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1.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(3): 283-296, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740897

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Differences in FAE1 enzyme affinity for the acyl-CoA substrates, as well as the balance between the different pathways involved in their incorporation to triacylglycerol might be determinant of the different composition of the seed oil in Brassicaceae. Brassicaceae present a great heterogeneity of seed oil and fatty acid composition, accumulating Very Long Chain Fatty Acids with industrial applications. However, the molecular determinants of these differences remain elusive. We have studied the ß-ketoacyl-CoA synthase from the high erucic feedstock Thlaspi arvense (Pennycress). Functional characterization of the Pennycress FAE1 enzyme was performed in two Arabidopsis backgrounds; Col-0, with less than 2.5% of erucic acid in its seed oil and the fae1-1 mutant, deficient in FAE1 activity, that did not accumulate erucic acid. Seed-specific expression of the Pennycress FAE1 gene in Col-0 resulted in a 3 to fourfold increase of erucic acid content in the seed oil. This increase was concomitant with a decrease of eicosenoic acid levels without changes in oleic ones. Interestingly, only small changes in eicosenoic and erucic acid levels occurred when the Pennycress FAE1 gene was expressed in the fae1-1 mutant, with high levels of oleic acid available for elongation, suggesting that the Pennycress FAE1 enzyme showed higher affinity for eicosenoic acid substrates, than for oleic ones in Arabidopsis. Erucic acid was incorporated to triacylglycerol in the transgenic lines without significant changes in their levels in the diacylglycerol fraction, suggesting that erucic acid was preferentially incorporated to triacylglycerol via DGAT1. Expression analysis of FAE1, AtDGAT1, AtLPCAT1 and AtPDAT1 genes in the transgenic lines further supported this conclusion. Differences in FAE1 affinity for the oleic and eicosenoic substrates among Brassicaceae, as well as their incorporation to triacylglycerol might explain the differences in composition of their seed oil.


Assuntos
3-Oxoacil-(Proteína de Transporte de Acila) Sintase/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis , Vias Biossintéticas , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Thlaspi/enzimologia , Thlaspi/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese , 1-Acilglicerofosfocolina O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , 3-Oxoacil-(Proteína de Transporte de Acila) Sintase/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Ácidos Erúcicos/metabolismo , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenótipo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sementes/genética , Análise de Sequência , Thlaspi/genética , Transcriptoma
2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233721, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516314

RESUMO

Understanding the molecular processes of seed development is important especially in agronomic crops that produce large amounts of nutrient reserves. Because soybean is a vital source of vegetable protein worldwide, producers are concerned about increasing the total amount of protein in the seed without substantially lowering the amount of oil, another economically important product. Here we describe a transgenic soybean line with increased protein and protein/oil ratio, containing an average of 42.2% protein vs. 38.5% in controls and with a protein/oil ratio of 2.02 vs. 1.76 in controls over several generations of greenhouse growth. Other phenotypic data show that the seeds are heavier, although there are overall lower yields per plant. We postulate these effects result from insertion site mutagenesis by the transgenic construct. As this line never achieves homozygosity and appears to be embryo lethal when homozygous, one functional copy of the gene is most likely essential for normal seed development. Global transcript analyses using RNA-Seq for 88,000 gene models over two stages of cotyledon development revealed that more genes are over-expressed in the transgenic line including ribosomal protein related genes and those in the membrane protein and transporters families. Localization of the insertion site should reveal the genes and developmental program that has been perturbed by the transgenic construct, resulting in this economically interesting increase in protein and the protein/oil ratio.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Heterozigoto , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Food Chem ; 326: 126986, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407998

RESUMO

In the present work, a barcode-DNA analysis method is described for the detection of plant oil adulteration in milk and dairy products. The method relies on the fact that plant DNA should not be present in readily detectable amounts in a dairy product unless it contains undeclared plant material. Thus, a universal plant barcode is chosen as the target to be amplified from dairy samples. Accordingly, barcode PCR-CE (PCR-capillary electrophoresis) assays are described, which do not require preliminary information on the species source of the adulterant oil type. Two PCR-CE assays, one operating on the plastid trnL (UAA) intron and the other targeting its inner P6 loop in nested format, were shown to detect corn, soybean, rapeseed and sunflower oils in clarified butter, milk and yogurt. Both barcodes are robustly amplified with extremely conserved primers. While the intron provides the species discrimination ability, the P6 loop provides superior detection sensitivity.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/análise , Laticínios/análise , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Leite/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Animais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plastídeos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Soja/genética , Iogurte/análise , Zea mays/genética
4.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(4-5): 457-471, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274640

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: In this manuscript, we disclosed the influence of light on the accumulation of storage reserves in B. napus embryos.1.Light induced the gene expression in the developing embryos of B. napus.2.Light promoted the starch synthesis in chloroplasts of B. napus embryos.3.Light enhanced the metabolic activity of storage reserve synthesis in B. napus embryos. Light influences the accumulation of storage reserves in embryos, but the molecular mechanism was not fully understood. Here, we monitored the effects of light on reserve biosynthesis in Brassica napus by comparing embryos from siliques grown in normal light conditions to those that were shaded or masked (i.e., darkened completely). Masked embryos developed more slowly, weighed less, and contained fewer proteins and lipids than control embryos. They also had fewer and smaller oil bodies than control embryos and lacked chloroplasts, where starch grains are usually synthesized. The levels of most amino acids, carbohydrates, and fatty acids were higher in masked embryos than in control or shaded embryos, whereas the levels of these metabolites in the masked endosperms were lower than those in control and shaded endosperm. Transcriptome analysis indicated that genes involved in photosynthesis (42 genes), amino acid biosynthesis (51 genes), lipid metabolism (61 genes), and sugar transport (13 genes) were significantly repressed in masked embryos. Our results suggest that light contributes to reserve accumulation in embryos by inducing the expression of metabolic genes, thereby enhancing the biosynthesis of storage reserves.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/embriologia , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/efeitos da radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Sementes/genética , Sementes/efeitos da radiação , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Clorofila/análise , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Endosperma/metabolismo , Endosperma/efeitos da radiação , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fotossíntese , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/citologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amido/biossíntese , Transcriptoma
5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(5): 1068-1078, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unexplained heterogeneity in clinical trials has resulted in questions regarding the effectiveness of É£-linolenic acid (GLA)-containing botanical oil supplements. This heterogeneity may be explained by genetic variation within the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster that is associated with circulating and tissue concentrations of arachidonic acid (ARA) and dihomo-É£-linolenic acid (DGLA), both of which may be synthesized from GLA and result in proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory metabolites, respectively. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to prospectively compare the capacity of a non-Hispanic white cohort, stratified by FADS genotype at the key single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs174537, to metabolize 18-carbon omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs in borage oil (BO) and soybean oil (SO) to GLA, DGLA, and ARA. METHODS: Healthy adults (n = 64) participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover intervention. Individuals received encapsulated BO (Borago officinalis L.; 37% LA and 23% GLA) or SO [Glycine max (L.) Merr.; 50% LA and 0% GLA] for 4 wk, followed by an 8-wk washout period, before consuming the opposite oil for 4 wk. Serum lipids and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein) were assessed for both oil types at baseline and during weeks 2 and 4 of the intervention. RESULTS: SO supplementation failed to alter circulating concentrations of any n-6 long-chain PUFAs. In contrast, a modest daily dose of BO elevated serum concentrations of GLA and DGLA in an rs174537 genotype-dependent manner. In particular, DGLA increased by 57% (95% CI: 0.38, 0.79) in GG genotype individuals, but by 141% (95% CI: 1.03, 2.85) in TT individuals. For ARA, baseline concentrations varied substantially by genotype and increased modestly with BO supplementation, suggesting a key role for FADS variation in the balance of DGLA and ARA. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study clearly suggest that personalized and population-based approaches considering FADS genetic variation may be necessary to optimize the design of future clinical studies with GLA-containing oils. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02337231.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácido Linoleico/sangue , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Óleo de Soja/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Linolênico/sangue , Ácido 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoico/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Método Duplo-Cego , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem , Ácido gama-Linolênico/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168329

RESUMO

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is an ecologically and economically important species. Here, we assessed the diversity of 78 accessions cultivated in northern China using 8 agronomic characteristics, oil traits (including oil content and fatty acid composition) in seeds and fruit pulp, and SSR markers at 23 loci. The 78 accessions included 52 from ssp. mongolica, 6 from ssp. sinensis, and 20 hybrids. To assess the phenotypic diversity of these accessions, 8 agronomic fruit traits were recorded and analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The first two PCs accounted for approximately 78% of the variation among accessions. The oil contents were higher in pulp (3.46-38.56%) than in seeds (3.88-8.82%), especially in ssp. mongolica accessions. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio was slightly lower in the seed oil of hybrids (76.06%) than that of in ssp. mongolica (77.66%) and higher than that of in ssp. sinensis (72.22%). The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) ratio in the pulp oil of ssp. sinensis (57.00%) was highest, and that in ssp. mongolica (51.00%) was equal to the ratio in the hybrids (51.20%). Using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), we examined the correlation between agronomic traits and oil characteristics in pulp and seeds. Oil traits in pulp from different origins were correlated with morphological groupings (r = 0.8725, p = 0.0000). To assess the genotypic diversity, 23 SSR markers (including 17 loci previously reported) were used among the 78 accessions with 59 polymorphic amplified fragments obtained and an average PIC value of 0.2845. All accessions were classified into two groups based on the UPGMA method. The accessions of ssp. sinensis and ssp. mongolica were genetically distant. The hybrid accessions were close to ssp. mongolica accessions. The 8 agronomic traits, oil characteristics in seed and pulp oils, and 23 SSR markers successfully distinguished the 78 accessions. These results will be valuable for cultivar identification and genetic diversity analysis in cultivated sea buckthorn.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Hippophae/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , China , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Hippophae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hippophae/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 2071-2081, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984735

RESUMO

Wild melon (Cucumis melo var. agrestis) seed oil (CO) contains 71.3% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The present study investigated the effects of CO on blood cholesterol and gut microbiota. Hamsters (n = 32) were randomly divided into four groups and given one of four diets, namely noncholesterol diet (NCD), high-cholesterol diet containing 0.1% cholesterol (HCD), HCD containing 4.75% CO (COL), and HCD containing 9.5% CO (COH) for 6 weeks. CO supplementation at 9.5% in the diet reduced plasma cholesterol by 24% and enhanced the excretion of fecal bile acids by 150%. CO supplementation upregulated the gene expression of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). In addition, supplementation of CO in the diet remarkably increased the production of fecal short-chain fatty acids and favorably altered the relative abundances of Eubacteriaceae, Clostridiales_vadinBB60_group, Ruminococcaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Desulfovibrionaceae at a family level. It was concluded that CO could reduce plasma cholesterol via promoting the excretion of fecal acidic sterols and modulating gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Cucumis melo/química , Cucumis melo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/microbiologia , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 21, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the main composition of plant seed oil. Long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases (LACSs) catalyze the synthesis of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A, which is one of the primary substrates for TAG synthesis. In Arabidopsis, the LACS gene family contains nine members, among which LACS1 and LACS9 have overlapping functions in TAG biosynthesis. However, functional characterization of LACS proteins in rapeseed have been rarely reported. RESULTS: An orthologue of the Arabidopsis LACS2 gene (BnLACS2) that is highly expressed in developing seeds was identified in rapeseed (Brassica napus). The BnLACS2-GFP fusion protein was mainly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, where TAG biosynthesis occurs. Interestingly, overexpression of the BnLACS2 gene resulted in significantly higher oil contents in transgenic rapeseed plants compared to wild type, while BnLACS2-RNAi transgenic rapeseed plants had decreased oil contents. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR expression data revealed that the expression of several genes involved in glycolysis, as well as fatty acid (FA) and lipid biosynthesis, was also affected in transgenic plants. CONCLUSIONS: A long chain acyl-CoA synthetase, BnLACS2, located in the endoplasmic reticulum was identified in B. napus. Overexpression of BnLACS2 in yeast and rapeseed could increase oil content, while BnLACS2-RNAi transgenic rapeseed plants exhibited decreased oil content. Furthermore, BnLACS2 transcription increased the expression of genes involved in glycolysis, and FA and lipid synthesis in developing seeds. These results suggested that BnLACS2 is an important factor for seed oil production in B. napus.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Coenzima A Ligases , Sementes/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Coenzima A Ligases/genética , Coenzima A Ligases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Glicólise/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Interferência de RNA , Triglicerídeos/genética
9.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 129(5): 581-587, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901317

RESUMO

Melaleuca cajuputi subsp. cajuputi is one of the Australian Melaleuca species commonly found in Pulau Buru (Maluku, Indonesia). Its oil, the M. cajuputi essential oil (MCEO), has been utilized as the main flavor of the Indonesian functional food, Cajuputs Candy. However, the availability of MCEO is becoming limited. On the other hand, Indonesia has many other potential MCEO sources which can be developed as flavor ingredient. Thus, it is noteworthy to explore these new MCEO sources by studying their sensory characteristics and metabolite profiles. This study was conducted to identify potential metabolites that are correlated to sensory attributes of MCEO by using the metabolomics approach. The metabolite profiles of thirteen MCEOs from different origins were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry while sensory analyses on Cajuputs Candy were conducted by difference-from-control and rate-all-that-apply tests. Sixty metabolites from the MCEO were annotated that includes 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, caryophyllene, α-pinene, and γ-terpinene. Sensory analysis revealed cooling aftertaste and sweet taste as favorable attributes. Further analysis using Orthogonal Partial Least Square indicated that 1,8-cineole and γ-terpinene were correlated with cooling aftertaste, while 1,8-cineole and caryophyllene were also correlated with sweet taste. In contrast, linalool and nerolidol were associated with the feature of the most characteristic manufacturer's products which have unfavorable attributes such as floral, iodophor-like, metallic, and soapy attributes. The identification of these metabolites will be useful for the selection of MCEOs that can potentially be used as flavor.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Melaleuca/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Austrália , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Indonésia , Melaleuca/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Paladar
10.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 129(1): 41-46, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375401

RESUMO

Hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) are highly valued industrial materials. Pseudomonas sp. NRRL B-2994 was used for stereospecific microbial biotransformation to hydroxylate unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). As Pseudomonas sp. was continuously subcultured, the hydroxylation capability (both conversion rate and productivity) decreased. A morphology change was observed from large to small colonies. To produce stereospecific 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid from plant oils by using Pseudomonas sp. NRRL B-2994, the effect of phenotypic variations related to microbial hydroxylation of UFAs was confirmed. The conversion rate and the total productivity of creating HFAs from UFAs by microbial hydroxylation were highly dependent upon colony phenotype variations of Pseudomonas sp. NRRL B-2994. The morphological change was responsible for a lower rate of hydroxylation. The small colony variants showed increased hydrophobicity of the cell surface resulting in cell aggregation in liquid culture and lower hydroxylation due to limited exposure of substrates, UFAs. Small colony variants could be reverted to typical large colony variants. An economically feasible process was established for microbial hydroxylation using large colony variants with 50% HFA conversion rate and 10-15 g/L of productivity.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Variação Biológica da População , Biotransformação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Hidroxilação , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/química , Pseudomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 129(1): 31-40, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320262

RESUMO

Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) can potentially be used as biodiesel, which provides a renewable alternative to petroleum-derived diesel. FAEEs are primarily produced via transesterification of vegetable oil with an alcohol catalyzed by a strong base, which raises safety concerns. Microbial production presents a more environmentally sustainable method for FAEE production, and by harnessing the ability of oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica to degrade and assimilate hydrophobic substrates, FAEE production could be coupled to food waste bioremediation. In this study, we engineered Y. lipolytica to produce FAEEs from dextrose as well as from vegetable cooking oil as a model food waste. Firstly, we introduced pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adhB) from Zymomonas mobilis to reconstitute the heterologous pathway for ethanol production. Second, we introduced and compared two heterologous wax ester synthases ws2 and maqu_0168 from Marinobacter sp. for FAEE biosynthesis. Next, we disrupted competitive pathways to increase fatty acyl-CoA pool, and optimized carbon sources and cell density for shake-flask fermentation. The engineered strain showed a 24-fold improvement in FAEE production titer over the starting strain. Moreover, we explored the potential of the engineered strain for FAEE production from the model food waste by supplementing vegetable cooking oil to the culture medium. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on FAEE production with the supplementation of vegetable cooking oil in Y. lipolytica. These findings provide valuable insights into the engineering of Y. lipolytica for high-level production of FAEEs and its utilization in food waste bioremediation.


Assuntos
Ésteres/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Yarrowia/genética , Yarrowia/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biocombustíveis/análise , Esterificação , Etanol/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fermentação , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Eliminação de Resíduos , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1358-1361, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is renewed interest in quinoa as a potential source of vegetable oils; however, there is no information about how environmental conditions affect its fatty acid composition, a critical indicator of its oil quality. The fatty acid concentrations of four cultivars adapted to temperate environments were compared at three sowing dates to evaluate the effect of environmental conditions during the seed-filling period on the variation in oil quality. RESULTS: The interaction between cultivar and sowing date was the main source of variation explaining the changes in the lipid content and fatty acid concentrations in quinoa. Most of the variation in the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids was attributed to the temperature and solar radiation during the seed-filling period; cultivar-specific responses to photo-thermal conditions were observed among the sea-level quinoa cultivars evaluated. CONCLUSION: The lipid content and concentration of fatty acids in quinoa are affected by sowing date. This effect is exerted through changes in temperature and solar radiation conditions. This managing practice can therefore be used to achieve quinoa oil with different qualities. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Chenopodium quinoa/classificação , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Chenopodium quinoa/efeitos da radiação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Luz , Valor Nutritivo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/classificação , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos da radiação , Temperatura
13.
J Nat Med ; 74(1): 189-199, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576496

RESUMO

The essential oil of perilla (Perilla frutescens) contains volatile low molecular weight compounds such as monoterpenes and phenylpropenes. The composition of the essential oil is classified into about ten chemotypes. The biosynthesis of these constituents is strictly controlled genetically. Among the compounds contained in perilla essential oil, the bioconversion of pure compounds such as perillaldehyde, limonene, and citral has been reported, but that of many other components has not. In addition, changes in the volatile components of raw plant material during brewing have also been investigated for wine and beer. In this study, we examined the bioconversion of perilla essential oil components by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the brewing of liquor with perilla leaves. S. cerevisiae was added to the ethanol-water extract of dried leaves of P. frutescens and P. citriodora for seven essential oil types: perillaldehyde type, piperitenone type, perillene type, perillaketone type, elsholtziaketone type, citral type, and phenylpropanoid type. Volatile compounds in the reaction mixtures were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-GC-MS, revealing bioconversion of perillaldehyde, isoegomaketone, neral, and geranial by S. cerevisiae. Analysis of the conversion products suggests that they were formed by the reduction of C=C bonds and aldehydes, as well as by esterification and dehydration reactions.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Perilla frutescens/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/metabolismo , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Furanos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Cetonas/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779909

RESUMO

Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyzes the phosphodiester bond of glycerophospholipids to yield phosphatidic acid (PA) and a free headgroup. PLDs are important for plant growth, development, and responses to external stresses. However, their roles in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis are still unclear. Here, we report that a soybean (Glycine max) PLDγ (GmPLDγ) is involved in glycerolipid turnover and seed oil production. GmPLDγ was targeted to mitochondria and exhibited PLD activity that was activated by oleate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]. Overexpression of GmPLDγ (abbreviated GmPLDγ-OE) in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in enhanced seed weight, elevated levels of TAGs with 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon fatty acids (FAs), and altered oil-body morphology. Furthermore, the levels of membrane lipids in vegetative tissues decreased significantly, whereas no overt changes were found in mature seeds except for a decrease in the digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) level in the GmPLDγ-OE lines. Additionally, the expression of genes involved in glycerolipid metabolism was significantly upregulated in developing siliques in GmPLDγ-OE lines. Together, our data indicate a regulatory role for GmPLDγ in TAG synthesis and fatty-acid remodeling, highlighting the importance of mitochondria-directed glycerophospholipid homeostasis in seed oil accumulation.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fosfolipase D/genética , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Fosfolipase D/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(12)2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805727

RESUMO

Maize is an important oil seed crop and a major food crop in different parts of the world. Since maize has relatively lower seed oil content as compared to other oil crops, efforts are continuing to improve its oil content percentage. In this study, we analyzed two contrasting maize genotypes with differential oil accumulation percentages. High oil-content (HOC) maize had 11% oil content while low oil-content (LOC) maize had significantly lower oil content (5.4%). Transmission electron microscopy revealed a higher accumulation of oil bodies in the HOC maize embryo as compared to LOC maize. Comparative RNA-sequencing analysis at different developmental stages of the seed embryos identified 739 genes that are constantly differentially expressed (DEGs) at all the six developmental stages from 15 days after pollination (DAP) to 40 DAP. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis identified fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid biosynthesis as the most enriched biological pathways contributed by these DEGs. Notably, transcriptional changes are more intense at the early stages of embryo development as compared to later stages. In addition, pathways related to oil biosynthesis and their corresponding genes were more enriched at 30 DAP, which seems to be the key stage for oil accumulation. The study also identified 33 key DEGs involved in fatty acid and triacylglycerols biosynthesis, most of which were up-regulated in HOC, that may shape the differential oil contents in the two contrasting maize. Notably, we discovered that both acyl-CoA-dependent and acyl-CoA-independent processes are essential for the high oil accumulation in maize embryo.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Genes de Plantas , Genótipo , Sementes/genética , Zea mays/genética , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/embriologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 7417239, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886246

RESUMO

Acer truncatum, which is a new woody oil tree species, is an important ornamental and medicinal plant in China. To assess the genetic diversity and relationships of A. truncatum, we analyzed its complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence. The A. truncatum cp genome comprises 156,492 bp, with the large single-copy, small single-copy, and inverted repeat (IR) regions consisting of 86,010, 18,050, and 26,216 bp, respectively. The A. truncatum cp genome contains 112 unique functional genes (i.e., 4 rRNA, 30 tRNA, and 78 protein-coding genes) as well as 78 simple sequence repeats, 9 forward repeats, 1 reverse repeat, 5 palindromic repeats, and 7 tandem repeats. We analyzed the expansion/contraction of the IR regions in the cp genomes of six Acer species. A comparison of these cp genomes indicated the noncoding regions were more diverse than the coding regions. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that A. truncatum is closely related to A. miaotaiense. Moreover, a novel ycf4-cemA indel marker was developed for distinguishing several Acer species (i.e., A. buergerianum, A. truncatum, A. henryi, A. negundo, A. ginnala, and A. tonkinense). The results of the current study provide valuable information for future evolutionary studies and the molecular barcoding of Acer species.


Assuntos
Acer/genética , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Árvores/genética , Madeira/genética , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filogenia
17.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226559, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841559

RESUMO

Iodine biofortification has been gaining interest in recent years as a sustainable and innovative approach to eradicate iodine deficiency disorders. Studying the impact of iodine biofortification on plant phenotype, biochemical and physiological parameters is crucial to leverage the expertise and best practices for the agro-food industry and human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate iodine biofortification on the main quantitative and qualitative traits of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants cultivated both in open field and in growth chamber. The impact of KI and KIO3 treatments was evaluated on biomass production, as well as on the synthesis of phenolic compounds, especially rosmarinic acid and other caffeic acid derivatives, and on the essential oil (EO) composition. These compounds are typically accumulated in basil leaves and strongly contribute to the plant nutraceutical value and aroma. In open field, the use of increasing concentrations of both iodine salts gradually enhanced iodine accumulation in leaves, also determining an increase of the antioxidant power, total phenolics, rosmarinic acid and cinnamic acid accumulation. The composition of EO was only slightly affected by the treatments, as all the samples were characterized by a linalool chemotype and a minor alteration in their relative content was observed. A growth chamber experiment was performed to test EO variation in controlled conditions, broadening the range of iodine concentrations. In this case, plant chemotype was significantly affected by the treatments and large EO variability was observed, suggesting that iodine form and concentration can potentially influence the EO composition but that in open field this effect is overcome by environmental factors.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Iodo/farmacologia , Ocimum basilicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocimum basilicum/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/análise , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/metabolismo , Agricultura/métodos , Biomassa , Cinamatos/análise , Cinamatos/metabolismo , Deficiências Nutricionais/prevenção & controle , Depsídeos/análise , Depsídeos/metabolismo , Ambiente Controlado , Humanos , Iodo/análise , Iodo/deficiência , Ocimum basilicum/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775326

RESUMO

Soybean is an excellent source of vegetable protein and edible oil. Understanding the genetic basis of protein and oil content will improve the breeding programs for soybean. Linkage analysis and genome-wide association study (GWAS) tools were combined to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are associated with protein and oil content in soybean. Three hundred and eight recombinant inbred lines (RILs) containing 3454 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and 200 soybean accessions, including 94,462 SNPs and indels, were applied to identify QTL intervals and significant SNP loci. Intervals on chromosomes 1, 15, and 20 were correlated with both traits, and QTL qPro15-1, qPro20-1, and qOil5-1 reproducibly correlated with large phenotypic variations. SNP loci on chromosome 20 that overlapped with qPro20-1 were reproducibly connected to both traits by GWAS (p < 10-4). Twenty-five candidate genes with putative roles in protein and/or oil metabolisms within two regions (qPro15-1, qPro20-1) were identified, and eight of these genes showed differential expressions in parent lines during late reproductive growth stages, consistent with a role in controlling protein and oil content. The new well-defined QTL should significantly improve molecular breeding programs, and the identified candidate genes may help elucidate the mechanisms of protein and oil biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Ligação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sementes/genética , Proteínas de Soja/genética , Soja/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sementes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
19.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590339

RESUMO

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, has significant healthbenefits. Previous studies reported decreased levels of DHA and DHA-containing phosphatidylcholines inthe brain of animals suffering from Alzheimer's disease, the most common type of dementia; furthermore,DHA supplementation has been found to improve brain DHA levels and memory efficiency in dementia. Oilextracted from the seeds of Plukenetia volubilis (green nut oil; GNO) is also expected to have DHA like effectsas it contains approximately 50% α-linolenic acid, a precursor of DHA. Despite this, changes in the spatialdistribution of DHA in the brain of animals with dementia following GNO or DHA supplementation remainunexplored. In this study, desorption electrospray ionization imaging mass spectrometry (DESI-IMS) wasapplied to observe the effects of GNO or DHA supplementation upon the distribution of DHA in the brain ofmale senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mice, a mouse model of dementia. DESI-IMS revealedthat brain DHA distribution increased 1.85-fold and 3.67-fold in GNO-fed and DHA-fed SAMP8 mice,respectively, compared to corn oil-fed SAMP8 mice. Memory efficiency in SAMP8 mice was also improvedby GNO or DHA supplementation. In summary, this study suggests the possibility of GNO or DHAsupplementation for the prevention of dementia.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Demência/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Euphorbiaceae/química , Memória , Nozes/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Demência/metabolismo , Demência/fisiopatologia , Demência/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(42): 20947-20952, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570578

RESUMO

Human milk fat substitute (HMFS) is a class of structured lipid that is widely used as an ingredient in infant formulas. Like human milk fat, HMFS is characterized by enrichment of palmitoyl (C16:0) groups specifically at the middle (sn-2 or ß) position on the glycerol backbone, and there is evidence that triacylglycerol (TAG) with this unusual stereoisomeric structure provides nutritional benefits. HMFS is currently made by in vitro enzyme-based catalysis because there is no appropriate biological alternative to human milk fat. Most of the fat currently used in infant formulas is obtained from plants, which exclude C16:0 from the middle position. In this study, we have modified the metabolic pathway for TAG biosynthesis in the model oilseed Arabidopsis thaliana to increase the percentage of C16:0 at the middle (vs. outer) positions by more than 20-fold (i.e., from ∼3% in wild type to >70% in our final iteration). This level of C16:0 enrichment is comparable to human milk fat. We achieved this by relocating the C16:0-specific chloroplast isoform of the enzyme lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT) to the endoplasmic reticulum so that it functions within the cytosolic glycerolipid biosynthetic pathway to esterify C16:0 to the middle position. We then suppressed endogenous LPAT activity to relieve competition and knocked out phosphatidylcholine:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase activity to promote the flux of newly made diacylglycerol directly into TAG. Applying this technology to oilseed crops might provide a source of HMFS for infant formula.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Substitutos da Gordura/química , Gorduras/química , Leite Humano/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/química , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Substitutos da Gordura/metabolismo , Humanos , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Estereoisomerismo
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