Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.249
Filtrar
1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4529-4535, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Although ginseng seed oil (GSO) appears to have various roles in the body, its anti-cancer effect has not been investigated. Tamoxifen is widely used to treat estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer but shows adverse effects with drug resistance. This study investigated the effect of GSO in ER+ breast cancer cell growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability assays, western blots and Annexin V staining were conducted to examine cell viability and apoptosis. The synergistic effect of tamoxifen in combination with GSO or oleic acid (OA) was determined. RESULTS: GSO and OA caused apoptosis of MCF-7 ER+ breast cancer cells and had synergistic effects with tamoxifen in inhibiting tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7TAMR) ER+ breast cancer cell growth. CONCLUSION: GSO may block ER+ breast cancer recurrence in combination with tamoxifen.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/farmacologia , Panax/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química
2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 331: 108786, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659617

RESUMO

Sweet orange essential oil is obtained from the peels of Citrus sinensis (CSEO) by cold pressing, and used as a valuable product by the food industry. Nanoencapsulation is known as a valid strategy to improve chemical stability, organoleptic properties, and delivery of EO-based products. In the present study we encapsulated CSEO using chitosan nanoemulsions (cn) as nanocarrier, and evaluated its antimicrobial activity in combination with mild heat, as well as its sensorial acceptability in orange and apple juices. CSEO composition was analyzed by GC-MS, and 19 components were identified, with limonene as the predominant constituent (95.1%). cn-CSEO was prepared under low shear conditions and characterized according to droplet size (<60 nm) and polydispersity index (<0.260 nm). Nanoemulsions were stable for at least 3 months at 4 ± 2 °C. cn-CSEO were compared with suspensions of CSEO (s-CSEO) (0.2 µL of CSEO/mL) in terms of antibacterial activity in combination with mild heat (52 °C) against Escherichia coli O157:H7 Sakai. cn-CSEO displayed a greater bactericidal activity than s-CSEO at pH 7.0 and pH 4.0. The validation in fruit juices showed an improved bactericidal effect of cn-CSEO in comparison with s-CSEO when combined with mild heat in apple juice, but not in orange juice. In both juices, the combination of CSEO and mild heat exerted synergistic lethal effects, reducing the treatment time to cause the inactivation of up to 5 Log10 cycles of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai cells. Finally, the sensory characteristics of both juices were acceptable either when using s-CSEO or CSEO nanoemulsified with chitosan. Therefore, as a promising carrier for lipophilic substances, the encapsulation of EOs with chitosan nanoemulsions might represent an advantageous alternative when combined with mild heat to preserve fruit juices.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Emulsões/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bebidas/microbiologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Citrus sinensis/química , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Emulsões/química , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Temperatura Alta , Malus/microbiologia
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 330: 108766, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659522

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to explore the antifungal and aflatoxin B1 inhibitory efficacy of nanoencapsulated antifungal formulation. Mixture design response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to design the antifungal formulation (SBC 4:1:1) based on the combination of chemically characterized Ocimum sanctum (S), O. basilicum (B), and O. canum (C) against Aspergillus flavus. The SBC was incorporated inside the chitosan nanomatrix (Ne-SBC) using an ultrasonic probe (40 kHz) and interactions were confirmed by SEM, FTIR and XRD analysis. The results showed that the Ne-SBC possessed enhanced antifungal and aflatoxin B1 inhibitory effect over the free form of SBC. The biochemical and in silico results indicate that the antifungal and aflatoxin B1 inhibitory effect was related to perturbance in the plasma membrane function (ergosterol biosynthesis and membrane cation) mitochondrial membrane potential, C-sources utilization, antioxidant defense system, and the targeted gene products Erg 28, cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va, and Nor-1. In-situ observation revealed that Ne-SBC effectively protects the Avena sativa seeds from A. flavus and AFB1 contamination and preserves its sensory profile. The findings suggest that the fabrication of SBC inside the chitosan nano-matrix has promising use in the food industries as an antifungal agent.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ocimum/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Aflatoxina B1/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/química , Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Ocimum/classificação , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/microbiologia
4.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(9): 2437-2451, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607726

RESUMO

A total of 15 samples of thalassotherapy products, distributed in Tunisia in their intact and final state of production, was analyzed to determine their microbiological safety status. The result shows the absence of pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Salmonella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and coliforms). The incidence of contamination by Gram-positive Bacilli (mesophelic bacteria, aerobic and anaerobic spore forming bacteria, anaerobic sulphite-reducing bacteria) was found to be higher in products composed by mud and extract of alga. The biochemical and molecular identification of the major contaminant show that Bacilli were the most covered from 75% of the thalassotherapy products. Mineral analysis (organic matter, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na d K, Al, Si and Ti) shows strong composition on Aluminum and Silica. Cytotoxicity study of six thalassotherapy products and three essential oil extracts (Menthol, Clove and Eucalyptus) did not show any cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, antibacterial acitivity of 5 essentila oils, against 30 isolates of the genus Bacillus and 10 reference strains, has been characterized showing an interesting bactericidal potential of the extract of menthol and Eucalyptus.


Assuntos
Climatoterapia/normas , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tunísia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234661, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544201

RESUMO

Xanthoxylin was the main compound (content 44.92% of total volatiles) in the leaves of Luodian B. balsamifera, which might be the key cause of failure in collecting essential oil (EO) of the leaves using general hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus. A modified hydrodistillation equipped with Clevenger apparatus was designed for isolating EO from the leaves. Six EOs of Luodian B. balsamifera harvested once a month from September to next February were collected successfully. The main components of EOs were δ-elemene, α-cubenene, caryophyllene, caryophyllene epoxide, γ-eudesmol, xanthoxylin, and α-eudesmol. The EOs of Luodian B. balsamifera collected from October to December had higher antioxidant activities (ACs). Combining the principal component analysis of chemical components with the results of ACs and the yields of six EOs, the leaves of Luodian B. balsamifera were suitable to be harvested in November and December to obtain EO with high quality.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Asteraceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , China , Destilação/instrumentação , Destilação/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação
6.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107937, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535114

RESUMO

The chemical composition and acaricidal activity of plant-derived essential oils was assessed against Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. The essential oils of Mentha arvensis, Cymbopogon citratus and C. nardus were assessed for acaricidal activity against Rhipicephalus microplus. Essential oils (EO) of plants were separated by hydrodistillation (three times) and analyzed using gas chromatography - mass spectrometer (GC-MS). For bioassays, engorged females of R. microplus were exposed to C. citratus and C. nardus EO at 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% concentrations; and to M. arvensis EO at 1%, 3%, and 5% for 5 min. The weight egg mass, nutrient index (N.I), egg production index (E.P.I), hatching and control rate were evaluated. Non-feed larvae of R. microplus were exposed to essential oils with 0.25%, 0.5%; 1%; 1.5% and 2% concentrations; the mortality rate was measured after 48 h. Only engorged females presented reduced biological activities (oviposition, E.P.I) after exposure to M. arvensis at 3%, when in comparison to both positive and negative controls. The hatchability of R. microplus larvae ranged from 66.9% (after exposure to C. nardus EO at 5%) to 99.2% (positive control). The nutrition index was lower (46.6%) for the exposure to M. arvensis EO at 5%. M. arvensis at 3% and 5% concentrations was significantly efficient for engorged females when compared to control (53.7% and 47.5%, respectively). C. citratus EO at 1%, 1.5% and 2% concentrations yielded better results in the larval packet test, causing 100% mortality. Nonetheless, C. nardus and M. arvensis EO at 2% yielded 66% and 39% mortality, respectively. The study showed that M. arvensis presented potential for the control of R. microplus engorged females while C. citratus and C. nardus presented potential as a larvicide.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Cymbopogon/química , Mentha/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhipicephalus , Acaricidas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bioensaio/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Destilação/métodos , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Dose Letal Mediana , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(3): 314-320, mayo 2020. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116301

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the potential of this formulation (P. lentiscus L. oil-based ointment) to heal wounds, experimental wounds were done on guinea pigs and efficiency was comparatively assessed against a reference ointment, Cicaderma®. Wound contraction was performed on days 5, 10 and 15. Tissue sections were also evaluated histopathological on days 7, 14 and 21. Results showed that for all days (5, 10 and 15), the highest wound contraction values were attained for the P. lentiscus oil-based ointment treated group with wound contraction values of 19.38, 55.8 and 77.11%, respectively, as compared to the reference drug Cicaderma® where contractions were 7.97%, 49.53% and 71.44%, respectively. Vehicle and negative control groups however showed no statistically significant wound healing activity on the excision wound model. These experimental studies revealed that the P. lentiscus oil-based ointment displays remarkable wound healing activity, in accordance with its use in traditional medicine.


Con el fin de evaluar el potencial de esta formulación (ungüento a base de aceite de P. lentiscus L.) para curar heridas, se realizaron heridas experimentales en cobayos y se evaluó comparativamente su eficacia respecto de un ungüento de referencia, Cicaderma®. La contracción de la herida se realizó los días 5, 10 y 15. Las secciones de tejido también se evaluaron histopatológicamente los días 7, 14 y 21. Los resultados mostraron que para todos los días (5, 10 y 15), se obtuvieron los valores más altos de contracción de la herida para el grupo tratado con ungüento a base de aceite de P. lentiscus con valores de contracción de la herida de 19.38, 55.8 y 77.11%, respectivamente, en comparación con el medicamento de referencia Cicaderma® en donde las contracciones fueron 7.97%, 49.53% y 71.44%, respectivamente. Sin embargo, los grupos de control de vehículo y negativo no mostraron actividad de curación de heridas estadísticamente significativa en el modelo de herida por escisión. Estos estudios experimentales revelaron que la pomada a base de aceite de P. lentiscus muestra una notable actividad de curación de heridas, de acuerdo con su uso en la medicina tradicional.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Cobaias , Pomadas/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pistacia/química , Sementes
8.
Exp Parasitol ; 215: 107919, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442440

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus microplus, the cattle tick, is a major cause of economic losses in bovine production. Due to the widespread acaricidal resistance to commercially available products, as well as their toxicity and environmental impact, alternative control methods are required. Nanoformulations produced from plant extracts as bioactive substances are very promising as innovative acaricidal agents. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro repellent activity of Pilocarpus spicatus essential oil and its nanoemulsion against R. microplus, using larval repellent test (RT). The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The nanoemulsion was prepared with 5% essential oil, 5% tween 80, and 90% water, using the phase inversion method (50 mg/mL). Limonene was the major component (46.8%) of the essential oil, as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and confirmed by flame ionization detection (GC/FID). According to the RT results, the essential oil had a repellent activity greater than 69%, from concentrations of 3.12 mg/mL (69.81 ± 10%) to 50 mg/mL (98.10 ± 0.6%), whereas the nanoemulsion at 50 mg/mL presented repellent activities of 97.14 ± 1.37% and 97.89 ± 0.52% 6 and 10 h after treatment, respectively. These values regarding to total repellency were very close to those calculated for mortality corrected by Abbott's formula. The phase inversion method preserved the chemical and physical characteristics of the essential oil since both reached an equal repellent effect at the same concentration. Therefore, P. spicatus essential oil and nanoemulsion had excellent repellent activities against R. microplus larvae, demonstrating its potential for future use as an alternative for tick control.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pilocarpus/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Emulsões/farmacologia , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Limoneno/análise , Modelos Lineares , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Aleatória , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232224, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343717

RESUMO

The Amazon region is rich in genetic resources such as oilseeds which have potentially important local commercial exploitation. Despite its high concentration of bioactive compounds, cacay (Caryodendron orinocense Karst.) oil is poorly investigated and explored. Thus, this study focuses on the physicochemical characterization (moisture, density, and saponification, iodine, and acidity values), fatty acid composition as determined by gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC/MS), total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay) of cacay oil, coconut oil and a coconut/cacay oil blend, also known as cacay butter. The antibacterial activity of cacay oil was additionally evaluated. Our study demonstrated that cacay oil presents a high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (58.3%) with an emphasis on linoleic acid and a lower acidity value (2.67 ± 0.01 cg I2/g) than butter and coconut oil, indicating a low concentration of free fatty acids. In contrast, cacay butter and coconut oil presented higher saturated fatty acid percentages (69.1% and 78.4%, respectively) and higher saponification values (242.78 and 252.22 mg KOH/g, respectively). The samples showed low moisture and relative density between 912 and 916 kg/m3. The hydrophilic fraction of cacay oil was highlighted in the quantification of TPC (326.27 ± 6.79 mg GAE/kg) and antioxidant capacity in vitro by DPPH radical scavenging assay (156.57 ± 2.25 µmol TE/g). Cacay oil inhibited the growth of Bacillus cereus (44.99 ± 7.68%), Enterococcus faecalis (27.76 ± 0.00%), and Staphylococcus aureus (11.81 ± 3.75%). At long last, this is the first study reporting the physicochemical characterization and bioactive properties of cacay butter. Coconut oil and cacay butter showed great oxidative stability potential due to higher contents of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, cacay oil presents as an alternative source of raw materials for cosmetic and biotechnology industries due to its high concentration of PUFA and for being a rich source of phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Óleo de Coco/química , Euphorbiaceae/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenômenos Químicos , Óleo de Coco/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 854-860, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237486

RESUMO

L_9(3~4) orthogonal experiment design was used to optimize the preparation of the patches,and investigate its affecting factors and skin irritation. Eugenol was taken as the index component to study the release behavior in vitro and percutaneous penetration of Cangai oil transfersomes patches by HPLC.The results showed that the optimal prescription for preparing Cangai oil transfersomes patches were Eudragit E100 0.6 g, succinic acid 0.08 g,triethyl citrate 0.25 g,glycerol 0.2 g.Patches prepared by the preferred preparation had a flat appearance without obvious bubbles.The initial adhesion was 18.33±2.52, the stickiness was(30.01±2.45) min,and the peel strength was(5.62±0.95) kN·m~(-1).The results of affecting factors experiment showed the order of factors affecting its adhesion was humidity>temperature>lighting,and the skin irritation test results showed no significant skin irritation after 24 h of single administration. The results of drug release behavior in vitro showed that the release and the percutaneous penetration of both Cangai oil patches and Cangai oil transfersomes patches conformed to the Higuchi equation.The release amount of eugenol were 80.66% and 82.25% at 72 h, with no significant difference. The cumulative permeation area of eugenol per unit area reached(0.195 6±0.065 9),(0.131 0±0.045 5) mg·cm~(-2) at 72 h, with significant differences(P<0.05).The experiment results proved that the preparation process of Cangai oil transfersomes patches was stable,and the prepared patches had a good adhesion. At the same time,the preparation of transfersomes patches could alleviate and control the release of the drug to a certain extent, and provide a certain experimental basis for clinical pediatric drug safety.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Absorção Cutânea , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesivo Transdérmico , Administração Cutânea , Portadores de Fármacos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 991-996, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237437

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of resolution components, such as Açaí oil, alcohol extract and water extract, on the temperature tendency animal behavior and intrinsic biochemical indexes, such ascyclic nucleotides and metabolic level, in mice with deficiency-heat and deficiency-cold syndrome, in order to study the characteristics of the cold and heat properties of each resolution component of Açaí and the material basis of cooling. KM mice were randomly divided into 12 groups, namely blank group, deficiency-heat model group, deficiency-heat+Açaí group, deficiency-heat+Açaí oil group, deficiency-heat+Açaí alcohol extract group, deficiency-heat+Açaí water extract group, deficiency-cold model group, deficiency-cold+Cinnamomi Cortex group, deficiency-cold+Açaí group, deficiency-cold+Açaí oil group, deficiency-cold+Açaí alcohol extract group, deficiency-cold+Açaí water extract group. The mice in deficiency-heat group were given thyroid tablet solution(160 mg·kg~(-1)), the mice in deficiency-cold group were given hydrocortisone solution(25 mg·kg~(-1)) through gastric perfusion every afternoon for 14 days, and each administration group was given the corresponding drug. The temperature tendency, cyclic nucleotides and metabolic level of animals were measured after the experiment. The Açaí alcohol extract was consistent with the Açaí powder, with a regulatory effect on the deficiency-heat model mice; Açaí oil and its water extract were consistent with Cinnamomi Cortex, with a regulatory effect on the deficiency-cold model mice. In this study, based on the parable theory of traditional Chinese medicine's properties and tastes, property of alcohol extract of Açaí was cool, while the property of oil and water extract were warm, the alcohol extract of Açaí was the material basis of Açaí cold medicine by the methods of homogeneous comparison and heterogeneous disproval.


Assuntos
Euterpe/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Temperatura , Animais , Etanol , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Distribuição Aleatória , Água
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008225, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Essential oils may represent an alternative strategy for controlling scabies, a neglected tropical disease caused by the infestation of mite from the species Sarcoptes scabiei. Lemongrass (Cymbopogen citratus) oil is reported to possess pharmacological properties including antiparasitc, antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential efficacy of lemongrass oil against the mites and eggs of Sarcoptes scabiei. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that the main component presented in lemongrass oil was citral. Lemongrass oil at concentrations of 10% and 5% killed all Sarcoptes mites within 10 and 25 min, respectively. The median lethal concentration value was 1.37%, 1.08%, 0.91%, 0.64%, and 0.48% at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively. Lemongrass oil at all concentrations (10%, 5%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.1%) was able to significantly decrease the hatching rate of Sarcoptes eggs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Lemongrass oil should be considered as a promising miticidal and ovicidal agent for scabies control.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/farmacologia , Cymbopogon/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sarcoptes scabiei/efeitos dos fármacos , Terpenos/farmacologia , Acaricidas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bioensaio , Espectrometria de Massas , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Sarcoptes scabiei/fisiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231494, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298317

RESUMO

There is an increasing interest from the aquafeed industry in functional feeds containing selected additives that improve fish growth performance and health status. Functional feed additives include probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, and phytogenics (substances derived from plants and their extracts). This study evaluated the effects of dietary inclusion of a mucilage extract rich in galactomannan oligosaccharides (GMOS), a mixture of garlic and labiatae-plants oils (PHYTO), and a combination of them (GMOSPHYTO), on gut microbiota composition of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed with a low fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) diet. Three experimental diets and a control diet (plant-based formulation with 10% FM and 6% FO) were tested in a 63-days feeding trial. To analyze the microbiota associated to feeds and the intestinal autochthonous (mucosa-adhered) and allochthonous (transient) microbial communities, the Illumina MiSeq platform for sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and QIIME2 pipeline were used. Metabarcoding analysis of feed-associated bacteria showed that the microbial communities of control (CTRL) feed deeply differed from those of experimental diets. The number of reads was significantly lower in CTRL feed than in other feeds. The OTU (operational taxonomic unit) number was instead similar between the feeds, ranging from 42 to 50 OTUs. The variation of resident gut microbiota induced by diet was lower than the variation of transient intestinal microbiota, because feedstuffs are a major source of allochthonous bacteria, which can temporarily integrate into the gut transient microbiome. However, the composition of transient bacterial communities was not simply a mirror of feed-borne bacteria. Indeed, the microbial profile of feeds was different from both faecal and mucosa profiles. Our findings suggest that the dietary inclusion of GMOS (0.5%) and PHYTO (0.02%) in a low FM and FO diet induces changes in gut microbiota composition of European sea bass. However, if on allochthonous microbiota the combined inclusion of GMOS and PHYTO showed an antagonistic effect on bactericidal activity against Vibrionales, at mucosa level, only GMOSPHYTO diet increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidales, Lactobacillales, and Clostridiales resident bacterial orders. The main beneficial effects of GMOS and PHYTO on gut microbiota are the reduction of coliforms and Vibrionales bacteria, which include several potentially pathogenic species for fish, and the enrichment of gut microbiota composition with butyrate producer taxa. Therefore, these functional ingredients have a great potential to be used as health-promoting agents in the farming of European sea bass and other marine fish.


Assuntos
Bass/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mananas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bass/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sulfetos/farmacologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230993, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298275

RESUMO

Considering a growing demand for medicinal/cosmetic products with natural actives, this study focuses on the low-energy nanoemulsions (LE-NEs) prepared via the Phase inversion composition (PIC) method at room temperature as potential carriers for natural oil. Four different red raspberry seed oils (ROs) were tested, as follows: cold-pressed vs. CO2-extracted, organic vs. non-organic, refined vs. unrefined. The oil phase was optimized with Tocopheryl acetate and Isostearyl isostearate, while water phase was adjusted with either glycerol or an antioxidant hydro-glycolic extract. This study has used a combined approach to formulation development, employing both conventional methods (pseudo-ternary phase diagram - PTPD, electrical conductivity, particle size measurements, microscopical analysis, and rheological measurements) and the methods novel to this area, such as textural analysis and Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy has detected fine differences in chemical composition among ROs, and it detected the interactions within nanoemulsions. It was shown that the cold-pressed, unrefined, organic grade oil (RO2) with 6.62% saturated fatty acids and 92.25% unsaturated fatty acids, was optimal for the LE-NEs. Textural analysis confirmed the existence of cubic gel-like phase as a crucial step in the formation of stable RO2-loaded LE-NEs, with droplets in the narrow nano-range (125 to 135 nm; PDI ≤ 0.1). The DPPH test in methanol and ABTS in aqueous medium have revealed a synergistic free radical scavenging effect between lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in LE-NEs. The nanoemulsion carrier has improved the biological effect of raw materials on HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cells, while exhibiting good safety profile, as confirmed on MRC-5 normal human lung fibroblasts. Overall, this study has shown that low-energy nanoemulsions present very promising carriers for topical delivery of natural bioactives. Raman spectroscopy and textural analysis have proven to be a useful addition to the arsenal of methods used in the formulation and characterization of nanoemulsion systems.


Assuntos
Rubus/química , Administração Tópica , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Condutividade Elétrica , Emulsões , Ácidos Graxos/química , Frutas/química , Humanos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Nanoestruturas , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reologia , Sementes/química , Análise Espectral Raman
15.
Malar J ; 19(1): 127, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The species-specific mode of action for DEET and many other mosquito repellents is often unclear. Confusion may arise for many reasons. First, the response of a single mosquito species is often used to represent all mosquito species. Second, behavioural studies usually test the effect of repellents on mosquito attraction towards human odorants, rather than their direct repulsive effect on mosquitoes. Third, the mosquito sensory neuron responses towards repellents are often not directly examined. METHODS: A close proximity response assay was used to test the direct repulsive effect of six mosquito repellents on Anopheles coluzzii, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Additionally, the behavioural assay and calcium imaging recordings of antennae were used to test the response of An. coluzzii mosquitoes towards two human odorants (1-octen-3-ol and benzaldehyde) at different concentrations, and mixtures of the repellents lemongrass oil and p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD) with DEET. RESULTS: Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes were repelled by lemongrass oil and PMD, while Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were repelled by lemongrass oil, PMD, eugenol, and DEET. In addition, high concentrations of 1-octen-3-ol and benzaldehyde were repellent, and activated more olfactory receptor neurons on the An. coluzzii antennae than lower concentrations. Finally, changes in olfactory responses to repellent mixtures reflected changes in repulsive behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: The findings described here suggest that different species of mosquitoes have different behavioural responses to repellents. The data further suggest that high-odour concentrations may recruit repellent-sensing neurons, or generally excite many olfactory neurons, yielding repellent behavioural responses. Finally, DEET can decrease the neuronal and behavioural response of An. coluzzii mosquitoes towards PMD but not towards lemongrass oil. Overall, these studies can help inform mosquito repellent choice by species, guide decisions on effective repellent blends, and could ultimately identify the olfactory neurons and receptors in mosquitoes that mediate repellency.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Percepção Olfatória , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Benzaldeídos , Culex/fisiologia , DEET/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eugenol/farmacologia , Feminino , Octanóis , Odorantes , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Terpenos/farmacologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218156

RESUMO

This study examined the biological activities of copaiba essential oil via measurement of its effects on signaling pathways in the SH-SY5Y neuronal cell line. Nanofluidic proteomic technologies were deployed to measure the phosphorylation of biomarker proteins within the signaling cascades. Interestingly, copaiba essential oil upregulated the pI3K/Akt/mTOR, MAPK, and JAK/STAT signaling pathways in neuronal cells. The effects of copaiba essential oil peaked at 30 min post-treatment, with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of approximately 80 ng/mL. Treatment with cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist AM1241 or the inverse agonist BML190 abrogated the regulatory effects of copaiba essential oil on the pI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Surprisingly, copaiba essential oil also activated the apoptosis signaling pathway and reduced the viability of SH-SY5Y cells with an EC50 of approximately 400 ng/mL. Furthermore, ß-caryophyllene, a principal constituent of copaiba essential oil, downregulated the pI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Taken together, the findings indicated that copaiba essential oil upregulated signaling pathways associated with cell metabolism, growth, immunity, and apoptosis. The biological activities of copaiba essential oil were determined to be fast acting, CB2 mediated, and dependent on multiple chemical constituents of the oil. Nanofluidic proteomics provided a powerful means to assess the biological activities of copaiba essential oil.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Humanos , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
17.
Adv Clin Chem ; 95: 219-243, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122524

RESUMO

The main function of blood platelets is to form hemostatic plugs and enable thrombosis. These properties, however, can be greatly influenced by dietary components which may inhibit certain steps of platelet activation, including platelet aggregation. Such inhibition can play a role in the prophylaxis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases associated with blood platelet hyperactivation. In fact, plant and fish oils have been identified and specifically used for this purpose. Numerous in vivo and in vitro experiments have explored the potential use of these oils to inhibit platelet activation as well as their role in reducing oxidative stress and blood pressure, and lowering triglyceride and cholesterol. This chapter presents and compares the anti-platelet effects of fish and plant oils and their constituents, especially fatty acids. Studies on healthy subjects and patients with various cardiovascular diseases are also examined. Findings indicate that both fish and plant oils contain protective components with anti-platelet activity having clearly defined mechanisms of action. Although both are excellent sources of omega fatty acids and vitamins, plant oils contain components with cardioprotective benefit in hypercholesterolemics, i.e., phytosterols. Plant oils may hence play a key role in strategies for preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases associated with platelet hyperactivation. Further studies are clearly needed to determine the precise dose of these components needed for effective prophylaxis and treatment.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos
18.
J Appl Microbiol ; 129(1): 137-145, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119179

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate in vitro efficacy of essential oils (EOs) and their compounds (EOCs) alone or in combination against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antimicrobial activity of 13 EOs and 16 EOCs was investigated for four A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains using broth microdilution. The checkerboard assay was used to evaluate a putative synergy between the most efficient EOs and EOCs against the tested strains. Cinnamon bark, oregano, clove, and thyme oils and their major compounds cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, carvacrol and thymol showed the lower minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values. The association of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol (V/V: 30%/70%) showed a synergistic activity against three tested strains. The combinations of cinnamon with oregano, clove or thyme EOs showed a neutral or additive activity against all the tested strains. CONCLUSIONS: Cinnamon, oregano, clove and thyme oils and their major phytochemical compounds showed strong activities against A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: To reduce the use of antibiotics in aquaculture, phytochemicals such as cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can be tested alone or in combination in in vivo studies as functional feed alternatives.


Assuntos
Aeromonas salmonicida/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Furunculose/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Salmonidae/microbiologia
19.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 99, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is the most dominant human pathogen, responsible for a variety of chronic and severe infections. There is mounting evidence that persisters are associated with treatment failure and relapse of persistent infections. While some essential oils were reported to have antimicrobial activity against growing S. aureus, activity of essential oils against the stationary phase S. aureus enriched in persisters has not been investigated. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the activity of 143 essential oils against both growing and stationary phase S. aureus by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing and by colony forming unit assay. RESULTS: We identified 39 essential oils (Oregano, Cinnamon bark, Thyme white, Bandit "Thieves", Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus), Sandalwood oil, Health shield, Allspice, Amyris, Palmarosa, Cinnamon leaf, Clove bud, Citronella, Geranium bourbon, Marjoram, Peppermint, Lemongrass, Cornmint, Elemi, Ho wood, Head ease, Lemon eucalyptus, Litsea cubeba, Myrrh, Parsley seed, Coriander oil, Dillweed, Hyssop, Neroli, Rosewood oil, Tea tree, Cajeput, Clove bud, Lavender, Sleep tight, Vetiver, Palo santo, Sage oil, Yarrow) at 0.5% (v/v) concentration, 10 essential oils (Cinnamon bark, Oregano, Thyme white, Bandit "Thieves", Lemongrass, Sandalwood oil, Health shield, Allspice, Amyris, Palmarosa at 0.25% (v/v) concentration, and 7 essential oils (Oregano, Cinnamon bark, Thyme white, Lemongrass, Allspice, Amyris, Palmarosa at 0.125% (v/v) concentration to have high activity against stationary phase S. aureus with no visible growth on agar plates after five-day exposure. Among the 10 essential oils which showed high activity at 0.25% (v/v) concentration, 9 (Oregano, Cinnamon bark, Thyme white, Bandit "Thieves", Lemongrass, Health shield, Allspice, Palmarosa, Amyris showed higher activity than the known persister drug tosufloxacin, while Sandalwood oil had activity at a higher concentration. In Oregano essential oil combination studies with antibiotics, Oregano plus tosufloxacin (or levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin) and rifampin completely eradicated stationary phase S. aureus cells, but had no apparent enhancement for linezolid, vancomycin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, azithromycin or gentamicin. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that some essential oils have excellent activity against both growing and stationary phase S. aureus. Further studies are needed to identify the active components, evaluate safety, pharmacokinetics, and their activity to eradicate S. aureus infections in vivo.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
20.
J Mycol Med ; 30(2): 100940, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201243

RESUMO

Despite the use of conventional antifungal drugs, Candida spp resistance, especially mediated by biofilms formation remains recurrent. Therefore, new drugs to treat fungal infections are urgently needed. In this line, our study aimed to determine the anticandidal activity and the synergistic effect of essential oil fractions from Syzygium aromaticum, Cymbopogon citratus and Aeollanthus heliotropioides harvested in Cameroon using a combination approach. Essential oils have been obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical composition was analysed by GC/MS. Antifungal activity was evaluated by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using a micro-dilution method. The sorbitol and ergosterol binding ability and anti-biofilm activity were also assessed in order to evaluate the mode of action. The crude essential oils showed a good anticandidal activity, most probably due to the eugenol, linalool and citral content. The combination of two fractions F7 and F10 showed an improved growth inhibition of Candida spp compared to the crude essential oils. The inhibitory effect could be related with the presence of γ-dodecalactone and citronellol as main compounds. The best synergistic combination F7F10 inhibited biofilm formation at ten time reduced combination MIC. The active fractions targeted different fungal cell structures, including cell wall and membrane. Our study showed that the combination of selected essential oils fractions exhibited an increased antifungal activity against Candida spp compared to the crude essential oils. The combination approach of inner compound groups may be used as a promising strategy for the development of efficient recombined micro-essential oils as antifungal agents to face Candida resistance.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Cymbopogon/química , Lamiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Syzygium/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Camarões , Candida/fisiologia , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Fracionamento Químico , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA