonstrated different polynomial responses, whereas several bacteria were similar among increasing OEO inclusion rates. These results suggested that OEO supplementation can modify ruminal fermentation to alter VFA concentrations and reduce methane emissions by extensively altering the ruminal bacterial community, suggesting an optimal feeding rate for future animal studies of approximately 52 mg/L for mature ruminants.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bovinos/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metano/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Origanum/química , Ovinos/fisiologia , Amônia/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rúmen/metabolismo
4.
Gastroenterology ; 158(1): 123-136, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Peppermint oil is frequently used to treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), despite a lack of evidence for efficacy from high-quality controlled trials. We studied the efficacy and safety of small-intestinal-release peppermint oil in patients with IBS and explored the effects of targeted ileocolonic-release peppermint oil. METHODS: We performed a double-blind trial of 190 patients with IBS (according to Rome IV criteria) at 4 hospitals in The Netherlands from August 2016 through March 2018; 189 patients were included in the intent-to-treat analysis (mean age, 34.0 years; 77.8% female; 57.7% in primary care), and 178 completed the study. Patients were randomly assigned to groups given 182 mg small-intestinal-release peppermint oil, 182 mg ileocolonic-release peppermint oil, or placebo for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was abdominal pain response, as defined by the US Food and Drug Administration: at least a 30% decrease in the weekly average of worst daily abdominal pain compared with baseline in at least 4 weeks. The co-primary endpoint was overall relief of IBS symptoms, as defined by the European Medicines Agency. Secondary endpoints included abdominal pain, discomfort, symptom severity, and adverse events. RESULTS: Abdominal pain response did not differ significantly between the peppermint oil and placebo groups: 29 of 62 patients in the small-intestinal-release peppermint oil group had a response (46.8%, P = .170 vs placebo), 26 of 63 patients in the ileocolonic-release peppermint oil group had a response (41.3%, P = .385 vs placebo), and 22 of 64 patients in the placebo group had a response (34.4%). We did not find differences among the groups in overall relief (9.7%, P = .317 and 1.6%, P = .351 vs 4.7% for placebo). The small intestinal peppermint oil did, however, produce greater improvements than placebo in secondary outcomes of abdominal pain (P = .016), discomfort (P = .020), and IBS severity (P = .020). Adverse events, although mild, were more common in both peppermint oil groups (P < .005). CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized trial of patients with IBS, we found that neither small-intestinal-release nor ileocolonic-release peppermint oil (8 weeks) produced statistically significant reductions in abdominal pain response or overall symptom relief, when using US Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency recommended endpoints. The small-intestinal-release peppermint oil did, however, significantly reduce abdominal pain, discomfort, and IBS severity. These findings do not support further development of ileocolonic-release peppermint oil for treatment of IBS. Clinicaltrials.gov, Number: NCT02716285.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Cápsulas , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/complicações , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Medição da Dor , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Invest Surg ; 33(1): 49-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856665

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Hypericum perforatum (HP) oil on wound-healing process in rabbit palatal mucosa. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six New Zealand albino rabbits were randomly allocated to following groups; (1) HP oil (test, n = 18) and (2) olive oil (control, n = 18). Palatinal excisional wounds were created and the oils were topically applied (0.1 ml, 30 s, twice a day). Gingival biopsies were excised, and analyzed for re-epithelialization (RE) and granulation tissue maturation (GTM) on days 3, 7, and 14 after surgery. Levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) were assessed using the immunohistochemical method. Apoptotic cells (ACs) were evaluated using TUNEL staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to assess tissue catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Results: RE and GTM were completed earlier in the HP oil group than in the control group. The number of positively stained cells/vessels was higher in olive oil than in the test group on day 3 for FGF-2 and on days 3 and 7 for VEGF (p < 0.05). In contrast, on day 14, a higher number of vessels was observed in the HP oil group than in the control group. HP oil treatment reduced the number of ACs compared to olive oil (p < 0.05), but the difference during the healing period did not reach significance. Tissue CAT and MDA levels between groups were not different, and also the results were the same when the levels were analyzed by the evaluated time periods (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that topical HP oil treatment did not provide an additional benefit to its base, olive oil, in the early phase of secondary wound healing.


Assuntos
Hypericum/química , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Reepitelização/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Biópsia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Gengiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengiva/patologia , Gengiva/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal/cirurgia , Palato/efeitos dos fármacos , Palato/patologia , Palato/cirurgia , Coelhos
6.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(5): 2099-2105, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813876

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases and cancer are the leading cause of death worldwide, changed lifestyle and eating habits are the major contributing factors. Daily consumption cooking oils is one of the nutritional sources in today's life. Oils are available in market in the blend of two or more oils to get the maximum health benefits. There are number of factors which decide the pathogenic or protective effects of these oils, like fatty acids(FAs) composition, duration and extent of thermal exposure, daily intake and consumption duration. While processing the food cooking oils are thermally oxidized, that exert deleterious health effects, when taken for long time. The present study designed to evaluate the lipid peroxidation and level of oxidative stress in rabbits treated with repeatedly heated mix vegetable oils, in low (L-RHMVO) and high doses (H-RHMVO) in comparison with single time heated olive (STH-OO), canola (STH-CO), sunflower (STH-SO) oils individually and in mixture (STH-MVO) collected from Karachi (Pakistan).Six groups of animals treated with all these processed oils for 16 weeks along with normal diet .Control group was kept on normal rabbit diet. Animal body and organ weight was recorded. Blood samples were collected to measure plasma Malondialdehyde (MDA), Homocysteine(H-Cys), Creatine phosphokinase (CPK), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profile (TGs, Total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol).Statistically highly significant (p<0.005) increased body and organ weight along with Total-cholesterol, TGs, LDL-cholesterol, VDLD-Cholesterol, H-Cys, MDA,CPK,LDH & CRP and decreased HDL-cholesterol was found in H-RHMVO and L-RHMVO groups in dose dependent manner compared to control and single time heated oils groups. Among the single time heated oils STH-SO fed animals had significant (p<0.05) increase in lipid periodization and oxidative stress parameters. STH-OO showed least variation from control with significant increase in HDL-cholesterol level. The finding of this study not only confirms health deleterious effect of vegetable oils when used in thermally oxidized condition but also suggests induced-metabolic changes with oxidative stress. So more advance studies simulating real-life exposure to multiple hazardous substances is required.


Assuntos
Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/química , Animais , Colesterol/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Olea/química , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Paquistão , Coelhos
7.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0227220, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881054

RESUMO

In this study, essential oils (EO)-incorporated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) filters were developed for achieving dual functions in effective removing bacteria from aqueous solutions and inactivating bacteria cells captured on the filters. Tea tree essential oil (TTO), lemon essential oil (LEO), and TTO-LEO-mixture were coated on MWCNTs filters with different MWCNTs loadings ranging from 3 mg to 6 mg. MWCNTs filters with 6.0 mg MWCNTs showed complete removal (100%) of E. coli cells from PBS buffer with 6.35 log10 decrease of cell numbers. TTO, LEO, and TTO/LEO Mix (1:1) coatings at the volume of 50 µL on MWCNTs filters achieved bacterial removal rates of >98%, and highly effective inactivation efficiency. TTO coatings had the highest antimicrobial efficacies than LEO and Mix coatings, MWCNTs filters with 50 µL TTO coating showed 100% inhibitory rate of the captured bacteria on the filter surfaces. Those captured but survived cells on filters with less TTO coating (20µL) significantly reduced their salt tolerances to 30 and 40 g/L NaCl in LB agar, and became less salt tolerance with longer incubation time on the filters. The developed TTO-MWCNTs filters had much higher antimicrobial efficacies than the filters with dual functions developed previously.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Melaleuca/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleo de Melaleuca/farmacologia
8.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 306, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711477

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: The chemical composition of many essential oils indicates that they have sedative and hypnotic effects, but there is still a lack of systematic studies on the sedative and hypnotic effects of essential oils. In addition, aromatherapy does not seem to have the side effects of many traditional psychotropic substances, which is clearly worthwhile for further clinical and scientific research. The clinical application of essential oils in aromatherapy has received increasing attention, and detailed studies on the pharmacological activities of inhaled essential oils are increasingly needed. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: As insomniacs are usually accompanied by symptoms of depression and anxiety of varying degrees, based on the theory of aromatherapy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, this experiment is to study a Compound Anshen essential oil that is compatible with Lavender essential oil, Sweet Orange essential oil, Sandalwood essential oil and other aromatic medicine essential oils with sedative and hypnotic effects, anti-anxiety and anti-depression effects. To study the sedative and hypnotic effects of Compound Anshen essential oil inhaled and the main chemical components of Compound Anshen essential oil, and to compare and analyze the pharmacodynamics of diazepam, a commonly used drug for insomnia. METHODS: The Open field test and Pentobarbital-induced sleep latency and sleep time experiments were used to analyze and compare the sedative and hypnotic effects of inhaling Compound Anshen essential oil and the administration of diazepam on mice. The changes of 5-HT and GABA in mouse brain were analyzed by Elisa. The main volatile constituents of Compound Anshen essential oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS: Inhalation of Compound Anshen essential oil can significantly reduce the spontaneous activity of mice, reduce latency of sleeping time and prolong duration of sleeping time. The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that Compound Anshen essential oil can increase the content of 5-HT and GABA in mouse brain. The main volatile chemical constituents of the Compound Anshen essential oil are D-limonene (24.07%), Linalool (21.98%), Linalyl acetate (15.37%), α-Pinene (5.39%), and α-Santalol (4.8%). CONCLUSION: The study found that the inhalation of Compound Anshen essential oil has sedative and hypnotic effect. This study provides a theoretical basis for further research and development of the sedative and hypnotic effects of Compound Anshen essential oil based on the theory of aromatherapy.


Assuntos
Aromaterapia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Citrus sinensis/química , Feminino , Humanos , Lavandula/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Santalum/química , Serotonina/metabolismo , Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/metabolismo , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
9.
Food Funct ; 10(12): 8094-8105, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735946

RESUMO

Garlic essential oil (GEO) and its major organosulfur component (diallyl disulfide, DADS) possess diverse biological properties; however, limited information on their antidepressant-like effects is available. This study is the first to investigate these effects of GEO using the forced swimming test (FST) and unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) induced depression in rats. After oral administration for 28 consecutive days, GEO (25 and 50 mg per kg bw) significantly reduced the immobility time in the FST. Additionally, GEO and DADS significantly reversed the sucrose preference index decrease induced by 5 weeks of UCMS. GEO (25 mg per kg bw) effectively decreased the frontal cortex turnover ratio of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), thus increasing the 5-HT and DA levels, with no hippocampal effects. Chronic GEO treatment increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), c-AMP response element binding protein (CREB), and protein kinase B (AKT) expression, exhibiting its effects via monoamine neurotransmitter modulation and the BDNF-related signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Alho/química , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Animais , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Serotonina/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 46(5): e20192245, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to compare the healing by second intention under the effects of topical application of honey, copaíba oil-resin and a commercial product (fibrinolysin, deoxyribonuclease and chloramphenicol) with a control group in rats. METHODS: we carried out a skin resection, 1cm in diameter, on the back of 40 rats allocated to four groups of ten animals. All wounds were cleaned daily with 2ml of 0.9% NaCl solution. The first group (control - GC) was restricted to such procedure. In the wounds of the second (GM), third (GO) and fourth groups (GF), after cleaning, we respectively applied 1ml of honey, 1ml of copaíba oil-resin and 1ml of cream containing fibrinolysin, deoxyribonuclease and chloramphenicol. The wounds were occluded with sterile gauze. Immediately after the incision and on days three, seven and 14 of the experiment, the wounds were copied and contraction was analyzed using planimetry. After euthanasia, we histologically evaluated the inflammatory reaction and collagen in the scars. RESULTS: the reduction of the wound area of GM (p=0.003), GO (p=0.011) and GF (p=0.002) were higher than the GC. The amount of type-I collagen present in GM and GO was higher than in GC and GF groups (p<0.05). There was a predominance of chronic inflammatory stage in GM (p=0.004), GO (p<0.001) and GF (p=0.003) when compared with GC. CONCLUSION: the topical use of honey and copaíba oil-resin increases wound contraction, the presence of type-I collagen and accelerates healing.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Fabaceae/química , Mel , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Cloranfenicol/administração & dosagem , Desoxirribonuclease I/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrinolisina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3619357, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781612

RESUMO

Objective: The present study aims at evaluating the beneficial effect of Nigella sativa (NS) oil mouth rinse in the management of chemotherapy- (CT-) induced oral mucositis (OM) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Methods: Fifty-four AML patients were participated in this study and randomly allocated to either the test group or a control group. The patients of the test group received NS oil mouth rinse during 28-day CT, while the participants of the control group received a "magic mouthwash" formula. The primary outcome of this study was the incidence and severity of CT-induced OM in terms of erythema and ulcer. The secondary outcomes were the pain severity score, swallowing function, and the salivary concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Results: NS oil mouth rinse attenuated the progression of CT-induced OM compared with the control formula (AUC = 5.9 vs. 38.4, P < 0.05) and significantly decreased the erythema and ulceration scores (AUC of total OMAS = 11.4 vs. 85.9, P < 0.001) compared with the magic mouthwash formula. It also reduced the pain score and enabled all the participants of this group to consume normal food during treatment. It significantly decreased salivary IL-6 (AUC = 7376 vs. 16599, P < 0.001), while the changes of TNF-α levels were not significant (AUC = 676.9 vs. 885.2, P > 0.05). Conclusions: NS oil mouth rinse is effective in attenuating the severity of CT-induced OM and improves the pain and swallowing function in AML patients.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Nigella sativa/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Estomatite/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Óleos Vegetais/química , Estomatite/induzido quimicamente , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
12.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590339

RESUMO

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, has significant healthbenefits. Previous studies reported decreased levels of DHA and DHA-containing phosphatidylcholines inthe brain of animals suffering from Alzheimer's disease, the most common type of dementia; furthermore,DHA supplementation has been found to improve brain DHA levels and memory efficiency in dementia. Oilextracted from the seeds of Plukenetia volubilis (green nut oil; GNO) is also expected to have DHA like effectsas it contains approximately 50% α-linolenic acid, a precursor of DHA. Despite this, changes in the spatialdistribution of DHA in the brain of animals with dementia following GNO or DHA supplementation remainunexplored. In this study, desorption electrospray ionization imaging mass spectrometry (DESI-IMS) wasapplied to observe the effects of GNO or DHA supplementation upon the distribution of DHA in the brain ofmale senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mice, a mouse model of dementia. DESI-IMS revealedthat brain DHA distribution increased 1.85-fold and 3.67-fold in GNO-fed and DHA-fed SAMP8 mice,respectively, compared to corn oil-fed SAMP8 mice. Memory efficiency in SAMP8 mice was also improvedby GNO or DHA supplementation. In summary, this study suggests the possibility of GNO or DHAsupplementation for the prevention of dementia.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Demência/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Euphorbiaceae/química , Memória , Nozes/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Demência/metabolismo , Demência/fisiopatologia , Demência/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
13.
Phytomedicine ; 65: 153099, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety is one of the uprising psychiatric disorders of the last decades and lavender administration has been traditionally suggested as a possible treatment. The objective of this review is to assess the efficacy of lavender, in any form and way of administration, on anxiety and anxiety-related conditions. METHODS: The PRISMA guidelines were followed. Retrieved data were qualitatively and quantitatively synthesized. Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and Non-Randomized Studies (NRSs) which investigated the efficacy of lavender, in any form and way of administration, on patients with anxiety, involved in anxiety-inducing settings or undergoing anxiety-inducing activities, compared to any type of control, without language restrictions, were identified through electronic database searches. Medline via PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were systematically searched. All databases were screened up to November 2018. Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool and the following domains were considered: randomization, allocation sequence concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting, and other biases. RESULTS: 65 RCTs (7993 participants) and 25 NRSs (1200 participants) were included in the qualitative synthesis and 37 RCTs (3964 participants) were included in the quantitative synthesis. Overall, the qualitative synthesis indicated that 54 RCTs and 17 NRSs reported at least a significant result in favor of lavender use for anxiety. The quantitative synthesis showed that lavender inhalation can significantly reduce anxiety levels measured with any validated scale (Hedges' g = -0.73 [95% CI -1.00 to -0.46], p < 0.00001, 1682 participants), as well as state anxiety (Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI)-State mean difference = -5.99 [95% CI -9.39 to -2.59], p < 0.001, 901 participants) and trait anxiety (STAI-Trait mean difference = -8.14 [95% CI -14.44 to -1.84], p < 0.05, 196 participants). Lavender inhalation did not show a significant effect in reducing systolic blood pressure as a physiological parameter of anxiety. A significant effect in diminishing anxiety levels was also found in favor of the use of oral Silexan® 80 mg/die for at least 6 weeks (Hamilton Anxiety Scale mean difference = -2.90 [95% CI -4.86 to -0.95], p = 0.004, 1173 participants; Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale mean difference = -2.62 [95% CI -4.84 to -0.39], p < 0.05, 451 participants) or of the administration of massage with lavender oil (Hedges' g = -0.66 [95% CI -0.97 to -0.35], p < 0.0001, 448 participants). DISCUSSION: The most important limitation of this review is the low average quality of available studies on the topic. The majority of included RCTs were characterized by a high overall risk of bias. Another limitation regards the heterogeneity of study designs, especially with regard to non-oral ways of administration. Overall, oral administration of lavender essential oil proves to be effective in the treatment of anxiety, whereas for inhalation there is only an indication of an effect of reasonable size, due to the heterogeneity of available studies. Lavender essential oil administered through massage appears effective, but available studies are not sufficient to determine whether the benefit is due to a specific effect of lavender. Further high-quality RCTs with more homogeneous study designs are needed to confirm these findings. Available information outlines a safe profile for lavender-based interventions, although more attention should be paid to the collection and reporting of safety data in future studies. Considering these findings, since treatments with lavender essential oil generally seem safe, and, in the case of inhalation, also simple and inexpensive, they are a therapeutic option which may be considered in some clinical contexts. OTHER: The present systematic review was not funded and was registered in PROSPERO under the following number: CRD42019130126.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Lavandula/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Administração por Inalação , Administração Oral , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(4): 1563-1570, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608875

RESUMO

Herbal remedies like the Thymus serpyllum L. is useful in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases especially congestion, and bronchitis. The purpose of this study was to formulate a micro-emulsion, a gel and an ointment containing the plant hydro distilled thymus oil extracted from Thymus serpyllum L. collected from Ziarat, Balochistan. The prepared formulations were subjected to in-vitro and ex vivo study release, High performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), to justify their suitability for topical use. The in-vitro and ex-Vivo release was studied using Franz Cells and using two different kinds of membrane synthetic dialysis cellulose membrane and natural rabbit skin and the amount of drug released was determined by HPLC at λ 274nm. The three formulations result obtained through dialysis cellulose membrane showed the faster release than the natural rabbit skin. However, the micro-emulsion, gel formulation showed the same release except ointment. The release from the above mentioned formulation can be arranged in the following descending order. micro-emulsion > Gel > Ointment. The best fit of release kinetics was achieved by Krosmeyer- Peppas, the TLC and HPLC identifies the Thymol, isolation and quantification of the marker. This study demonstrates that it is necessary to assess the impact of release and permeability pattern of different formulations. In vitro and ex-vivo diffusion cell experiments can be utilized to develop formulations of traditional medicines identifies.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Thymus (Planta)/química , Administração Tópica , Animais , Celulose , Fracionamento Químico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Diálise/instrumentação , Diálise/métodos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Emulsões/química , Emulsões/farmacocinética , Géis/química , Géis/farmacocinética , Masculino , Membranas Artificiais , Permeabilidade , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Coelhos , Timol/análise , Timol/farmacocinética
15.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 267, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a cancer-induced multifactorial debilitating syndrome directly accounting for 20% of cancer deaths without effective therapeutic approaches. It is extremely urgent to explore effective anti-cachexia drugs to ameliorate muscle and fat loss in cachexia patients. METHODS: Lewis lung carcinoma bearing C57BL/6 mice were applied as the animal model to examine the therapeutic effect of Coix seed oil (CSO) on cancer cachexia. The food intake and body weight change were monitored every 3 days throughout the experiment. The IL-6 and TNF-α levels in serum were detected by ELISA assay. Several key proteins involved in muscle wasting and fat lipolysis were tested by Western blot to identify the potential mechanism of CSO. RESULTS: Administration of CSO through gavage significantly prevented body weight loss and ameliorated systemic inflammation without affecting food intake and tumor size. The weight and histological morphology of gastrocnemius muscle and epididymal adipose tissue in CSO-treated mice were also improved. In mechanism, we found that CSO decreased the expression of MuRF1 and the ratio of phospho-p65 (Ser536) to p65 in muscle tissue. Meanwhile, cancer-induced activation of HSL and AMPK was also inhibited by CSO administration. CONCLUSION: Coix seed oil exerts an anti-cachexia pharmaceutical effect by counteracting muscle and adipose tissue loss most likely through regulating NF-κB-MuRF1 and AMPK-HSL pathway.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Caquexia/tratamento farmacológico , Coix/química , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Atrofia Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Caquexia/etiologia , Caquexia/metabolismo , Caquexia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/fisiopatologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Sementes/química
16.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618937

RESUMO

Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) contains various phytonutrients for treating many diseases in Asia. To investigate whether orally administered adlay bran oil (ABO) can cause drug interactions, the effects of ABO on the pharmacokinetics of five cytochrome P450 (CYP) probe drugs were evaluated. Rats were given a single oral dose (2.5 mL/kg BW) of ABO 1 h before administration of a drug cocktail either orally or intravenously, and blood was collected at various time points. A single oral dose of ABO administration did not affect the pharmacokinetics of five probe drugs when given as a drug cocktail intravenously. However, ABO increased plasma theophylline (+28.4%), dextromethorphan (+48.7%), and diltiazem (+46.7%) when co-administered an oral drug cocktail. After 7 days of feeding with an ABO-containing diet, plasma concentrations of theophylline (+45.4%) and chlorzoxazone (+53.6%) were increased after the oral administration of the drug cocktail. The major CYP enzyme activities in the liver and intestinal tract were not affected by ABO treatment. Results from this study indicate that a single oral dose or short-term administration of ABO may increase plasma drug concentrations when ABO is given concomitantly with drugs. ABO is likely to enhance intestinal drug absorption. Therefore, caution is needed to avoid food-drug interactions between ABO and co-administered drugs.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/química , Clorzoxazona/farmacocinética , Dextrometorfano/farmacocinética , Diclofenaco/farmacocinética , Diltiazem/farmacocinética , Interações Alimento-Droga , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Teofilina/farmacocinética , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Animais , Clorzoxazona/administração & dosagem , Clorzoxazona/toxicidade , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Dextrometorfano/administração & dosagem , Dextrometorfano/toxicidade , Diclofenaco/administração & dosagem , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Diltiazem/administração & dosagem , Diltiazem/toxicidade , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/enzimologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medição de Risco , Teofilina/administração & dosagem , Teofilina/toxicidade
17.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581725

RESUMO

The omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with health benefits. The primary dietary source of EPA and DHA is seafood. Alpha-linoleic acid (ALA) has not been shown to be a good source for EPA and DHA; however, stearidonic acid (SDA)-which is naturally contained in echium oil (EO)-may be a more promising alternative. This study was aimed at investigating the short-term n3 PUFA metabolism after the ingestion of a single dose of EO. Healthy young male subjects (n = 12) ingested a single dose of 26 g of EO after overnight fasting. Plasma fatty acid concentrations and relative amounts were determined at baseline and 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48, and 72 h after the ingestion of EO. During the whole examination period, the participants received standardized nutrition. Plasma ALA and SDA concentrations increased rapidly after the single dose of EO. Additionally, EPA and DPAn3 concentrations both increased significantly by 47% after 72 h compared to baseline; DHA concentrations also significantly increased by 21% after 72 h. To conclude, EO increases plasma ALA, SDA, EPA, DPAn3, and DHA concentrations and may be an alternative source for these n3 PUFAs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Echium , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/sangue
18.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(6): 1810-1817, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518023

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to find the effect of cumin seed oil (CSO, Cuminum cyminum L.) on the laying performance, ovarian follicular development and immune response in laying hens under high ambient temperature. A total of 162 Boven hens were randomly divided into three treatments and were fed, ad libitum, diets containing 0 (control), 250 or 500 g CSO per ton from 24 to 30 weeks of age. The experiment was done during summer season where the average temperate was 30 to 36°C. Feed intake and egg mass were recorded. Egg quality characteristics and egg-yolk cholesterol content were evaluated. Ovary and oviduct samples were immediately weighted, and ovarian follicles were classified. Plasma total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were measured. Yolk width, yolk weight, yolk colour, shell weight and shell thickness were increased by feeding CSO. Egg production rate was not affected. However, dietary 500 g CSO per ton had a significantly positive impact on egg weight in comparison with control. The FCR was improved by feeding 500 g CSO per ton; however, feed intake and egg mass were not affected by CSO treatments. Plasma GOT, GPT and triglycerides were significantly decreased, while, plasma HDL-cholesterol was significantly (p < .05) increased due to CSO treatments. Yolk cholesterol content was significantly decreased; however, liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was insignificantly decreased due to dietary treatments. Interestingly, the inclusion of CSO in laying hens' diets improved the antibody titres against Newcastle disease (ND, p < .05) and against avian influenza H9N1 (p > .05) when compared with the control diet. It could be concluded that dietary inclusion of CSO improved egg weight, FCR, yolk and shell quality characteristics and did not have a negative effect on the reproductive morphology parameters in laying hens.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Cuminum/química , Temperatura Alta , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ovos/normas , Feminino , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/química
19.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540081

RESUMO

Objective: Hazelnut oil (HO) is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study intended to analyze the effects of hazelnut oil supplementation on the serum lipid profile and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in hamsters fed a high-cholesterol (HC) diet. Methods: Hamsters were fed a basic diet (control group) and an HC diet (HC group) for 16 weeks (n = 10 in each group). Hamsters were fed an HC diet for four weeks to induce hyperlipidemia and were then fed an HC diet enriched with 5% (low-dose HC + HO group; n = 10) and 10% HO (high-dose HC + HO group; n = 10) for 12 weeks. Serum lipid levels, hepatic changes (including steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis), and hepatic prooxidant-antioxidant status (malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST)) were evaluated after the treatment period. Results: Hamsters in the control group showed normal serum lipid profiles, normal liver function, and moderate glycogen storage without hepatic steatosis. Hamsters in the HC group showed severe hyperlipidemia, severe hepatic steatosis, and moderate steatohepatitis (mononuclear cell and neutrophil infiltration, oval cell hyperplasia, and fibrosis). Compared to the HC group, both the low-dose and the high-dose HC + HO groups showed a significant reduction of hyperlipidemia (serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C levels)) and improved liver function (serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)). Additionally, compared to the HC group, intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation (IHTC) was significantly higher in the HC + HO group, while the incidence of steatohepatitis was significantly lower. The intake of the HC diet was associated with a higher level of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) and a lower concentration of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, and GST), and all these factors were partially improved in the low-dose and high-dose HC + HO groups. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the intake of HO reduced serum hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress and ameliorated the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in hamsters fed a high-cholesterol diet.


Assuntos
Corylus , Hiperlipidemias , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Óleos Vegetais , Animais , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cricetinae , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(9)2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540183

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Aroma therapy is a complementary therapy using essential oils diluted with carrier oils. Jojoba oils have been widely used as carrier oils. However, limited information is available regarding their effects on blood biochemical parameters. This study aimed to investigate the effect of transdermal administration of jojoba oil on blood biochemical parameters in mice. Materials and Methods: Eight-week-old male hairless mice were randomly divided into naïve control and treatment groups. In the treatment group, mice were topically administered 4 µL of jojoba oil, per gram of body weight, on the dorsa 30 min before euthanasia. Thereafter, serum biochemical parameters were assayed, and gene expression was analyzed in various tissues via a real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels increased significantly 30 min after topical application of jojoba oil (p < 0.05). Atgl was significantly upregulated in the liver (p < 0.05), and Atgl upregulation in the liver was positively correlated with serum NEFA levels (r = 0.592, p < 0.05). Furthermore, a trend of decreasing fatty acid trafficking-related gene (FABPpm, FATP-1, FATP-3, and FATP-4) expression in the skin after topical application of jojoba oil (p = 0.067, 0.074, 0.076, and 0.082, respectively) was observed. Conclusions: Serum NEFA levels were elevated 30 min after transdermal administration of jojoba oil. The mechanisms of elevated serum NEFA levels might be related to both enhanced lipolysis in the liver and reduced fatty acid trafficking in the skin.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ceras/farmacologia , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Modelos Animais , Fitoterapia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória
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