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1.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443606

RESUMO

Prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is a member of the Cactaceae family originally grown in South America, and the plant is now distributed to many parts of the world, including the Middle East. The chemical composition and biological activities of different parts of prickly pear, including cladodes, flowers, fruit, seeds and seed oil, were previously investigated. Oil from the seeds has been known for its nutritive value and can be potentially used for health promotion. This review is an effort to cover what is actually known to date about the prickly pear seeds oil extraction, characteristics, chemical composition and potential health benefits to provide inspiration for the need of further investigation and future research. Prickly pear seeds oil has been extracted using different extraction techniques from conventional to advanced. Chemical characterization of the oil has been sufficiently studied, and it is sufficiently understood that the oil is a high linoleic oil. Its composition is influenced by the variety and environment and also by the method of extraction. The health benefits of the prickly pear seed oil were reported by many researchers. For future research, additional studies are warranted on mechanisms of action of the reported biological activities to develop nutraceutical products for the prevention of various chronic human diseases.


Assuntos
Saúde , Opuntia/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Humanos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445654

RESUMO

Rigid polyurethane/polyisocyanurate (RPU/PIR) foam formulations were modified by evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) oil cake as a bio-filler in the amount of 5 to 50 wt.%. The obtained foams were tested in terms of processing parameters, cellular structure (SEM analysis), physico-mechanical properties (apparent density, compressive strength, brittleness, accelerated aging tests), thermal insulation properties (thermal conductivity coefficient, closed cells content, absorbability and water absorption), flammability, smoke emission, and thermal properties. The obtained results showed that the amount of bio-filler had a significant influence on the morphology of the modified foams. Thorough mixing of the polyurethane premix allowed better homogenization of the bio-filler in the polyurethane matrix, resulting in a regular cellular structure. This resulted in an improvement in the physico-mechanical and thermal insulation properties as well as a reduction in the flammability of the obtained materials. This research provided important information on the management of the waste product from the edible oil industry and the production process of fire-safe RPU/PIR foams with improved performance properties. Due to these beneficial effects, it was found that the use of evening primrose oil cake as a bio-filler for RPU/PIR foams opens a new way of waste management to obtain new "green" materials.


Assuntos
Ácidos Linoleicos/química , Oenothera biennis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Polímeros/química , Poliuretanos/química , Triazinas/química , Resíduos/análise , Ácido gama-Linolênico/química
3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361739

RESUMO

We developed an alternative whipping cream fat using shea butter but with low saturation. Enriched stearic-oleic-stearic (SOS) solid fat was obtained from shea butter via solvent fractionation. Acyl migration reactant, which mainly contains asymmetric SSO triacylglycerol (TAG), was prepared through enzymatic acyl migration to obtain the creaming quality derived from the ß'-crystal form. Through enzymatic acyl migration, we obtained a 3.4-fold higher content of saturated-saturated-unsaturated (SSU) TAG than saturated-unsaturated-saturated (SUS) TAG. The acyl migration reactant was refined to obtain refined acyl migration reactant (RAMR). An alternative fat product was prepared by blending RAMR and hydrogenated palm kernel oil (HPKO) at a ratio of 4:6 (w/w). The melting points, solid fat index (SFI), and melting curves of the alternative products were similar to those of commercial whipping cream fat. The alternative fat had a content of total unsaturated fatty acids 20% higher than that of HPKO. The atherogenic index (AI) of alternative fat was 3.61, much lower than those of whipping cream fat (14.59) and HPKO (1220.3), because of its low atherogenic fatty acid content and high total unsaturated fatty acids. The polymorphic crystal form determined by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy showed that the ß'-crystal form was predominant. Therefore, the alternative fat is comparable with whipping cream that requires creaming quality, and has a reduced saturated fat content.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Ácidos Oleicos/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Fracionamento Químico , Cristalização , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Humanos , Ácido Oleico/análise , Ácido Oleico/química , Ácidos Oleicos/análise , Óleo de Palmeira/análise , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Ácidos Esteáricos/análise , Ácidos Esteáricos/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/química
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443325

RESUMO

Camellia oil (CA), mainly produced in southern China, has always been called Oriental olive oil (OL) due to its similar physicochemical properties to OL. The high nutritional value and high selling price of CA make mixing it with other low-quality oils prevalent, in order to make huge profits. In this paper, the transverse relaxation time (T2) distribution of different brands of CA and OL, and the variation in transverse relaxation parameters when adulterated with corn oil (CO), were assessed via low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) imagery. The nutritional compositions of CA and OL and their quality indices were obtained via high field NMR (HF-NMR) spectroscopy. The results show that the fatty acid evaluation indices values, including for squalene, oleic acid, linolenic acid and iodine, were higher in CA than in OL, indicating the nutritional value of CA. The adulterated CA with a content of CO more than 20% can be correctly identified by principal component analysis or partial least squares discriminant analysis, and the blended oils could be successfully classified by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, with an accuracy of 100% when the adulteration ratio was above 30%. These results indicate the practicability of LF-NMR in the rapid screening of food authenticity.


Assuntos
Camellia/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Análise Discriminante , Contaminação de Alimentos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados
5.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443463

RESUMO

In our study, Allium subhirsutum L. (AS) was investigated to assess its phenolic profile and bioactive molecules including flavonoids and organosulfur compounds. The antioxidant potential of AS and wound healing activity were addressed using skin wound healing and oxidative stress and inflammation marker estimation in rat models. Phytochemical and antiradical activities of AS extract (ASE) and oil (ASO) were studied. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups: group I served as a control and was treated with simple ointment base, group II was treated with ASE ointment, group III was treated with ASO ointment and group IV (reference group; Ref) was treated with a reference drug "Cytolcentella® cream". Phytochemical screening showed that total phenols (215 ± 3.5 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (172.4 ± 3.1 mg QE/g) were higher in the ASO than the ASE group. The results of the antioxidant properties showed that ASO exhibited the highest DPPH free radical scavenging potential (IC50 = 0.136 ± 0.07 mg/mL), FRAP test (IC50 = 0.013 ± 0.006 mg/mL), ABTS test (IC50 = 0.52 ± 0.03 mg/mL) and total antioxidant capacity (IC50 = 0.34 ± 0.06 mg/mL). In the wound healing study, topical application of ASO performed the fastest wound-repairing process estimated by a chromatic study, percentage wound closure, fibrinogen level and oxidative damage status, as compared to ASE, the Cytolcentella reference drug and the untreated rats. The use of AS extract and oil were also associated with the attenuation of oxidative stress damage in the wound-healing treated rats. Overall, the results provided that AS, particularly ASO, has a potential medicinal value to act as effective skin wound healing agent.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dermatite/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Tecido de Granulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar
6.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199966

RESUMO

Nanfeng mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Kinokuni), Xunwu mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Yangshuo kumquats (Citrus japonica Thunb) and physiologically dropped navel oranges (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) were used as materials to extract peel essential oils (EOs) via hydrodistillation. The chemical composition, and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the EOs were investigated. GC-MS analysis showed that monoterpene hydrocarbons were the major components and limonene was the predominate compound for all citrus EOs. The antibacterial testing of EOs against five different bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium) was carried out using the filter paper method and the broth microdilution method. Kumquat EO had the best inhibitory effect on B. subtilis, E. coli and S. typhimurium with MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values of 1.56, 1.56 and 6.25 µL/mL, respectively. All citrus EOs showed the antioxidant activity of scavenging DPPH and ABTS free radicals in a dose-dependent manner. Nanfeng mandarin EO presented the best antioxidant activity, with IC50 values of 15.20 mg/mL for the DPPH assay and 0.80 mg/mL for the ABTS assay. The results also showed that the antibacterial activities of EOs might not be related to their antioxidant activities.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Citrus/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrus/classificação , Destilação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203980

RESUMO

Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb and J. sabina L. contain essential oil (EO), while J. sabina also contains podophyllotoxin, which is used as a precursor for anti-cancer drugs. Two studies were conducted. The first assessed the variability in the EO profile and podophyllotoxin concentration of the two junipers, depending on the location and tree gender. The main EO constituents of J. excelsa were α-cedrol, α-limonene and α-pinene, while the constituents in J. sabina were sabinene, terpinen-4-ol, myrtenyl acetate and α-cadinol. The podophyllotoxin yield of 18 J. sabina accessions was 0.07-0.32% (w/w), but this was not found in any of the J. excelsa accessions. The second study assessed the effect of hydrodistillation (Clevenger apparatus) and steam distillation (in a semi-commercial apparatus) on the EO profile and bioactivity. The extraction type did not significantly alter the EO composition. The EO profiles of the two junipers and their accessions were different and may be of interest to the industry utilizing juniper leaf EO. Breeding and selection programs could be developed with the two junipers (protected species) in order to identify chemotypes with (1) a high EO content and desirable composition, and (2) a high concentration of podophyllotoxin in J. sabina. Such chemotypes could be established as agricultural crops for the commercial production of podophyllotoxin and EO.


Assuntos
Juniperus/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Podofilotoxina/química , Bulgária , Destilação/métodos , Juniperus/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Podofilotoxina/análise , Eslováquia
8.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199618

RESUMO

This study determined the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of lemongrass (LO), thyme (TO), and oregano (OO) essential oils and ethanolic extracts of pomegranate peel (PPE) and grape pomace (GPE) as candidate ingredients for edible coatings. Antifungal effects against Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium spp. were tested using paper disc and well diffusion methods. Radical scavenging activity (RSA) was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid assays. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified limonene (16.59%), α-citral (27.45%), ß-citral (27.43%), thymol (33.31%), paracymene (43.26%), 1,8-cineole (17.53%), and trans-caryphellene (60.84%) as major compounds of the essential oils. From both paper disc and well diffusion methods, LO recorded the widest zone of inhibition against tested microbes (B. cinerea and Penicillium spp.). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of LO against B. cinerea and Penicillium spp., were 15 µL/mL and 30 µL/mL, respectively. The highest (69.95%) and lowest (1.64%) RSA at 1 mg/mL were recorded for PPE and OO. Application of sodium alginate and chitosan-based coatings formulated with LO (15 or 30 µL/mL) completely inhibited spore germination and reduced the decay severity of 'Wonderful' pomegranate. Lemongrass oil proved to be a potential antifungal agent for edible coatings developed to extend shelf life of 'Wonderful' pomegranate.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cymbopogon/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Origanum/química , Thymus (Planta)/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Penicillium/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Terpenos
9.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199656

RESUMO

The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in livestock faces increasing scrutiny and opposition due to concerns about the increased occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Alternative solutions are being sought, and plants of Lamiaceae may provide an alternative to synthetic antibiotics in animal nutrition. In this study, we extracted essential oil from Monarda didyma, a member of the Lamiaceae family. We examined the chemical composition of the essential oil and then evaluated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of M. didyma essential oil and its main compounds in vitro. We then evaluated the effectiveness of M. didyma essential oil in regard to growth performance, feed efficiency, and mortality in both mice and broilers. Carvacrol (49.03%) was the dominant compound in the essential oil extracts. M. didyma essential oil demonstrated antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (MIC = 87 µg·mL-1), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 47 µg·mL-1), and Clostridium perfringens (MIC = 35 µg·mL-1). Supplementing the diet of mice with essential oil at a concentration of 0.1% significantly increased body weight (+5.4%) and feed efficiency (+18.85%). In broilers, M. didyma essential oil significantly improved body weight gain (2.64%). Our results suggest that adding M. didyma essential oil to the diet of broilers offers a potential substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Monarda/química , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Clostridium perfringens/efeitos dos fármacos , Cimenos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 861-875, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237363

RESUMO

Peppermint oil (PO) is the most prominent oil using in pharmaceutical formulations with its significant therapeutic value. In this sense, this oil is attracting considerable attention from the scientific community due to its traditional therapeutic claim, biological and pharmacological potential in recent research. An organic solvent-free and environment-friendly electrohydrodynamic assisted (EHDA) technique was employed to prepared PO-loaded alginate microbeads. The current study deals with the development, optimization, in vitro characterization, in vivo gastrointestinal tract drug distribution and ex-vivo mucoadhesive properties, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects of PO-loaded alginate microbeads. The optimization results indicated the voltage and flow rate have a significant influence on microbeads size and sphericity factor and encapsulation efficiency. All these optimized microbeads showed a better drug release profile in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) at 2 h. However, a minor release was found in acidic media (pH 1.2) at 2 h. The optimized formulation showed excellent mucoadhesive properties in ex-vivo and good swelling characterization in intestine media. The microbeads were found to be well distributed in various parts of the intestine in in vivo study. PO-loaded alginate microbeads similarly showed potential antioxidant effects with drug release. The formulation exhibited possible improvement of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in MO-induced rats. It significantly suppressed proinflammatory cytokines, i.e., interleukin- IL-1ß, and upregulated anti-inflammatory cytokine expression, i.e., IL-10. It would be a promising approach for targeted drug release after oral administration and could be considered an anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategy for treating IBS.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Lecitinas/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Hidrodinâmica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/induzido quimicamente , Loperamida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Microesferas , Estrutura Molecular , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 535-542, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216656

RESUMO

Antimicrobial films based on polylactic acid (PLA) were developed by incorporating Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TV-EOs) with different concentrations of ethanolic extract of Mediterranean propolis (EEP) (5 wt% and 10 wt% based on PLA). The antimicrobial activities of EEP were performed by the agar disc diffusion method. The EEP exhibited high antimicrobial properties with inhibition zone diameter of 12.1 and 11.58 mm against Staphylococcus aureus and Penicillium sp., respectively. The addition of TV-EOs to films containing 5 and 10 wt% of EEP decrease the elastic modulus from 1292 MPa to 1084 MPa and 911.1 MPa to 794 MPa compared with films containing 5 and 10% of EEP alone, respectively. However, the elongation at break increased by 64% after the addition of TV-EOs to the film containing 10 wt% of EEP. Thermal stability of films improvement by the addition of TV-EOs and EEP. Antimicrobial activity of the films showed that films containing 10 wt% EEP inhibited the growth of Candida albicans and the combination of EEP and TV-EOs in the PLA matrix showed a synergistic effect against Escherichia coli. The developed PLA-based films with antimicrobial activity have a potential application in food packaging to increase the shelf life of packaged food.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Poliésteres/química , Própole/química , Thymus (Planta)/química , Antibacterianos/química , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/química , Embalagem de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 620-628, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216663

RESUMO

Mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.) essential oil (MEO) reportedly displays excellent antimicrobial properties. In this study, MEO was loaded into chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs). The characteristics, antibacterial properties and benefit in pork preservation of MEO-CSNPs were evaluated. The MEO-CSNPs displayed an excellent encapsulation efficiency (EE) (67.32%-82.35%), the particle size values of 131.3 nm-161.9 nm, and the absolute zeta potential values above 30 mV. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the MEO was incorporated into CSNPs without requiring a chemical reaction, the antibacterial activity of the MEO remained. Furthermore, the damage of MEO-chitosan nanoemulsions (MEO-CSs) to the cell membranes of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) was confirmed by the change of bacterial cell morphology. The anti-biofilm assays verified that the MEO-CSs substantially inhibited biofilm formation and destroyed the mature biofilms. MEO-CSs were also applied to pork, proving a great potential for pork preservation. This study provides a potential approach for developing and utilizing MEO-CSs as natural antimicrobial agents in the food industry.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Citrus/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Carne de Porco , Animais , Membrana Externa Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Termogravimetria , Difração de Raios X
13.
Se Pu ; 39(7): 708-714, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227368

RESUMO

Lithospermum erythrorhizon has the functions of cooling blood, activating blood, as well as detoxifying and penetrating rash. Lithospermum oil extracted from Lithospermum erythrorhizon can prevent and treat diaper rash, skin ulceration, eczema, and other skin diseases. Supercritical fluid extraction is the optimal method for the extraction of active components from lithospermum. In this study, an analytical method was established for simultaneously determination of six active components in lithospermum oil with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the contents of the active components as the evaluation index were used to investigate several important factors in the preparation of lithospermum oil by supercritical fluid extraction. The optimized HPLC conditions were as follows: separation column, Diamonsil C18 (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 µm); mobile phases, acetonitrile containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid-0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution containing 5 mmol/L ammonium formate (75∶25, v/v); flow rate, 1 mL/min; injection volume, 15 µL; room temperature; photodiode array detector (PAD); detection wavelength, 275 nm. The supercritical fluid extraction was optimized for ensuring stability of the amounts of effective components and the reliability of the quality of lithospermum oil. This will serve as the basis for preparation and quality control processes. Three factors and three levels orthogonal tests were adopted to investigate the important factors, viz. the pressure, temperature and CO2 flow rate in the preparation of lithospermum oil. The results showed that the developed HPLC-PAD method can be used for the simultaneous determination of shikonin, acetylshikonin, ß-acetoxyisovaleryl akanin, isobutyryl shikonin, ß,ß-dimethylacryl shikonin, and 2-methylbutyryl shikonin in 30 min. The method has good precision, accuracy and repeatability. The contents of the active components were the highest when the extraction pressure, extraction temperature, and CO2 flow rate were 23 MPa, 40 ℃, and 27 L/h, respectively. The optimized conditions are suitable for the preparation and actual production of lithospermum oil. The HPLC-PAD method is simple, feasible, accurate, and reliable. It can be used for the preparation and quality control of lithospermum oil by supercritical fluid extraction. Thus, with this method, the stability of the contents of active ingredients and the reliability of the quality of lithospermum oil can be ensured; moreover, safe and effective drug use can be realized. The established method has obvious advantages over the traditional process and is a good candidate for widespread use.


Assuntos
Lithospermum , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Lithospermum/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura
14.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205277

RESUMO

The possibility of using oilseed flours as a waste source for film-forming materials with a combination of soy protein isolate in preparation of edible films was evaluated. Physical, mechanical and barrier properties were determined as a function of the oilseed type: hemp, evening primrose, flax, pumpkin, sesame and sunflower. It was observed that the addition of oilseed flours increased the refraction and thus the opacity of the obtained films from 1.27 to 9.57 A mm-1. Depending on the type of flours used, the edible films took on various colors. Lightness (L*) was lowest for the evening primrose film (L* = 34.91) and highest for the soy protein film (L* = 91.84). Parameter a* was lowest for the sunflower film (a* = -5.13) and highest for the flax film (a* = 13.62). Edible films made of pumpkin seed flour had the highest value of the b* color parameter (b* = 34.40), while films made of evening primrose flour had the lowest value (b* = 1.35). All analyzed films had relatively low mechanical resistance, with tensile strength from 0.60 to 3.09 MPa. Films made of flour containing the highest amount of protein, pumpkin and sesame, had the highest water vapor permeability, 2.41 and 2.70 × 10-9 g·m-1 s-1 Pa-1, respectively. All the edible films obtained had high water swelling values from 131.10 to 362.16%, and the microstructure of the films changed after adding the flour, from homogeneous and smooth to rough. All blended soy protein isolate-oilseed flour films showed lower thermal stability which was better observed at the first and second stages of thermogravimetric analysis when degradation occurred at lower temperatures. The oilseed flours blended with soy protein isolate show the possibility of using them in the development of biodegradable films which can find practical application in the food industry.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Proteínas de Soja/química , Filmes Comestíveis , Farinha , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Solubilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Vapor , Temperatura , Resistência à Tração/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/química
15.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203392

RESUMO

With the increasing global demand for edible oils and the restriction of arable land minimum in China, woody oil plants have gradually become the optimal solution to cover the shortage of current edible oil supply and to further improve the self-sufficiency rate. However, due to the lack of knowledge and technique, problems like "how to make full use of these plant resources?" and "how to guide consumers with reasonable data?" limit the development of woody oilseed industry towards a sustainable circular economy. In this review, several emerging unique woody oil plants in China were introduced, among which Litsea cubeba as a new woody oil plant was highlighted as a reference case based on its current research progress. Unlike other woody oil plants, essential oil rather than oil from Litsea cubeba has always been the main product through the years due to its interesting biological activities. Most importantly, its major component, citral, could be the base for other synthesized perfume compounds with added value. Moreover, the sustainable biorefinery of large amounts of waste residual after Litsea cubeba essential oil processing is now technically feasible, which could inspire a total valorization pathway for other woody oil plants to make more competitive plant-based products with both economic, social, and ecological benefits.


Assuntos
Litsea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , China , Litsea/química
16.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205060

RESUMO

The medicinal potential and volatile composition of different parts of three cultivars of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) were evaluated for their toxicity and anti-inflammatory activities. Fresh leaf and fruit peel were separately isolated by hydrodistillation for 4 h. The essential oils were subjected to GC/GC-MS analysis for chemical profile. Toxicity of the essential oils in mice were evaluated using Lorke's method, while an anti-inflammatory assay was performed in a rat model using egg albumin-induced oedema. The oils obtained were light yellow in colour, and odour varied from strong citrus smell to mild. Percentage yield of fresh peel oil (0.34-0.57%) was greater than the fresh leaf oil yield (0.21-0.34%). D-limonene (86.70-89.90%) was the major compound identified in the leaf oil, while ß-phellandrene (90.00-91.01%) dominated the peel oil. At a dosage level of 5000 mg/kg, none of the oils showed mortality in mice. An anti-inflammatory bioassay revealed that all the oils caused a significant (p < 0.05-0.01) reduction in oedema size when compared to the negative control group throughout the 5 h post induction assessment period. The study reveals that the oils are non-toxic and demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory activity. Our findings suggest that the leaf and peel oils obtained from waste parts of grapefruit plants can be useful as flavouring agents, as well as anti-inflammatory agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Citrus paradisi/química , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limoneno/análise , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ratos , África do Sul
17.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 76: 105617, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126523

RESUMO

The focus of this study is the preparation of proteinaceous human serum albumin (HSA) nanocapsules with biocompatible plant oil cores avoiding toxic cross-linker and noxious non-aqueous liquids. The sonochemical preparation of HSA capsules with different plant oils yields particles with narrow size distribution forming suspensions stable for at least 14 days and enabling long-term storage by freezing. Furthermore, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) as a targeting molecule was successfully embedded into the proteinaceous particle shell at a molar ratio of 7:1 (HSA/WGA). As urothelial cell binding studies revealed up to 55% higher cell binding potential of WGA-grafted particles than those without a targeter, targeted protein nanocapsules represent the first step towards new and innovative formulations.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Nanocápsulas/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Albumina Sérica Humana/química , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Humanos
18.
Food Chem ; 362: 130041, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087711

RESUMO

Peony seed oil (PSO) is a new woody nut oil which is unique to China. Its unsaturated fatty acids are over 90% and are rich in α - linolenic acid. Although the PSO industry is in its infancy, it is bound to become a top vegetable oil food material because of its own advantages. The potential high commercial profit of its adulteration with cheap vegetable oil will be an important factor hindering the healthy development of PSO industry. It is of great significance to study the adulteration of PSO for preventing large-scale adulteration. In this study, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of PSO was realised based on Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometrics analysis, and the fatty acid composition of PSO was analysed according to Raman characteristic peaks. The technology can be applied to routine analysis and quality control of PSO.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Paeonia/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , China , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Análise Espectral Raman
19.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071495

RESUMO

Increasing applications and markets for essential oils could bring new opportunities for cost-effective and sustainable management of unused forestry biomass; however, better knowledge of the production and application of such essential oils is necessary. The objective of this work is to contribute to greater knowledge of the essential oil production on a pilot scale from foliage biomass of wild shrubs and tree residues produced in some forestry enhancement operations and to study their antioxidant capacity (ORAC-oxygen radical absorbance capacity). Fresh biomass (twigs) of seven species (E. globulus, E. nitens, P. pinaster, P. sylvestris, R. officinalis, C. ladanifer, and J. communis) was manually collected in Spain in two different periods and was ground at 30 mm and distilled in a 30 L stainless steel still with saturated steam. The essential oil components were identified by GC-MS and quantified by GC-FID, and their antioxidant activity was determined with the ORAC method. Promising results on essential oil yield were obtained with E. globulus, E. nitens, R. officinalis, and J. communis. All essential oils studied exhibited antioxidant capacity by the ORAC assay, particularly that from C. ladanifer. Moreover, oxygenated sesquiterpenes contents, one of the minor components of oils, were significantly correlated with ORAC values.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Biomassa , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cistus , Eucalyptus/química , Florestas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Geografia , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Espanha , Árvores
20.
Food Chem ; 362: 130191, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082292

RESUMO

Raman spectra were used to distinguish waste cooking oil from edible vegetable oils. Signals at 869, 969, 1302 and 1080 cm-1 were found to be crucial to distinguish waste cooking oil from five edible oils using PCA. When waste cooking oil was added to soybean or olive oil, PCA could separate adulterated and pure oils, when the adulteration proportions reached 10% and 20%, respectively. Peaks at 969 (R2 > 0.951), 1267 (R2 = 0.987) and 1302 (R2 > 0.984) cm-1 responded linearly to adulteration. Heating assays and 1H NMR analysis revealed that differences between the Raman spectra of waste cooking oil and edible oils at 969 and 1267 cm-1 were directly related to heat treatment. This work highlights the potential for Raman spectroscopy to detect waste cooking oil.


Assuntos
Culinária , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Azeite de Oliva/química , Óleo de Soja/análise , Óleo de Soja/química
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