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1.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063337

RESUMO

The functional food market is growing with a compound annual growth rate of 7.9%. Thai food recipes use several kinds of herbs. Lemongrass, garlic, and turmeric are ingredients used in Thai curry paste. Essential oils released in the preparation step create the flavor and fragrance of the famous tom yum and massaman dishes. While the biological activities of these ingredients have been investigated, including the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities, there is still a lack of understanding regarding the responses to the essential oils of these plants. To investigate the effects of essential oil inhalation on the brain and mood responses, electroencephalography was carried out during the non-task resting state, and self-assessment of the mood state was performed. The essential oils were prepared in several dilutions in the range of the supra-threshold level. The results show that Litsea cubeba oil inhalation showed a sedative effect, observed from alpha and beta wave power reductions. The frontal and temporal regions of the brain were involved in the wave alterations. Garlic oil increased the alpha wave power at lower concentrations; however, a sedative effect was also observed at higher concentrations. Lower dilution oil induced changes in the fast alpha activity in the frontal region. The alpha and beta wave powers were decreased with higher dilution oils, particularly in the temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. Both Litsea cubeba and turmeric oils resulted in better positive moods than garlic oil. Garlic oil caused more negative moods than the others. The psychophysiological activities and the related brain functions require further investigation. The knowledge obtained from this study may be used to design functional food products.


Assuntos
Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcuma/química , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Alho/química , Litsea/química , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Administração por Inalação , Ondas Encefálicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimento Funcional/análise , Alimento Funcional/economia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/química , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Odorantes , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Mar Drugs ; 19(5)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946805

RESUMO

Fish vary in their ability to biosynthesise long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) depending upon the complement and function of key enzymes commonly known as fatty acyl desaturases and elongases. It has been reported in Solea senegalensis the existence of a Δ4 desaturase, enabling the biosynthesis of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which can be modulated by the diet. The present study aims to evaluate the combined effects of the partial replacement of fish oil (FO) with vegetable oils and reduced environmental salinity in the fatty acid composition of relevant body compartments (muscle, hepatocytes and enterocytes), the enzymatic activity over α-linolenic acid (ALA) to form n-3 LC-PUFA through the incubation of isolated hepatocytes and enterocytes with [1-14C] 18:3 n-3, and the regulation of the S. senegalensis fads2 and elovl5 in the liver and intestine. The presence of radiolabelled products, including 18:4n-3, 20:4n-3 and EPA, provided compelling evidence that a complete pathway enabling the biosynthesis of EPA from ALA, establishing S. senegalensis, has at least one Fads2 with ∆6 activity. Dietary composition prevailed over salinity in regulating the expression of fads2, while salinity did so over dietary composition for elovl5. FO replacement enhanced the proportion of DHA in S. senegalensis muscle and the combination with 20 ppt salinity increased the amount of n-3 LC-PUFA in hepatocytes.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/biossíntese , Óleos de Peixe/metabolismo , Linguados/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Aquicultura , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Salinidade , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química
3.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918827

RESUMO

This study aims to assess the safety of the Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) haw. seed oil (ODSO) and its effect on the glucose absorption activity of the isolated rat hemidiaphragm. This oil's safety was studied by exploring its acute (doses 1, 3, 5, and 7 mL/kg) and subacute (doses 1 and 2 mL/kg) toxicities in albino mice and Wistar rats, respectively. The safety of the ODSO was also assessed by studying its effect on the HepG2 cell viability in vitro. The effect of ODSO, or combined with the insulin, on the glucose absorption activity of isolated rat hemidiaphragm was evaluated at the dose 1 g/L in vitro. The results demonstrated the safety of ODSO. Indeed, this study showed that this oil does not produce any mortality or signs of toxicity after the single-dose administration in mice. Additionally, the daily intake of the ODSO during four weeks does not induce a significant variation in the biochemical parameters and body weight of rats compared with the control group. Besides, the cell viability of HepG2 did not change in the presence of ODSO. On the other hand, the ODSO increased the glucose absorption activity of the isolated rat hemidiaphragm, and this activity was significantly enhanced when combined with insulin. This study confirms, on one side, the safety of this oil and its efficacy and, on the other side, encourages its potential use as a complement to treat diabetes.


Assuntos
Absorção Fisiológica , Diafragma/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Opuntia/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Absorção Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Bilirrubina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diafragma/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos Wistar
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(9): e24652, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This systematic review investigated the clinical effects of inhalation aromatherapy for the treatment of sleep problems such as insomnia. METHODS: Studies on sleep problems and inhalation aromatherapy, published in Korean and international journals, were included in the meta-analysis. Five domestic and international databases, respectively each, were used for the literature search. Keywords included sleep disorder, sleep problems, insomnia, and aroma inhalation, and the related literature was further searched. After the screening, selected articles were assessed for their quality and conducted the risk of bias using RevMan 5.0, a systematic literature review was then conducted. A meta-analysis comparing the averages was conducted on studies that reported numerical values. Additionally, meta-analysis of variance and meta-regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of the 34 studies using the random-effects model revealed that the use of aromatherapy was highly effective in improving sleep problems such as insomnia, including quantitative and qualitative sleep effects (95% confidence interval [CI], effect sizes = 0.6491). Subgroup analysis revealed that the secondary outcomes including stress, depression, anxiety, and fatigue were significantly effective. The single aroma inhalation method was more effective than the mixed aroma inhalation method. Among the single inhalation methods, the lavender inhalation effect was the greatest. CONCLUSION: Inhalation aromatherapy is effective in improving sleep problems such as insomnia. Therefore, it is essential to develop specific guidelines for the efficient inhalation of aromatherapy. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required because individual patient data are not included. The findings of this systematic review were disseminated through peer-reviewed publications or conference presentations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020142120.


Assuntos
Aromaterapia/métodos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Ars pharm ; 62(1): 66-74, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199701

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: vegetable ingredients are increasingly common in skin products. Avocado oil is an ingredient of natu¬ral sources with various properties on the skin. In this work, crude avocado oil-loaded nanocapsules were evaluated regarding its physicochemical stability to obtain a formulation of skin delivery with adequate quality: suitable physi¬cochemical stability, with low polydispersity and with a pH suitable for cutaneous application. METHOD: nanoparticle formulations with components variation were evaluated for 2 months. Nanoparticle formu¬lation considered the most stable was further evaluated for 6 months. Furthermore, the oxidative stability of crude avocado oil loaded in nanocapsules and standard avocado oil was also performed to detect any sign of oil oxidation. RESULTS: all formulations had negative zeta potential after 2 months of storage. pH values of nanoparticles remained stable throughout the test. Formulation with the lowest content of ingredients exhibited the highest stability after 2 months of storage. Nanoencapsulated avocado oil and crude avocado oil showed no evidence of oxidation. CONCLUSIONS: Aqueous dispersions with the lowest content of ingredients presented the best physicochemical sta¬bility. Therefore, we have demonstrated preliminary the feasibility of developing avocado-oil loaded nanocapsules


INTRODUCCIÓN: los ingredientes vegetales son cada vez más comunes en los productos para la piel. El aceite de aguacate es un ingrediente de origen natural con varias propiedades en la piel. En este trabajo se evaluó la estabilidad físico-química de las nanocápsulas cargadas con aceite de aguacate crudo para obtener una formulación de aplicación cutánea con calidad adecuada: estabilidad físico química adecuada, con baja polidispersidad y con pH adecuado para aplicación cutánea. MÉTODO: formulaciones de nanocápsulas con variación en la composición de los ingredientes fueron evaluadas durante 2 meses. La formulación de nanocápsulas considerada más estable se evaluó por 6 meses. Además, la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de aguacate de las nanocápsulas y del aceite de aguacate estándar también fue evaluada para detectar cualquier signo de oxidación. RESULTADOS: todas las formulaciones han tenido potencial zeta negativo después de 2 meses de almacenamiento. Los valores de pH de las nanopartículas se mantuvieron estables durante toda la prueba. La formulación con el contenido más bajo de ingredientes exhibió la mayor estabilidad después de 2 meses de almacenamiento. El análisis de aceite de aguacate crudo y del aceite de aguacate nanoencapsulado no mostró evidencia de oxidación. CONCLUSIONES: la dispersión acuosa con el contenido más bajo de ingredientes presentó la mejor estabilidad fisicoquímica. Además, el aceite de aguacate no ha mostrado evidencia de oxidación. Por lo tanto, hemos demostrado preliminarmente la viabilidad de desarrollar nanocápsulas cargadas de aceite de aguacate


Assuntos
Persea/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Nanocápsulas/química , Fármacos Dermatológicos/química , Administração Cutânea , Tamanho da Partícula , Fatores de Tempo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fármacos Dermatológicos/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem
6.
J Food Sci ; 86(3): 1124-1131, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580502

RESUMO

Alternariol (AOH) and Alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) mycotoxins are found to be present naturally in various food commodities, such as barley, oats, pepper, rye, sorghum, sunflower seeds, tomatoes, and wheat. A few epidemiological studies have correlated the consumption of Alternaria-contaminated cereal grains with higher occurrence of esophageal cancer in Chinese populations. In addition, several studies have reported the toxicological properties of Alternaria mycotoxins. However, surveillance data on AOH and AME occurrence are still limited. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the presence of AOH and AME in various commonly consumed, edible oils using HPLC-FLD method. Thirty four percent of samples were found positive for AOH and 35% for AME. Moreover, AOH retained 80% stability, while AME retained 84% stability, after deep frying for 25 min, which is an important factor with respect to Indian cooking style. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of Alternaria mycotoxins in edible oils and their probable dietary intake in Indian population. This surveillance study may help in formulating guidelines for Alternaria mycotoxin levels in India, which are not yet implemented by Food Safety and Standards Authority of India. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: At present, no safety guidelines exist for Alternaria mycotoxins in any part of the world. This study will help the regulatory bodies to set permissible levels of Alternaria mycotoxins to safeguard the health of consumers. This study shows that Alternaria mycotoxins are heat stable even after deep frying for 25 min. The data will also help to issue guidelines against exposure of these mycotoxins, keeping in the mind the heat stability factor.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Lactonas/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Humanos , Índia , Micotoxinas/análise , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/química , Temperatura
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 171: 480-490, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428956

RESUMO

In this study, a comparative efficacy of Cananga odorata EO (CoEO) and its nanoencapsulated formulation into chitosan nanoemulsion (CoEO-CsNe) against a toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus (AF-M-K5) were investigated for the first time in order to determine its efficacy in preservation of stored food from fungal, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination and lipid peroxidation. GC and GC-MS analysis of CoEO revealed the presence of linalool (24.56%) and benzyl acetate (22.43%) as the major components. CoEO was encapsulated into chitosan nanoemulsion (CsNe) through ionic-gelation technique and characterized by High Resolution-Scanning Electron Microscopy (HR-SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. The CoEO-CsNe during in vitro investigation against A. flavus completely inhibited the growth and AFB1 production at 1.0 µL/mL and 0.75 µL/mL, respectively. Additionally, CoEO-CsNe showed improved antioxidant activity against DPPH• and ABTS•+ with IC50 value 0.93 and 0.72 µL/mL, respectively. Further, CoEO-CsNe suppressed fungal growth, AFB1 secretion and lipid peroxidation in Arachis hypogea L. during in situ investigation without causing any adverse effect on seed germination. Overall results demonstrated that the CoEO-CsNe has potential of being utilized as a suitable plant based antifungal agent to improve the shelf-life of stored food against AFB1 and lipid peroxidation mediated biodeterioration.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Arachis/microbiologia , Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cananga/química , Conservantes de Alimentos/administração & dosagem , Nanocápsulas/administração & dosagem , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Aflatoxina B1/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Emulsões , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113326, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877718

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Migraines have become a major threat to human health, as they significantly affect human health and quality of life due to a high prevalence rate, attack rate and pain intensity. Aromatherapy, with its comfortable and pleasant natural characteristics and rapid and efficient characteristics, is widely favored by patients in the folk. Chinese folk also have the application history and related records of aromatic plants in the treatment of migraine. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was conducted to review the pathogenesis of migraine, the application of plant essential oils in the treatment of migraine, and further explore the material basis and mechanism of action of plant essential oils against migraine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Search the electronic literature of essential oils with anti-migraine effect in Google Scholar, PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and further search the research situation of the monomer components of essential oils in migraine, inflammation, pain and other aspects. RESULTS: studies show that there are 10 types of plant essential oils that could relieve migraine symptoms, and that 16 monomers may play a role in migraine treatment by effectively inhibiting neurogenic inflammation, hyperalgesia and balancing vasorelaxation. CONCLUSION: Aromatic plant essential oils can relieve migraine effectively, these findings can be used as an important part of the development of anti-migraine drugs.


Assuntos
Aromaterapia/métodos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Qualidade de Vida
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 171: 208-216, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310099

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the potential of maltodextrin (MD) combination with gum arabic (GA), and whey protein isolate (WPI) on the microencapsulation of gurum seeds oil by a spray-drying method. Three formulations of protein-based (PB) (WPI: MD, 2:1), carbohydrate-based (CHOB) (GA: MD, 2:1), and mixed (MIX) (WPI: GA: MD, 1:1:1) wall materials were designed. The moisture content and water activity were in the range of 1.65-3.67% and 0.17-0.31, respectively, which is suitable for long-term storage. The best results were achieved when gurum seed oil was microencapsulated with carbohydrate-based, where it had the highest microencapsulation yield (92.80%) and microencapsulation efficiency (97.38%). Carbohydrate-based showed the highest relative crystallinity (32.25%) and the temperature of the glass transition (58.20 °C). FT-IR revealed that the oil was well encapsulated in the microcapsules. SEM of microcapsules showed spherical shapes without any apparent cracking on the surfaces. During the oxidative stability study, carbohydrate-based microencapsulation was the wall material that best protected the active materials against lipid oxidation.


Assuntos
Citrullus/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Goma Arábica/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Secagem por Atomização , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacocinética , Cápsulas , Dessecação , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Emulsões , Óculos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Oxirredução , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Água , Difração de Raios X
10.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(5): 1033-1038, sept.-oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-198020

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: indiscriminate use of anabolic steroids is associated with cardiovascular diseases, renal damage, and hepatic toxicity. Contrastingly, nutraceutical foods such as avocados prevent and control several diseases, as they can reduce the effects of oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: this study evaluates the benefits of consuming an avocado oil-based diet to attenuate the systemic damage caused by supraphysiological doses of testosterone, by analyzing the biochemical profile of 28 42-day-old male Wistar rats. METHODS: silicone pellets containing testosterone were surgically implanted, and they received control or avocado oil-based feed. After 20 weeks, all the male rats were anesthetized and their blood samples collected. RESULTS: although the high hormone concentration had a negative influence on the biochemical profile of these animals, the groups that consumed avocado oil exhibited a reduction in serum triacylglycerols (-21 %; p = 0.0001), VLDL (-20 %; p = 0.0085), LDL (-78 %; p < 0.0001), and total cholesterol (-12 %; p < 0.0001), along with positive changes in their HDL concentrations (+7 %; p = 0.001). The avocado oil groups also manifested a reduction in the total concentration of serum proteins (-24 %; p = 0.0357), albumin (-26 %; p = 0.0015), urea (-14 %; p = 0.04), and creatinine (-33 %; p < 0.0001). The concentration of liver transaminases was found to be higher in the animals included in the induced group (ALT, +66 %; p = 0.0005, and AST, +23 %; p = 0.0021), whereas they remained stable in the avocado oil group. CONCLUSION: from the above, it may be concluded that supraphysiological doses of testosterone are related to increased risk factors for cardiovascular, renal, and hepatic diseases, and that the consumption of avocado oil shields the biochemical profile, thus reducing the associated risk factors


INTRODUCCIÓN: el uso indiscriminado de esteroides anabólicos se asocia con enfermedades cardiovasculares, daño renal y toxicidad hepática. En cambio, los alimentos nutracéuticos como el aguacate previenen y controlan varias enfermedades, ya que pueden reducir los efectos del estrés oxidativo. OBJETIVO: este estudio evalúa los beneficios de consumir una dieta basada en aceite de aguacate para atenuar el daño sistémico causado por dosis suprafisiológicas de testosterona mediante el análisis del perfil bioquímico de 28 ratas Wistar macho de 42 días de edad. MÉTODOS: se implantaron quirúrgicamente perdigones de silicona que contenían propionato de testosterona y los animales recibieron una alimentación de control o una basada en el aceite de aguacate. Después de 20 semanas se anestesiaron todos los animales y se recogieron sus muestras de sangre. RESULTADOS: aunque la alta concentración de hormonas tuvo una influencia negativa en el perfil bioquímico de estos animales, los grupos que consumieron aceite de aguacate mostraron una reducción de los triglicéridos séricos (-21 %; p = 0,0001), las VLDL (-20 %; p = 0,0085), las LDL (-78 %; p < 0,0001) y el colesterol total (-12 %; p < 0,0001), con cambios positivos en las LDL (+7 %; p = 0,001). Los grupos alimentados con aceite de aguacate manifestaron una reducción de la concentración total de proteínas séricas (-24 %; p = 0,0357), albúmina (-26 %; p = 0,0015), urea (-14 %; p = 0,04) y creatinina (-33 %; p < 0,0001). Se encontró que la concentración sérica de transaminasas hepáticas era mayor en los animales del grupo inducido (ALT: +66 %; p = 0,0005, y AST: +23 %; p = 0,0021), mientras que en los grupos con aceite de aguacate, los parámetros hepáticos se mantuvieron estables. CONCLUSIÓN: de todo ello se puede concluir que las dosis suprafisiológicas de testosterona están relacionadas con un aumento de los factores de riesgo de sufrir enfermedades cardiovasculares, renales y hepáticas, y que el consumo de aceite de aguacate protege el perfil bioquímico, lo que reduce los factores de riesgo asociados


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Persea/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Androgênios/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ratos Wistar , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/veterinária
11.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(10): 1147-1161, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908097

RESUMO

To present a systematic review of published studies in databases such as PUBMED, REDALYC, SCIELO, DIALNET, SCOPUS, EBSCO and CONRICYT related to the role-played by the components present in the vegetable oil of grape seed (Vitis vinífera) and the prevention or delay in the onset or progression of neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of the research revealed that neurodegenerative diseases causes alterations in consciousness or in the nervous system leading to severe damage in neuronal cells, these pathologies are considered gradual and progressive. Various syndromes manifest the degenerative diseases of the nervous system; in some of them the predominant symptom is the progressive dementia. Among the components of the diet that in numerous epidemiological studies have shown an inverse association are vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols, the latter being the ones addressed in this document. There is an important evidence that a nutritional support based on polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants can be applied to subjects with a history of neurodegenerative conditions in order to act as neuroprotectors. This requires the determination of the nutritional benefits of these nutrients or of nutraceuticals for the health of this group of patients.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva/administração & dosagem , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/prevenção & controle , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Vitis/química , Animais , Antioxidantes , Terapias Complementares , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/química , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ratos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764795

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with 100ppm sodium monensin or 0.15% of a blend of functional oils (cashew nut oil + castor oil) on the intestinal microbiota of broilers challenged with three different Eimeria spp. The challenge was accomplished by inoculating broiler chicks with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina, and Eimeria maxima via oral gavage. A total of 864, day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb) were randomly assigned to six treatments (eight pens/treatment; 18 broilers/pen) in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, composed of three additives (control, monensin or blend), with or without Eimeria challenge. Intestinal contents was collected at 28 days of age for microbiota analysis by sequencing 16s rRNA in V3 and V4 regions using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Taxonomy was assigned through the SILVA database version 132, using the QIIME 2 software version 2019.1. No treatment effects (p > 0.05) were observed in the microbial richness at the family level estimated by Chao1 and the biodiversity assessed by Simpson's index, except for Shannon's index (p < 0.05). The intestinal microbiota was dominated by members of the order Clostridiales and Lactobacillales, followed by the families Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Lactobacillaceae, regardless of treatment. When the controls were compared, in the challenged control group there was an increase in Erysipelotrichaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Peptostreptococcaceae, and a decrease in Ruminococcaceae. Similar results were found for a challenged group that received monensin, while the blend partially mitigated this variation. Therefore, the blend alleviated the impact of coccidiosis challenge on the microbiome of broilers compared to monensin.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Monensin/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/dietoterapia , Anacardium/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/dietoterapia , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Eimeria/genética , Eimeria/imunologia , Eimeria/patogenicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Masculino , Oocistos/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ricinus/química
13.
Life Sci ; 260: 118344, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853651

RESUMO

Pregabalin (PGB) drug abuse is common among the youth. It substituted tramadol before its recent schedule as a controlled drug since April 2019. PGB is an antiepileptic drug acting on the central nervous system. It blocks calcium channels regulating the action of neurotransmitters and causing prolonged depolarization. The present study aimed to investigate the toxic effect of long term pregabalin abuse on the reproductive function and body weight in both male and female albino rats and to evaluate the ameliorative effect of wheat germ oil (WGO). Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into eight groups. The first four groups were males and they were treated as follows: control group (1.5 mL saline), WGO group (1.5 mL L/kg), PGB group (300 mg/kg), and protective group (PGB + WGO). All doses were administrated once per day for 60 days by gastric gavage. The second four groups were females. They were divided and treated the same as the male groups. Pregabalin caused significant weight loss, decreased serum triglyceride level, and increased leptin gene expression in all rats. PGB affected male rats reproduction by decreasing total testosterone serum level and inhibiting spermatogenesis. Reproductive toxicity in females was caused by decreasing pituitary steroids, increasing gonadal hormones, and increasing the number of atretic ovarian follicles. Mechanism of toxicity may be attributed to the PGB oxidative stress effect that induced apoptosis and caused diffuse gonadal atrophy. WGO showed a protective effect on PGB induced toxicity as all measured parameters were relatively improved.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pregabalina/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Caspase 3/genética , Feminino , Leptina/genética , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos
14.
Gene ; 759: 144987, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The immune response is influenced by the administration of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are affected by PUFA. The combination of evening primrose/hemp seed oil (EPO/HSO) has essential fatty acids (EFAs) for human optimal health due to the favorable ratio of omega-6/omega-3 and antioxidantal properties. The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of EPO/HSO on improving the membrane fatty acids composition of spleen and blood cells and immunologic factors in compared to rapamycin (RAPA) in the EAE model. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Chronic-EAE was induced by induction of MOG in C57BL/6J mice (female, age: 6-8 weeks, weight 18-21). Mice were assigned to 5 groups (6/group) to evaluate the therapeutic effects of EPO/HSO supplement in comparison with rapamycin: A group; EPO/HSO + RAPA, B group; RAPA, C group; EPO/HSO. Results were compared to two control groups (EAE and naive). The fatty acid profile of the spleen and blood cell membrane was evaluated. Real-time-polymerase chain reaction was used for the evaluate the genes expression levels of interleukin (IL) -4, IL-5, and IL-13 in lymphocytes. Also, IL-4 of serum was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Our findings indicated that EPO/HSO therapy significantly increased the percentage of essential fatty acids in cell membrane of the spleen and blood. The relative expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 genes in lymphocytes and serum level of IL-4 was significantly increased in the HSO/EPO treated group versus other groups. CONCLUSION: These results point to potential therapeutic effects on the repair of the structure of cell membranes and suppression of inflammation by EPO/HSO in EAE.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cannabis/química , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Primula/química , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem
15.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(6): 209, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728887

RESUMO

Topical administration can enable a more efficient therapy based on the improved bioavailability and patient compliance. Wounds and infections can lead to modifications of skin physiology and body protective function. Propolis (PRP) is utilized for skin protection and treatment. However, PRP extracts do not show suitable rheological characteristics and can cause irritation, pain, ulceration, and healing difficulties when they are administered on the harmed skin. Emulgels composed of Carbopol 934P (C934P) and different vegetable oils have been proposed for propolis extract release and may be a good strategy for topical delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioadhesive properties, PRP release profile, skin permeation, and retention, by Franz's diffusion cell and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PS), of these emulgels. Formulations were composed of C934P and passion fruit oil (PF), sweet almond oil (SA), or andiroba oil (AO). PRP or by-product extracts were added to the systems, drug release profile was investigated, and porcine ear skin was utilized for analyses of bioadhesive properties, skin permeation, and retention. All formulations displayed similar bioadhesive force (0.05-0.07 N); PRP release was modified (prolonged), dependent on formulation composition, and mainly governed by diffusion. PS and analysis using diffusion cell showed that the systems could provide dermal permeation and retention, which was more effective for formulations containing AO. Considering the importance of propolis for many skin therapies, the emulgels containing AO for PRP delivery are worthy of biological studies and further clinical evaluation.


Assuntos
Acrilatos/administração & dosagem , Géis/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Própole/administração & dosagem , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Reologia , Suínos
16.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(8): 913-927, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641615

RESUMO

The present research evaluated the protective effect of basil essential oil nanoemulsion (BNO) and its parent basil essential oil (BO) towards steatohepatitis. Chemical composition of BO was assessed followed by formulation into different BNOs using the low energy spontaneous emulsification technique. An ideal formula of BNO was selected among the others based on its ultra-fine particle size (15.42 nm) and physical stability at 25-37°C, which was then tested in steatohepatitis rat model along with BO. Rats were divided into four groups, the first was fed on balanced diet (C), and the other groups were maintained on high fructose saturated fat diet deficient in choline to induce steatohepatitis, one of such groups served as control steatohepatitis (SC), the other groups received daily oral dose of BO and BNO, respectively. Microbiota (Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes) were counted in colon content and their ratio (F/B) was calculated. Liver fat, plasma lipid profile, plama interlukin-6, plasma lipopolysaccharides and plasma and colon content of lipocaline were assessed with histopathological examination of liver and colon. Results showed that the major volatile components of BO were linalool (60.9 %), eugenol (5.1 %) and eucalyptol (9.5%). SC group exhibited significant increase in liver lipids, plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol and significant reduction in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to C group. Significant increase in plasma TC/HDL-C, interlukin-6, and lipocaline and F/B ratio and lipocaline in colon content were demonstrated in SC group without changes in plasma lipopolysaccharides compared to C. Histopathology of SC group showed liver fatty degeneration and fibroblasts activation while the colon demonstrated erosion and mucosal epithelium detachment. Treatment with either BNO or BO showed improvement compared to SC group. BNO was superior in reducing F/B ratio, liver lipids and histopathological changes. BO was more efficient in reducing TC, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. It is concluded that BO and BNO reduced the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in rat model. Gut microbiota in relation to steatohepatitis and related new therapies needs further investigations.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Fitoterapia , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Administração Oral , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Emulsões , Eucaliptol , Eugenol , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Nanopartículas , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Óleos Voláteis/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(7): 771-782, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522946

RESUMO

The role of fish oil, primrose oil and their mixture in ameliorating the changes in Alzheimer's like model was evaluated in rats. Primrose oil and primrose/fish oil mixture fatty acids composition was assessed by gas chromatography. The rat experiment consisted of 5 groups; the first fed on balanced diet as control normal (CN); the other four groups treated with intraperitoneal aluminum lactate and consumed dyslipidemic diet; one group served as control Alzheimer's like disease (CA) while the other three groups (test groups) received daily oral dose from primrose oil, fish oil and primrose/fish oil mixture separately for 5 weeks. Results showed primrose oil and primrose/ fish oil mixture to contain gamma linolenic acid as 9.15 and 4.3% of total fatty acids, respectively. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic were present as 10.9 and 6.5 %, respectively in the oil mixture. Dyslipidemia and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), brain malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO with decrease in plasma magnesium, brain catalase, reduced glutathione, body weight gain and brain weight were demonstrated in CA compared to CN. Brain histopathology and immuno-histochemistry showed neuronal degeneration and neurofibrillary tangles with elevated myeloperoxidase and nuclear factor-kappa B in CA compared to CN. The tested oils demonstrated neuro-protection reflected in the variable significant improvement of biochemical parameters, immuno-histochemistry and brain histopathology. Primrose/fish oil mixture was superior in reducing ESR, brain MDA, plasma activity of BChE and brain histopathological changes along with elevating plasma magnesium. Primrose/fish oil mixture and fish oil were more promising in improving plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than primrose. Fish oil was the most efficient in improving plasma total cholesterol (T-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol and T-C /HDL-C. Primrose/fish oil mixture and primrose oil were superior in elevating brain catalase compared to fish oil. Other parameters were equally improved by the different oil treatments. Primrose oil, fish oil and their mixture reduced the progression of Alzheimer's disease in rats with superiority to primrose/fish oil mixture.


Assuntos
Compostos de Alumínio/efeitos adversos , Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Lactatos/efeitos adversos , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Primula , Ácido gama-Linolênico/análise , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Óleos de Peixe/química , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 1009-1016, May-June, 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129717

RESUMO

Nos sistemas de produção, os produtos naturais vêm se destacando na substituição a produtos sintéticos, dentre eles podemos ressaltar os óleos vegetais ricos em ácido graxos poli-insaturados (PUFA), que são conhecidos, popularmente, por seus efeitos benéficos. Dessa forma, o objetivo com este trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da suplementação dos óleos de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) e girassol (Helianthus annus) sobre parâmetros fisiológicos em leitões na fase de creche. Foram utilizados 180 leitões alojados em granja comercial, distribuídos em três grupos (n=60) conforme suplementação alimentar: óleo de pequi, óleo de girassol e controle negativo. Amostras de sangue e o peso dos animais foram obtidos nos intervalos de quatro trocas de rações da fase de creche para avaliação do desempenho, da resposta inflamatória, do perfil lipídico e do "status" oxidativo. Os parâmetros fisiológicos mensurados demonstraram que os óleos interferiram positivamente na resposta inflamatória sistêmica, por meio dos leucócitos totais e da relação neutrófilo/linfócito (P<0,05); no equilíbrio oxidante-antioxidante, por mensuração de óxido nítrico e do malondialdeído (P<0,05); e no metabolismo lipídico, com a avaliação de colesterol total e triglicérides (P<0,05). Por outro lado, esses óleos vegetais interferiram no ganho de peso e no consumo de ração (P<0,05). Assim, concluí-se que a suplementação com óleos de pequi e girassol melhora a saúde dos animais, mas tem impacto negativo no desempenho zootécnico de leitões na fase de creche.(AU)


In production systems, natural products have been outstanding in replacing synthetic products, among them, we can highlight the vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are popularly known for their beneficial effects. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) and sunflower (Helianthus annus) oil supplementation on nursery physiological parameters. We used 180 piglets housed in a commercial farm, distributed in 3 groups (n=60) according to food supplementation: pequi oil, sunflower oil and negative control. Blood samples and animal weight were obtained at intervals of four nursery phase rations to evaluate performance, inflammatory response, lipid profile and oxidative status. The physiological parameters measured showed that the oils positively interfered in the systemic inflammatory response through total leukocytes and neutrophil / lymphocyte ratio (P<0.05), in the oxidant-antioxidant balance by measuring nitric oxide and malondialdehyde (P<0.05). and lipid metabolism with the assessment of total cholesterol and triglycerides (P<0.05). On the other hand, these vegetable oils interfered with weight gain and feed intake (P<0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that supplementation with pequi and sunflower oils improves animal health, but has a negative impact on the piglet's performance in the nursery phase.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Suínos , Ganho de Peso , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Girassol/administração & dosagem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384714

RESUMO

NoveLin I and NoveLin II are palm-based oils. NoveLin I has an equal distribution of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, whereas NoveLin II has a moderate level of monounsaturated fatty acids, and a lower content of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, their hypocholesterolaemic and anti-atherogenic effects have not been studied. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the hypocholesterolaemic and anti-atherogenic effects of these oils. Forty male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing 35% energy fat with added 0.15% (w/w) dietary cholesterol. Group 1, as the control group (CNO) was fed with a diet containing coconut oil, group 2 and 3 were fed with diets containing either NoveLin I or NoveLin II, and group 4, was fed with diet containing olive oil (OLV) for 100 days. Our results demonstrated that both NoveLin groups have significantly lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) compared to CNO group and are comparable to the OLV group. Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL/HDL-C) ratio was significantly lower after the NoveLin II diet but attained significance only in comparison to NoveLin I and CNO groups. Aortic fibrous plaque score was significantly lower in both NoveLin groups compared to CNO group. Our findings suggest that despite the high-fat cholesterol diet, NoveLin II oil resulted in atherogenic effects comparable to olive oil.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/etiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Hipolipemiantes/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Colesterol , Óleo de Coco , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Óleos Vegetais/química , Coelhos
20.
J Nutr ; 150(6): 1388-1396, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In animal models cis-palmitoleic acid (9-hexadecenoic acid; 16:1n-7c), a lipokine, improves insulin sensitivity, inflammation, and lipoprotein profiles; in humans trans-palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7t) has been associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes. The response to dose-escalation of supplements containing cis- and trans-palmitoleic acid has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: We examined dose-escalation effects of oral supplementation with seabuckthorn oil and seabuckthorn oil augmented in 16:1n-7t on serum phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). METHODS: Thirteen participants (7 women and 6 men; age 48 ± 16 y, BMI 30.4 ± 3.7 kg/m2) participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover, dose-escalation trial of unmodified seabuckthorn oils relatively high in 16:1n-7c (380, 760, and 1520 mg 16:1n-7c/d) and seabuckthorn oils augmented in 16:1n-7t (120, 240, and 480 mg 16:1n-7t/d). Each of the 3 escalation doses was provided for 3 wk, with a 4-wk washout period between the 2 supplements. At the end of each dose period, fasting blood samples were used to determine the primary outcomes (serum concentrations of the PLFAs 16:1n-7t and 16:1n-7c) and the secondary outcomes (glucose homeostasis, serum lipids, and clinical measures). Trends across doses were evaluated using linear regression. RESULTS: Compared with baseline, supplementation with seabuckthorn oil augmented in 16:1n-7t increased phospholipid 16:1n-7t by 26.6% at the highest dose (P = 0.0343). Supplementation with unmodified seabuckthorn oil resulted in a positive trend across the dose-escalations (P-trend = 0.0199). No significant effects of either supplement were identified on blood glucose, insulin, lipids, or other clinical measures, although this dosing study was not powered to detect such effects. No carryover or adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with seabuckthorn oil augmented in 16:1n-7t and unmodified seabuckthorn oil moderately increased concentrations of their corresponding PLFAs in metabolically healthy adults, supporting the use of supplementation with these fatty acids to test potential clinical effects in humans.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02311790.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/sangue , Hippophae/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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