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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 294, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapeseed is the third largest oil seed crop in the world. The seeds of this plant store lipids in oil bodies, and oleosin is the most important structural protein in oil bodies. However, the function of oleosin in oil crops has received little attention. RESULTS: In the present study, 48 oleosin sequences from the Brassica napus genome were identified and divided into four lineages (T, U, SH, SL). Synteny analysis revealed that most of the oleosin genes were conserved, and all of these genes experienced purifying selection during evolution. Three and four important oleosin genes from Arabidopsis and B. napus, respectively, were cloned and analyzed for function in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of these oleosin genes in Arabidopsis increased the seed oil content slightly, except for BnaOLE3. Further analysis revealed that the average oil body size of the transgenic seeds was slightly larger than that of the wild type (WT), except for BnaOLE1. The fatty acid profiles showed that the linoleic acid content (13.3% at most) increased and the peanut acid content (11% at most) decreased in the transgenic lines. In addition, the seed size and thousand-seed weight (TSW) also increased in the transgenic lines, which could lead to increased total lipid production. CONCLUSION: We identified oleosin genes in the B. napus genome, and overexpression of oleosin in Arabidopsis seeds increased the seed weight and linoleic acid content (13.3% at most).


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Filogenia , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sintenia
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 313, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Essential oils (EOs) of Lavandula angustifolia, mainly consist of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids, are of great commercial value. The multi-flower spiciform thyrse of lavender not only determines the output of EOs but also reflects an environmental adaption strategy. With the flower development and blossom in turn, the fluctuation of the volatile terpenoids displayed a regular change at each axis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of volatile terpenoids during the process of flowering is poorly understood in lavender. Here, we combine metabolite and RNA-Seq analyses of flowers of five developmental stages at first- and second-axis (FFDSFSA) and initial flower bud (FB0) to discover the active terpenoid biosynthesis as well as flowering-related genes. RESULTS: A total of 56 mono- and sesquiterpenoids were identified in the EOs of L. angustifolia 'JX-2'. FB0' EO consists of 55 compounds and the two highest compounds, ß-trans-ocimene (20.57%) and (+)-R-limonene (17.00%), can get rid of 74.71 and 78.41% aphids in Y-tube olfactometer experiments, respectively. With sequential and successive blossoms, temporally regulated volatiles were linked to pollinator attraction in field and olfaction bioassays. In three characteristic compounds of FFDSFSA' EOs, linalyl acetate (72.73%) and lavandulyl acetate (72.09%) attracted more bees than linalool (45.35%). Many transcripts related to flowering time and volatile terpenoid metabolism expressed differently during the flower development. Similar metabolic and transcriptomic profiles were observed when florets from the two axes were maintained at the same maturity grade. Besides both compounds and differentially expressed genes were rich in FB0, most volatile compounds were significantly correlated with FB0-specific gene module. Most key regulators related to flowering and terpenoid metabolism were interconnected in the subnetwork of FB0-specific module, suggesting the cross-talk between the two biological processes to some degree. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristic compounds and gene expression profile of FB0 exhibit ecological value in pest control. The precise control of each-axis flowering and regular emissions at transcriptional and metabolic level are important to pollinators attraction for lavender. Our study sheds new light on lavender maximizes its fitness from "gene-volatile terpenoid-insect" three layers.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Lavandula/genética , Terpenos/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Animais , Ecossistema , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Insetos , Lavandula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lavandula/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Odorantes , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polinização , RNA de Plantas , Análise de Sequência de RNA
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 207, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sea buckthorn is a woody oil crop in which palmitoleic acid (C16:1n7, an omega-7 fatty acid (FA)) contributes approximately 40% of the total FA content in berry pulp (non-seed tissue). However, the molecular mechanisms contributing to the high accumulation of C16:1n7 in developing sea buckthorn berry pulp (SBP) remain poorly understood. RESULTS: We identified 1737 unigenes associated with lipid metabolism through RNA-sequencing analysis of the four developmental stages of berry pulp in two sea buckthorn lines, 'Za56' and 'TF2-36'; 139 differentially expressed genes were detected between the different berry pulp developmental stages in the two lines. Analyses of the FA composition showed that the C16:1n7 contents were significantly higher in line 'Za56' than in line 'TF2-36' in the mid-late developmental stages of SBP. Additionally, qRT-PCR analyses of 15 genes involved in FA and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in both lines revealed that delta9-ACP-desaturase (ACP-Δ9D) competed with 3-ketoacyl-ACP-synthase II (KASII) for the substrate C16:0-ACP and that ACP-Δ9D and delta9-CoA-desaturase (CoA-Δ9D) gene expression positively correlated with C16:1n7 content; KASII and fatty acid elongation 1 (FAE1) gene expression positively correlated with C18:0 content in developing SBP. Specifically, the abundance of ACP-Δ9D and CoA-Δ9D transcripts in line 'Za56', which had a higher C16:1n7 content than line 'TF2-36', suggests that these two genes play an important role in C16:1n7 biosynthesis. Furthermore, the high expressions of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1) gene and the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor contributed to increased biosynthesis of TAG precursor and FAs, respectively, in the early developmental stages of SBP, and the high expression of the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene increased TAG assembly in the later developmental stages of SBP. Overall, we concluded that increased ACP-Δ9D and CoA-Δ9D levels coupled with decreased KASII and FAE1 activity is a critical event for high C16:1n7 accumulation and that the coordinated high expression of WRI1, GPD1, and DGAT1 genes resulted in high oil accumulation in SBP. CONCLUSION: Our results provide a scientific basis for understanding the mechanism of high C16:1n7 accumulation in berry pulp (non-seed tissue) and are valuable to the genetic breeding programme for achieving a high quality and yield of SBP oil.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hippophae/genética , Hippophae/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Hippophae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
4.
Food Chem ; 294: 56-59, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126500

RESUMO

Perilla oil is abundant in α-linolenic acid, which is metabolized to long-chain n-3 fatty acids. This study aimed to determine thermal stability and bioavailability of perilla oil that was powdered by inclusion complexation with γ-cyclodextrin. Fatty acid analysis revealed that the relative abundance of α-linolenic and linoleic acids in the complexes was not affected by heating at 40 °C for six days but decreased after heating at 60 °C for three days. No adverse events occurred in rats fed with an experimental diet containing the complexes for two weeks. Plasma α-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acids in rats fed with diets containing complexes and liquid perilla oil were equally high, indicating the preserved bioavailability of perilla oil in the complexes. Plasma arachidonic acid decreased only in rats fed with a diet containing the complexes. Results suggest that the complexes have potential as a useful source of α-linolenic acid to increase plasma n-3 fatty acids.


Assuntos
Ácido alfa-Linoleico/química , gama-Ciclodextrinas/química , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Ácidos Linoleicos/sangue , Masculino , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Temperatura Ambiente , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo , gama-Ciclodextrinas/metabolismo
5.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 60(6): 1274-1283, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056666

RESUMO

As an important industrial feedstock, wax esters (WEs) have been used as lubricants in a number of technical processes. There is however currently no large-scale biological source for WE production and alteration in metabolic pathways of plant oils for producing WEs could be attractive to the commercial markets. Here, we present the breeding results of long-term studies on successful development of new crambe lines producing WEs through genetic engineering and cross breeding. The transgenic crambe lines producing WEs at over 25% of the total seed oil were first generated by introduction of the jojoba WE biosynthetic genes ScFAR and ScWS. Further improvement of the lines aiming at improving oxidative stability of WEs was achieved through introducing the CaFAD2-RNAi gene into these lines by crossing. The hybrid lines possessed similar agronomic traits to the wild type and a stable level of WEs over several generations, suggesting a high potential of crambe as an industrial crop for WE production.


Assuntos
Crambe (Planta)/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Melhoramento Vegetal , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Crambe (Planta)/genética , Genes de Plantas , Engenharia Genética , Óleos Industriais , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sementes/metabolismo , Ceras/metabolismo
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(22): 6150-6159, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117552

RESUMO

Consumptions of fruit seed oils and meals could potentially improve cardiovascular health by reducing plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The study objective was to compare the effectiveness of expeller-pressed and solvent-extracted grape, tomato, pomegranate seed oils, and defatted pomegranate meals in lowering plasma and hepatic cholesterol using hamster models. Hamsters were fed with fruit seed oils (FSO), defatted pomegranate seed meals (PDM), or control diets. After a 3-week feeding period, plasma total triglycerides of treatment diets were significantly lower. FSO also reduced total, very-low-density lipoprotein- (VLDL), and LDL-cholesterols, while PDM only lowered VLDL-cholesterols. Decreases in low-density and high-density lipoproteins (LDL/HDL) ratios were also observed in most treatments. In liver, triglycerides, total, and free cholesterol levels did not vary between control and treatments. There were no significant differences in lipid modulating properties between solvent-extracted and expeller-pressed oils. In conclusion, partial replacements of saturated fat in high-fat diets with tomato, pomegranate, and grape seed oils could effectively reduce plasma triglyceride levels and improve HDL/LDL ratios.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Punicaceae/química , Sementes/química , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/química , Colesterol/metabolismo , Cricetinae , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Óleos Vegetais/química , Punicaceae/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060266

RESUMO

Soybean is one of the most important oil crops in the world. Revealing the molecular basis and exploring key candidate genes for seed oil synthesis has great significance for soybean improvement. In this study, we found that oil accumulation rates and gene expression levels changed dynamically during soybean seed development. The expression levels of genes in metabolic pathways such as carbon fixation, photosynthesis, glycolysis, and fatty acid biosynthesis were significantly up-regulated during the rapid accumulation of oil in developing soybean seeds. Through weighted correlation network analysis, we identified six co-expression modules associated with soybean seed oil content and the pink module was the most positively correlated (r = 0.83, p = 7 × 10-4) network. Through the integration of differential expression and co-expression analysis, we predicted 124 candidate genes potentially affecting soybean seed oil content, including seven genes in lipid metabolism pathway, two genes involved in glycolysis, one gene in sucrose metabolism, and 12 genes belonged to transcription factors as well as other categories. Among these, three genes (GmABI3b, GmNFYA and GmFAD2-1B) have been shown to control oil and fatty acid content in soybean seeds, and other newly identified candidate genes would broaden our knowledge to understand the molecular basis for oil accumulation in soybean seeds.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/fisiologia , Soja/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 284: 406-414, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965196

RESUMO

This study investigated the catalytic co-pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE) over faujasite-type zeolite derived from electric arc furnace slag (FAU-EAFS) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of reaction temperature, catalyst-to-feedstock ratio, and HDPE-to-SCB ratio on product fractional yields and chemical compositions were discussed. The co-pyrolysis of SCB and HDPE over FAU-EAFS increased the liquid yield and enhanced the quality of bio-oil. The maximum bio-oil (68.56 wt%) and hydrocarbon yield (74.55%) with minimum yield of oxygenated compounds (acid = 0.57% and ester = 0.67%) were achieved under the optimum experimental conditions of catalyst-to-feedstock ratio of 1:6, HDPE-to-SCB ratio of 40:60, and temperature of 500 °C. The oil produced by catalytic co-pyrolysis had higher calorific value than the oil produced by the pyrolysis of SCB alone.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Polietileno/química , Saccharum/química , Zeolitas/química , Catálise , Celulose/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Pirólise , Saccharum/metabolismo
9.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(5): 650-657, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941539

RESUMO

A novel electrogenic bacterial species, Kluyvera georgiana MCC 3673, was isolated by enrichment in microbial fuel cells (MFC) using oilseed cake as a growth substrate. CHNS analyses showed that oilseed cakes are rich in carbon and nitrogen content. Utilization of these compounds by bacteria was evident from 50% reduction in chemical oxygen demand. The maximum power density of 379 ± 8 mW/m2 was produced from sesame seed cake media with mixed consortia inoculum from lake sediment. Enrichment was carried out for over 15 cycles by renewing the media periodically on drop of the voltage. A pure culture of enriched electrogen was isolated by dilution plate technique. Physiological and biochemical studies were performed on the isolate as per standard methods. Genetic analysis by 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that this organism is closely related to Kluyvera georgiana. When inoculated in MFC as pure culture, the maximum power density of 158 ± 11 mW/m2 and 172 ± 13 mW/m2 was produced with sesame and groundnut oilseed cake media, respectively. The performance increased in LB media producing maximum power density of 394 ± 6 mW/m2. This bacterium has also scope for application in wide range of MFC as it can produce electricity even in suspended culture. To our knowledge, this is the first report on bio-electricity generation using oilseed cake as substrate in MFC.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Kluyvera/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Kluyvera/isolamento & purificação
10.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(1): 208-218, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985950

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the persistence of Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM677 in the rhizosphere of Buglossoides arvensis under agricultural field conditions and determine if B. arvensis intraspecific genetic variations affect the capacity of LBUM677 to colonize its rhizosphere and increase seed oil and stearidonic acid (SDA) accumulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two field experiments were performed to: (i) study the persistence of various concentrations of LBUM677 inoculated in the rhizosphere of B. arvensis and determine a minimum inoculation threshold required to maximize biological activity; and (ii) study the impact of B. arvensis intraspecific genetic variations on LBUM677 rhizosphere colonization and seed oil and SDA accumulation. In order to track LBUM677 populations in soil over time, a specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was developed. Inoculation with a minimum of 109 LBUM677 bacterial cells per plant was determined as a threshold to promote maximum B. arvensis rhizosphere colonization and seed oil and SDA accumulation. Buglossoides arvensis intraspecific genetic variations had an impact on rhizosphere colonization, B. arvensis seed oil and SDA accumulation, where two cultivars benefited more than others from LBUM677 inoculation. CONCLUSIONS: LBUM677 can colonize the rhizosphere and increase seed oil and SDA yields in B. arvensis plants in a cultivar-dependant manner. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: LBUM677 shows potential to be used as a biofertilizer to specifically increase seed oil and SDA yields in B. arvensis. This will in turn promote the development of an economically viable agricultural-based approach as an alternative for producing high-quality polyunsaturated fatty acids.


Assuntos
Boraginaceae/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Pseudomonas fluorescens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Boraginaceae/genética , Boraginaceae/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018533

RESUMO

Vegetable oil is an essential constituent of the human diet and renewable raw material for industrial applications. Enhancing oil production by increasing seed oil content in oil crops is the most viable, environmentally friendly, and sustainable approach to meet the continuous demand for the supply of vegetable oil globally. An in-depth understanding of the gene networks involved in oil biosynthesis during seed development is a prerequisite for breeding high-oil-content varieties. Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is one of the most important oil crops cultivated on multiple continents, contributing more than 15% of the world's edible oil supply. To understand the phasic nature of oil biosynthesis and the dynamic regulation of key pathways for effective oil accumulation in B. napus, comparative transcriptomic profiling was performed with developing seeds and silique wall (SW) tissues of two contrasting inbred lines with ~13% difference in seed oil content. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between high- and low-oil content lines were identified across six key developmental stages, and gene enrichment analysis revealed that genes related to photosynthesis, metabolism, carbohydrates, lipids, phytohormones, transporters, and triacylglycerol and fatty acid synthesis tended to be upregulated in the high-oil-content line. Differentially regulated DEG patterns were revealed for the control of metabolite and photosynthate production in SW and oil biosynthesis and accumulation in seeds. Quantitative assays of carbohydrates and hormones during seed development together with gene expression profiling of relevant pathways revealed their fundamental effects on effective oil accumulation. Our results thus provide insights into the molecular basis of high seed oil content (SOC) and a new direction for developing high-SOC rapeseed and other oil crops.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Transcriptoma , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Sementes/metabolismo
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 120, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) are abundant in vegetable oils and are important for human health. In the body, LA and ALA are respectively converted to the omega-6 fatty acid γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and the omega-3 fatty acid stearidonic acid (SDA) by Δ6 desaturase (D6DES). Currently, dietary GLA and SDA are mainly obtained from marine organisms, but given their benefits to human health, many studies have aimed to enhance their accumulation in transgenic crops. Perilla frutescens (perilla) accumulates more ALA in its seed oil compared to other oilseed crops, making it a good candidate for the production of fatty acids via the fatty acid desaturase D6DES. RESULTS: In this study, we cloned the D6DES gene from Phytophthora citrophthora and confirmed its function in budding yeast. We then transformed the functional D6DES gene under the control of the seed-specific vicilin promoter into the perilla cultivar Yeobsil. The resulting transgenic perilla seeds accumulated significant levels of GLA and SDA, as well as putative C18:2Δ6,9 at minor levels. Developing seeds and leaves also accumulated GLA and SDA, although PcD6DES expression and GLA and SDA levels were much lower in leaves compared to developing seeds. GLA and SDA accumulated in both polar lipids and neutral lipids in mature perilla seeds expressing PcD6DES, especially in neutral lipids. Although the seed weight in PcD6DES perilla was 87-96% that of wild type, the total oil content per seed weight was similar between lines. The PcD6DES perilla plants contained very high content (over 45%) of both GLA and SDA in seed oil. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, PcD6DES perilla plants may represent a feasible alternative to traditional marine sources for the production of omega-3 oil capsules and to evening primrose seed oil for GLA as health food. In addition, these plants can be used to create other transgenic lines harboring additional genes to produce other desirable fish-oil like oils.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Linolênico/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 280: 493-496, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824331

RESUMO

The present study was mainly focused on the production of biodiesel from Calophyllum inophyllum oil. The oil was characterized by GC-MS and stored for biodiesel production. The heterogeneous catalyst was synthesized for effective production of biodiesel. The synthesized catalyst was found to have good activity and stability. The surface and element characterization of zinc doped calcium oxide was characterized by SEM and EDAX. The size of nanocomposite was found to be in the range of 14.3-65.6 nm. The EDAX has confirmed the presence of zinc on the surface of the calcium oxide. The maximum biodiesel yield of 89.0% (v/v) was obtained at 55 °C in 80 min and catalyst concentration of 6% (w/v). The optimized methanol:oil molar ratio was obtained at 9:1 for the production of biodiesel. The produced methyl ester was confirmed by GC-MS analysis.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Calophyllum/metabolismo , Nanocompostos , Óxidos/química , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Zinco/química , Biocombustíveis/análise , Catálise
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 283: 303-307, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921583

RESUMO

In this study, Prosopis juliflora biomass was co-liquefied with hydrocarbons rich paint waste for next generation fuel (bio-oil) production. Co-liquefaction (HTL) was performed at varying biomass to paint waste ratios (1:0, 0:1, 1:1, 2:1 and 1:2) at different temperatures from 340 to 440 °C for a holding time of 60 min. Bentonite catalyst was added from 1 to 5% wt. to the HTL reactor. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis were carried out for bio-oil and HTL aqueous phase. Maximum bio-oil yield was around 49.26% wt. at 420 °C, 2:1 blend and 4% wt. of bentonite catalyst. Energy and carbon recovery of bio-oil was around 70% and 96% respectively. Additionally, HTL aqueous phase was analysed and it showed presence of acids molecules in it. The gas from HTL process contained Carbon dioxide (46.25%), Carbon monoxide (6.38%), Methane (9.35%) and hydrogen (24.53%).


Assuntos
Biomassa , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Pintura , Prosopis/metabolismo , Esgotos , Catálise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura Alta , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
15.
Prog Lipid Res ; 74: 103-129, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822461

RESUMO

The world is hungry for energy. Plant oils in the form of triacylglycerol (TAG) are one of the most reduced storage forms of carbon found in nature and hence represent an excellent source of energy. The myriad of applications for plant oils range across foods, feeds, biofuels, and chemical feedstocks as a unique substitute for petroleum derivatives. Traditionally, plant oils are sourced either from oilseeds or tissues surrounding the seed (mesocarp). Most vegetative tissues, such as leaves and stems, however, accumulate relatively low levels of TAG. Since non-seed tissues constitute the majority of the plant biomass, metabolic engineering to improve their low-intrinsic TAG-biosynthetic capacity has recently attracted significant attention as a novel, sustainable and potentially high-yielding oil production platform. While initial attempts predominantly targeted single genes, recent combinatorial metabolic engineering strategies have focused on the simultaneous optimization of oil synthesis, packaging and degradation pathways (i.e., 'push, pull, package and protect'). This holistic approach has resulted in dramatic, seed-like TAG levels in vegetative tissues. With the first proof of concept hurdle addressed, new challenges and opportunities emerge, including engineering fatty acid profile, translation into agronomic crops, extraction, and downstream processing to deliver accessible and sustainable bioenergy.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Engenharia Metabólica , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
16.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 49, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty acids (FAs) with a chain length of more than 18 carbon atoms (> C18) are interesting for the production of specialty compounds derived from these FAs. These compounds include free FAs, like erucic acid (C22:1-Δ13), primary fatty alcohols (FOHs), like docosanol (C22:0-FOH), as well as jojoba-like wax esters (WEs) (C38-WE to C44-WE), which are esters of (very) long-chain FAs and (very) long-chain FOHs. In particular, FAs, FOHs and WEs are used in the production of chemicals, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic products. Jojoba seed oil is highly enriched in diunsaturated WEs with over 70 mol% being composed of C18:1-C24:1 monounsaturated FOH and monounsaturated FA moieties. In this study, we aim for the production of jojoba-like WEs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by increasing the amount of very long-chain, monounsaturated FAs and simultaneously expressing enzymes required for WE synthesis. RESULTS: We show that the combined expression of a plant-derived fatty acid elongase (FAE/KCS) from Crambe abyssinica (CaKCS) together with the yeast intrinsic fatty acid desaturase (FAD) Ole1p leads to an increase in C20:1 and C22:1 FAs in S. cerevisiae. We also demonstrate that the best enzyme candidate for C24:1 FA production in S. cerevisiae is a FAE derived from Lunaria annua (LaKCS). The combined overexpression of CaKCS and Ole1p together with a fatty acyl reductase (FAR/FAldhR) from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 (MaFAldhR) and a wax synthase (WS) from Simmondsia chinensis (SciWS) in a S. cerevisiae strain, overexpressing a range of other enzymes involved in FA synthesis and elongation, leads to a yeast strain capable of producing high amounts of monounsaturated FOHs (up to C22:1-FOH) as well as diunsaturated WEs (up to C46:2-WE). CONCLUSIONS: Changing the FA profile of the yeast S. cerevisiae towards very long-chain monounsaturated FAs is possible by combined overexpression of endogenous and heterologous enzymes derived from various sources (e.g. a marine copepod or plants). This strategy was used to produce jojoba-like WEs in S. cerevisiae and can potentially be extended towards other commercially interesting products derived from very long-chain FAs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Ceras/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 283: 36-44, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901586

RESUMO

In this study Scenedesmus abundans was used as a biosorbent material for removing hydrocarbons from simulated petroleum wastewater. Batch experiments resulted in the removal of 92.16% of hydrocarbons from simulated wastewater within 60 min. The spent biosorbent was converted to bio-oil through hydrothermal liquefaction process (HTL) at temperature range from 220 to 320 °C with 1 h holding time. Liquid hydrocarbons (bio-oil) yield was 43.4 wt% at 300 °C with 15 g of spent sorbent loading and possessed HHV of 39.10 MJ/Kg. Additionally the HTL wastewater (aqueous phase) was recycled as reaction medium and studied for its effects on bio-oil yield which increased till second cycle (47.91 wt%). HTL bio-char was employed as adsorbent to remove heavy metals from wastewater. It showed greater removal efficiency of 86.5% to Ni(II) ions. From the results it was concluded that the petroleum residues can be effectively recycled back into liquid hydrocarbons with simple waste management pathway.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Petróleo/metabolismo , Scenedesmus/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Reciclagem
18.
Food Chem ; 287: 28-37, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857700

RESUMO

The absorption of oil during frying has important implications for food quality, cost, and nutrition. Maize starches with low (WMS), intermediate (NMS), and high amylose (HAMS) contents were therefore heated in oil to mimic the frying process, and the impact of amylose content on the hierarchical structures and oil absorption of the fried starches was evaluated. Amylose affected the oil absorption by interfering with the structural evolution of the starch or by directly interacting with the lipids during frying. At low moisture level (20%), the granular state was preserved after frying and so the size and porosity of the granules played a dominant role in the oil absorption process, explaining why the highest oil absorption occurred in WMS. At 40% moisture content, NMS absorbed the most oil because of its granular morphology and lower crystallinity. At 60% moisture content, HAMS absorbed more oil than NMS, because more amylose molecules in HAMS provided more hydrophobic helical cavities available for lipids.


Assuntos
Amilose , Culinária , Óleos Vegetais , Amido , Zea mays/química , Amilose/análise , Amilose/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Amido/análise , Amido/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
19.
Food Chem ; 286: 592-599, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827651

RESUMO

Quinoa is a pseudo-cereal with high phytochemical contents with proven biological and nutritional significance. In recent decades several breeding programmes have introduced new and traditional quinoa varieties to North America and other non-traditional quinoa regions, raising questions regarding variability in their secondary metabolite profiles. In this work, we have fingerprinted 28 quinoa varieties cultivated in Washington State, focussing on the poorly investigated oil fraction. We found variability in both phenolics and carotenoid contents, which is reflected in different antioxidant capacities, as measured by FRAP and DPPH. Fatty acid profiles show significant differences in palmitic acid and long-chain fatty acids. Finally, conspicuous amounts of phytosterols and squalene were found. Through factor analysis, we classified the quinoa varieties into two groups: a first comprising varieties with higher phytochemical and PUFA contents and a second group, with higher linolenic and long-chain fatty acid contents. Both groups may be suitable for potential food applications.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Valor Nutritivo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Carotenoides/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Fitosteróis/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Washington
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(4)2019 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813455

RESUMO

Seed protein and oil content are the two important traits determining the quality and value of soybean. Development of improved cultivars requires detailed understanding of the genetic basis underlying the trait of interest. However, it is prerequisite to have a high-density linkage map for precisely mapping genomic regions, and therefore the present study used high-density genetic map containing 2267 recombination bin markers distributed on 20 chromosomes and spanned 2453.79 cM with an average distance of 1.08 cM between markers using restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) approach. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 104 lines derived from a cross between Linhefenqingdou and Meng 8206 cultivars was evaluated in six different environments to identify main- and epistatic-effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs)as well as their interaction with environments. A total of 44 main-effect QTLs for protein and oil content were found to be distributed on 17 chromosomes, and 15 novel QTL were identified for the first time. Out of these QTLs, four were major and stable QTLs, viz., qPro-7-1, qOil-8-3, qOil-10-2 and qOil-10-4, detected in at least two environments plus combined environment with R² values >10%. Within the physical intervals of these four QTLs, 111 candidate genes were screened for their direct or indirect involvement in seed protein and oil biosynthesis/metabolism processes based on gene ontology and annotation information. Based on RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data analysis, 15 of the 111 genes were highly expressed during seed development stage and root nodules that might be considered as the potential candidate genes. Seven QTLs associated with protein and oil content exhibited significant additive and additive × environment interaction effects, and environment-independent QTLs revealed higher additive effects. Moreover, three digenic epistatic QTLs pairs were identified, and no main-effect QTLs showed epistasis. In conclusion, the use of a high-density map identified closely linked flanking markers, provided better understanding of genetic architecture and candidate gene information, and revealed the scope available for improvement of soybean quality through marker assisted selection (MAS).


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Meio Ambiente , Epistasia Genética , Genoma de Planta , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Soja/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Fenótipo , Sementes/metabolismo
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