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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111739, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396067

RESUMO

Ultraviolet-B is an important fraction of sunlight which influences the plant performance either positively or adversely in terms of growth, physiology, biochemistry, and major active compounds. The static nature of plants constrains them to be subjected to various adverse environmental conditions. Several studies performed with plants and UV-B with fewer reports are available on medicinal plants having rhizome. The present study focuses on transformation induced in two Curcuma spp. (C. caesia and C. longa) under the influence of elevated UV-B (eUV-B) (ambient ±9.6 kJ m-2 d-1) under natural field conditions to analyse the changes in physiological, biochemical and essential oil of the test plants. eUV-B significantly reduced the photosynthetic activities such as photosynthetic rate (Ps), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (Tr), internal CO2 (Ci), and photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) with higher reductions in C. longa as compared to C. caesia. The enzymatic activities of PAL, CHI, and CAD showed higher stimulation in C. caesia whereas C. longa showed increment only in CAD. The essential oil content was increased by 16% and 9% in C. caesia and C. longa, respectively. C. caesia showed increased monoterpenes than sesquiterpenes, whereas almost equal increase of both the terpenoid found in C. longa. C. caesia showed induction of aromatic compounds (epiglobulol, germacrene, 4-terpineol), whereas anticancerous compounds; aphla-terpinolene (61%), beta-caryophyllene (60%), and beta-sesquiphellandrene (32%) were increased in C. longa. C. caesia acted well in terms of both physiology and major active compound (1, 8-cineole), but overall most of the compounds increased in C. longa under eUV-B.


Assuntos
Curcuma/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Curcuma/química , Curcuma/fisiologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Rizoma/química , Terpenos
2.
Food Chem ; 336: 127590, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763742

RESUMO

This work has been aimed at studying the effect of red thyme oil (RTO, Thymus vulgaris L.) on the shelf-life and Penicillium decay of oranges during cold storage. RTO vapours significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) the percentage of infected wounds, the external growth area and the production of spores in inoculated orange fruit stored for 12 days at 7 °C in a polypropylene film selected for its appropriate permeability. Among the RTO compounds, p-cymene and thymol were the most abundant in packed boxes at the end of cold storage. The RTO vapours did not affect the main quality parameters of the oranges, or the taste and odour of the juice. The results have shown that an active packaging, using RTO vapours, could be employed, by the citrus industry, to extend the shelf-life of oranges for fresh market use and juice processing.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Penicillium/efeitos dos fármacos , Thymus (Planta)/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Citrus/química , Citrus/metabolismo , Citrus/microbiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Penicillium/fisiologia
3.
Food Chem ; 339: 127882, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889131

RESUMO

Unconventional parts of vegetables represent a rich source of health-promoting phytochemicals. The phenolic profile of cabbage-stalk flour (CSF), pineapple-crown flour (PCF), and their essential oils were characterized via UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MSE and GC-FID/MS. Antimicrobial activity was tested against five strains, and antioxidant activities were determined in free and bound extracts. Globally, 177 phenolics were tentatively identified in PCF (major p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) and 56 in CSF (major chlorogenicacid, quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, and p-coumaric acid). PCF exhibited a distinguished profile (lignans, stilbenes) and antioxidant capacity, especially in bound extracts (1.3 g GAE.100 g-1; 0.6 g catechin eq.100 g-1; DPPH: 244.7; ABTS: 467.8; FRAP: 762.6 µg TE.g-1, ORAC: 40.9 mg TE.g-1). The main classes of volatile compounds were fatty acids, their esters, and terpenes in CSF (30) and PCF (41). A comprehensive metabolomic approach revealed CSF and PCF as a promising source of PC, showing great antioxidant and discrete antimicrobial activities.


Assuntos
Ananas/química , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Brassica/química , Farinha/análise , Fenóis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Ananas/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Brassica/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 338: 127724, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795878

RESUMO

Peppermint is widely used medicinal plant with distinguished bioactive potential, therefore, the aim of present work was to develop novel peppermint extracts with high activity by application of traditional and emerging separation techniques. Conventional hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD) were applied for recovery of essential oil (EO), while organic solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus, microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted process and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) were applied for non-selective recovery of peppermint lipophilic extracts. Extracts were characterized in terms of terpenoids profile with special emphasis on content of major compounds (mentol, menthone, isomenthol and eucalyptol). Antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, chelating and phosphomolybdenum assay) and enzyme-inhibitory assays (acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, amylase and glucosidase inhibition) were used for screening of peppermint bioactivity. MWHD was recognized as alternative for traditional process in EO recovery, while SFE extracts were useful for green production of solvent-free peppermint extracts rich in terpenoids and other lipophilic bioactives.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Mentha piperita/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Mentha piperita/metabolismo , Micro-Ondas , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Componente Principal , Sonicação , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
5.
Food Chem ; 338: 128143, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091986

RESUMO

Preparation and characterization of novel encapsulation system based on calcium alginate hydrogels filled with cumin essential oil has been investigated. Firstly, the effect of sodium alginate concentration, CaCl2 level, hardening time, encapsulation and emulsion fabrication methods was studied on loading capacity of the hydrogels using a Resolution-V fractional factorial design (2 V5-1 FFD), followed by response surface methodology (RSM). At the optimum point, the in-vitro release of phenolic compounds in simulated gastric and intestinal mediums were 96.02 ± 0.96% and 10.65 ± 1.23% after 180 min, respectively. The Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images demonstrated a relatively smooth surface with small pore size. Based on SEM images and Fourier-transform infrared spectrums, the cumin essential oil was encapsulated successfully in calcium alginate beads. Thus, calcium alginate hydrogel could be introduced as a promising carrier for encapsulating biochemical active compounds with favorable features.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Cuminum/química , Hidrogéis/química , Microesferas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Sementes/química
6.
Food Chem ; 338: 128130, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091992

RESUMO

(6Z,8E)-Undeca-6,8,10-trien-3-one (yuzunone) is reported to be one of the main olfactory contributors of the specific fruity-green-balsamic odor of yuzu peel oil. Using an original stereoselective synthesis, we prepared a pure sample of yuzunone, which was used as a reference compound to check its presence by GC-MS and GC-O in 5 commercial samples of yuzu and citrus essential oils. Surprisingly, we could not detect yuzunone by GC-MS in any of our samples. However, it could be detected by a small part of the panelists involved in GC-O/AEDA experiments in a yuzu commercial oil, but its olfactory contribution proved to be very limited.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Polienos/química , Polienos/síntese química , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Frutas/química , Olfato , Estereoisomerismo
7.
Food Chem ; 338: 128071, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092005

RESUMO

This study was proposed to investigate the possibility of co-delivering essential oils and lipophilic nutrients via lecithin stabilized emulsions. Emulsions with different droplet sizes (62.5-105 nm), zeta potentials (-33.7 to -58.6 mV), and PdI values (0.155-0.275) were successfully prepared. Incorporation of curcumin into emulsions significantly improved its water solubility (1700-fold), thermal and photochemical stability. The droplet size of curcumin-loaded emulsions did not change over 30 days of storage at 4 °C. Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion caused significant changes in the droplet size and interfacial properties of curcumin-loaded emulsions. The bioaccessibility of encapsulated curcumin was 4.79-10.6-fold higher than that of free molecule. This is mainly attributed to the different solubility of curcumin in essential oils, which also showed different bioaccessibility. The findings suggested that emulsions can be novel carriers for co-delivering essential oils and lipophilic nutrients with increased stability and bioaccessibility.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Lecitinas/química , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/química , Soja/química , Água/química , Temperatura Baixa , Curcumina/química , Nutrientes/análise , Reologia , Solubilidade , Soja/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 339: 128016, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152858

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop a thyme oil emulsion with good physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity. Initially, oil-in-water emulsions containing whey protein-coated essential oil droplets were prepared by high-pressure homogenization. The double-layer emulsions were formed around the oil droplets by electrostatic deposition of cationic chitosan hydrochloride onto the anionic protein-coated droplets. Then, the structure, physicochemical properties, and storage stability of the emulsions were determined. Emulsions formulated using 1% v/v thyme oil, 0.7 wt% whey protein, and 0.25 wt% of chitosan hydrochloride contained relatively small cationic droplets. Moreover, the emulsions containing double-layer coatings were shear-thinning fluids. Storage tests indicated that double-layer emulsions had better stability than the single-layer. Antibacterial tests indicated that the double-layer emulsions exhibited prolonged antibacterial activity against two model food pathogens: E. coli and S. aureus. These results provide a scientific basis for the rational design of antimicrobial delivery systems for use in foods.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Thymus (Planta)/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Emulsões , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletricidade Estática
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(1): 890-897, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822009

RESUMO

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate pesticide that is frequently and widely used to control both agricultural and domestic pests worldwide. In this study, the protective effect of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) essential oil (FEO) was investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to CPF. The fish were divided into six groups that one control group (no treatment) and five experimental groups (FEO (3ml/100g diet) group, CPF1 (0.023 mg/l) group CPF2 (0.046 mg/l) group, CPF1 (0.023 mg/l) plus FEO (3ml/100g diet) group, CPF2 (0.046 mg/l) plus FEO (3ml/100g diet) group). Blood and tissue (liver, kidney, gill, and brain) samples were taken from the fish at the end of 14 days of application. Hemoglobin (Hb) level, nitoblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity, and total immunoglobulin (TI) level were measured in blood samples of fish. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was determined in brain tissue while malondialdehyde (MDA) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were determined in liver, kidney, and gill tissues. The results showed that there was a significant decrease in Hb level, NBT activity, and TI levels in CPF-treated fish compared to the control group. In addition, increased in MDA levels and significant decreases in GSH level, AChE, CAT, and GPx activities were observed in CPF-treated groups. However, FEO-treated was showed a significant improvement in all parameters except AChE activity compared to CPF groups. These study findings showed that FEO could improve CPF-induced toxicity in C. carpio, except inhibition of AChE activity.


Assuntos
Carpas , Clorpirifos , Foeniculum , Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Antioxidantes , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(1): 1131-1140, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833171

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate possible synergistic interactions on antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of clove and cinnamon oil components in combination and characterization of compounds responsible for synergistic interactions using TLC bioautography followed by checkerboard titration, isobologram analysis, and spectrometric characterization. Among the combinations tested, cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon oil and eugenol from clove oil in combination showed a synergistic antimicrobial interaction against foodborne microbes Listeria monocytogenes (fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI): 0.31), Salmonella typhimurium (FICI: 0.41), and Aspergillus niger (FICI: 0.48), and synergistic antioxidant efficacy (combination index: 0.78) in in vitro model. Cinnamaldehyde/eugenol blend did not show any cytotoxic effect (IC50 > 1000 µg/ml) in human normal keratinocyte cell line. The results provide evidence that the cinnamaldehyde/eugenol blend may help in designing a more potent novel natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agent in food and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Óleos Voláteis , Syzygium , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 337: 108947, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181419

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to assess the antimicrobial effect of active essential oil components (EOs) namely (carvacrol (CA), cinnamaldehyde (CI) and thymol (TH)) on Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in chicken tawook during storage at 4 and 10 °C. A marinade consisting of ingredients commonly used in the chicken tawook recipe was prepared and mixed with 1% and 2% v/v CA, CI or TH. The marinade with or without EOs was added to fresh chicken breast cubes inoculated with the foodborne pathogens. Afterward, marinated chicken "tawook" was stored at 4 and 10 °C covered with cling wrap to mimic chill and mild abuse storage conditions for up to 7 days. At 10 °C, the marinade decreased L. monocytogenes numbers on day 4 and 7 by about 2.4 log10 CFU/g as compared to unmarinated samples. Adding EOs to chicken tawook did not change L. monocytogenes numbers during storage at 4 and 10 °C. For Salmonella spp., the marinade decreased the numbers during 10 °C storage on day 4 and 7 by about 4.9 log10 CFU/g as compared to unmarinated samples. At 4 °C, EOs at 2% decreased Salmonella spp. on day 7 by 0.5 log10 CFU/g. One percent CI significantly decreased Salmonella by 1.5 log10 CFU/g, at day 4 of storage. At 10 °C, 1% CA, 2% CI, 1% and 2% TH decreased Salmonella spp. in the samples by 0.5 log10 CFU/g on day 7. The marinade decreased E. coli O157:H7 numbers on the chicken samples during 10 °C storage on day 4 and 7 by about 3.3 log10 CFU/g as compared to unmarinated samples. Regardless of storage day at 4 °C, EOs decreased E. coli O157:H7 populations in chicken tawook by ≤2.4 log10 CFU/g compared to samples without EOs, where the decrease was ≤1.4 log10 CFU/g. Moreover, no significant decrease in E. coli O157:H7 populations could be attributed to the addition of EOs in samples which were stored at 10 °C. Increasing the concentration of EOs from 1 to 2% seemed to have no significant effect in reducing the tested foodborne pathogen populations.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli O157/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 337: 108966, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202297

RESUMO

Meat and meat products are perishable products that require the use additives to prevent the spoilage by foodborne microorganisms and pathogenic bacteria. Current trends for products without synthetic preservatives have led to the search for new sources of antimicrobial compounds. Essential oils (EOs), which has been used since ancient times, meet these goals since their effectiveness as antimicrobial agents in meat and meat products have been demonstrated. Cinnamon, clove, coriander, oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme, among others, have shown a greater potential to control and inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Although EOs are natural products, their quality must be evaluated before being used, allowing to grant the Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) classification. The bioactive compounds (BAC) present in their composition are linked to their activity, being the concentration and the quality of these compounds very important characteristics. Therefore, a single mechanism of action cannot be attributed to them. Extraction technique plays an important role, which has led to improve conventional techniques in favour of green emerging technologies that allow to preserve better target bioactive components, operating at lower temperatures and avoiding as much as possible the use of solvents, with more sustainable processing and reduced energy use and environmental pollution. Once extracted, these compounds display greater inhibition of gram-positive than gram-negative bacteria. Membrane disruption is the main mechanism of action involved. Their intense characteristics and the possible interaction with meat components make that their application combined with other EOs, encapsulated and being part of active film, increase their bioactivity without modifying the quality of the final product.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Filmes Comestíveis , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Carne/microbiologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
13.
J Appl Microbiol ; 130(1): 76-89, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648320

RESUMO

AIMS: The aims of this article were to select fungal species with high tolerance and high growth rate in mediums supplemented with limonene and citrus essential oils (CEOs), and to test the bioconversion capability of the chosen isolates for the bioproduction of aroma compounds. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on the use of predictive mycology, 21 of 29 isolates were selected after assaying R-(+)-limonene and CEO tolerance (10 g l-1 ). With a dendrogram divisive coefficient of 0·937, the subcluster two with isolates Aspergillus niger LBM 055, Penicillium sp. LBM 150, Penicillium sp. LBM 151 and Penicillium sp. LBM 154 gathered the highest tolerance and mycelia growth speed. Ultrastructural analysis indicated that culture media containing limonene had no visible toxic activity that could promote morphological changes in the fungal cell wall. The biomass of A. niger LBM055 was distinctive in liquid media supplemented with R-(+)-limonene (0·57 ± 0·07 g) and it was selected to prove bioconversion capacity, under static and agitated conditions, and converted up to 98% of limonene, yielding a wide variety of products that were quantified by GC-FID. It was obtained at molecular weights less than limonene (64-100%), between limonene and α-terpineol (12-72%) and greater than α-terpineol (2-48%). CONCLUSIONS: Aspergillus niger LBM 055, Penicillium sp. LBM 150, Penicillium sp. LBM 151 and Penicillium sp. LBM 154 showed to the highest tolerance and growth rate in mediums supplemented with R-(+)-limonene and orange and lemon essential oils. Particularly, A. niger LBM055, showed limonene bioconversion capability and produced different molecular weights compounds such us α-terpineol. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Different bioproducts can be obtained by changing operative condition with the same fungus, and this bioprocess aspect is a significant approach to be adopted on industrial scale leading to the creation of new natural flavours and fragrance compositions.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Citrus/economia , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/metabolismo , Limoneno/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Biotransformação , Citrus/química , Meios de Cultura/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Limoneno/análise , Limoneno/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo
14.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 337: 108936, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161345

RESUMO

Development of novel and effective decontamination technologies to ensure the microbiological safety of fresh produce has gained considerable attention, mainly driven by numerous outbreaks. This work presented the first approach regarding to the application of the previously reported hurdle technologies on the sanitization of artificially contaminated cherry tomatoes. Thyme (Thymus daenensis) essential oil nanoemulsion (TEON, 8.28 nm in diameter with a narrow size distribution) was formulated via ultrasonic nanoemulsification, showing remarkably improved antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7, compared to the coarse emulsion. The antimicrobial effect of ultrasound (US), thyme essential oil nanoemulsion (TEON) and the combination of both treatments was assessed against E. coli O157:H7. The remarkable synergistic effects of the combined treatments were achieved, which decontaminated the E. coli populations by 4.49-6.72 log CFU/g on the surface of cherry tomatoes, and led to a reduction of 4.48-6.94 log CFU/sample of the total inactivation. TEON combined with US were effective in reducing the presence of bacteria in wastewater, which averted the potential detrimental effect of cross-contamination resulted from washing wastewater in fresh produce industry. Moreover, the treatments did not noticeably alter the surface color and firmness of cherry tomatoes. Therefore, ultrasound combined with TEON is a promising and feasible alternative for the reduction of microbiological contaminants, as well as retaining the quality characteristics of cherry tomatoes.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos da radiação , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia
15.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111832, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360259

RESUMO

This study presents a critical overview of reported essential oil (EO) extractions from citrus peel wastes (CPW), including harmonized data on the various citrus species and cultivars. Harmonization is vital to enable sustainable management practices. The review only includes eco-efficient extraction techniques. In total, the review contains 66 quantified examples using i) mechanical cold press ii) thermal extraction with water or steam media iii) thermal microwave-assisted extraction iv) other innovative methods (such as ultrasound). The technologies were assessed for their potential use in cascading production to achieve economies of scope, particularly considering the use of extraction residues for subsequent fermentation to produce various products from energy carriers to enzymes. Two techniques were found insufficient for direct use in fermentation. Cold press extracts an inadequate amount of EO (average yield 2.85% DW) to ensure suitable fermentation, while solvent extraction contaminates the residues for its subsequent use. Extractions using water media, such as hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (average EO yield 2.87% DW), are feasible for the liquid-based fermentation processes, such as submerged fermentation. Steam extraction is feasible for any type of fermentation. Our review highlighted solvent-free microwave extraction (average EO yield 5.29% DW) as the most effective method, which provides a high yield in a short extraction time. We also uncovered and discussed several inconsistencies in existing yields and energy consumption published data.


Assuntos
Citrus , Óleos Voláteis , Fermentação , Micro-Ondas , Vapor
16.
Chem Biol Interact ; 333: 109318, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186599

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is at increasing risk worldwide since it is threatening the ability to control common infectious diseases, resulting in prolonged illness, disability, and death. Herein, we inspired by the effective plant phytochemical mechanisms evolved to overcome microbial pathogenesis and evolved resistance. Cuminaldehyde is previously reported as the main antibacterial component in Calligonum comosum essential oil. The toxicity of cuminaldehyde limits its medical application for human use. On the other hand, compared to cuminaldehyde, the plant total extract showed similar antibacterial activities, while maintained lower toxicity, although it contains 22 times less cuminaldehyde. Thus, we assumed that other components in the plant extracts specifically affect bacteria but not mammalian cells. Bioassay-guided fractionations combined with comparative metabolomics analysis of different plant extracts were employed. The results revealed the presence of bacterial species-specific phytochemicals. Cinnamyl linoleate and linoleic acid enhanced the antibacterial activities of cuminaldehyde and ampicillin against S. aureus including MRSA, while decanal and cinnamyl linoleate enhanced the activities against E. coli. Computational modeling and enzyme inhibition assays indicated that cinnamyl linoleate selectively bind to bacterial ribosomal RNA methyltransferase, an important enzyme involved in the virulence and resistance of multidrug resistant bacteria. The results obtained can be employed for the future preparation of pharmaceutical formula containing cinnamyl linoleate in order to overcome evolved multidrug resistance behaviors by microbes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Caryophyllales/química , Desenho de Fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Antibacterianos/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/síntese química , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
17.
Life Sci ; 264: 118682, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127519

RESUMO

AIMS: Menthacarin is a herbal combination that is clinically used for the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). In several clinical studies, Menthacarin reduced visceral hypersensitivity-related symptoms. Pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity is multifactorial. This involves several cell types and different transient receptor potential ion channels (TRPs); these ion channels are highly conductive for calcium ions. Since transient changes in cytosolic calcium levels are crucial for many functions of living cells, we investigated if Menthacarin can induce calcium influx in sensory, largely nociceptive, neurons from dorsal root ganglia (DRG), peritoneal macrophages (PMs) and colonic organoids. MAIN METHODS: We employed the calcium imaging technique on sensory neurons from DRG, PMs and colonic organoids isolated from mice. All cells were superfused by Menthacarin at several concentrations (600, 1200, 1800 µg/ml) during the experiments, followed by calcium ionophor ionomycin (Iono., 1 µM) as a positive control. KEY FINDINGS: Menthacarin induced concentration-dependent calcium ion influx in all investigated cell types. Furthermore, repeated applications of Menthacarin induced tachyphylaxis (desensitisation) of calcium responses in sensory neurons and colonic organoids. SIGNIFICANCE: Menthacarin-induced calcium influx into sensory neurons, macrophages and colonic organoids is probably related to its clinical desensitising effects in patients with FGIDs.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Organoides/metabolismo , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Animais , Colo/citologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Gânglios Espinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas/química , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 338: 108980, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243629

RESUMO

Strawberry and peach crops are of great economic and social importance, mainly due to the added value and income generation for small and medium producers in different regions of Brazil. Some fungal diseases can compromise the final profitability of production, such as those caused by Colletotrichum sp., Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructicola fungi. The control of these pathogens mainly occurs through fungicides, which has been generating concern for consumers, as well as biological imbalance and environmental contamination. The need for new alternatives for disease control has been leading to more research being conducted on essential oils. Our scientific questions were based on a compilation of experiments which revealed the efficiency of essential oils in disease control. With the purpose of evaluating the fungicidal activity of Aloysia citriodora, Cymbopogon winterianus, Lippia alba and Ocimum americanum essential oils on the control of fungi, such as Colletotrichum sp., Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructicola in vitro and in the post-harvest of fruits, this work was developed at the Federal University of Santa Maria, Frederico Westphalen county (Rio Grande do Sul state), Brazil, from 2016 to 2018. The following evaluations were done: (i) characterization of essential oil doses in vitro for controlling Colletotrichum sp., Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructicola fungi, and (ii) determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (Ω, mL/L) of essential oils in post-harvest of strawberries and peaches. All essential oils have high fungicidal activity in vitro experiments. The A. citriodora, L. alba and O. americanum essential oils had a satisfactory effect for post-harvest controlling of Colletotrichum sp. C. winterianus and O. americanum. The essential oils promoted satisfactory post-harvest control of Botrytis cinerea in strawberries. All essential oils have high fungitoxicity against Monilinia fructicola in vitro and post-harvest, highlighting the greater efficiency of A. citriodora essential oil in peaches. The essential oils present high fungitoxicity for controlling diseases in strawberries and peaches, presenting high potential performance for formulating commercial fungicide.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fragaria/microbiologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Prunus persica/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Brasil , Colletotrichum/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Verbenaceae/química
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 338: 108989, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257098

RESUMO

Recently, natural essential oils have been extensively studied for anti-bacterial application in foods due to their safety and high biological activity. Herein, Litsea cubeba essential oil (LC-EO) was applied as a natural anti-bacterial agent for exploring its anti-bacterial mechanism against Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC O157:H7). The LC-EO could effectively inhibit the growth of EHEC O157:H7 and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.5 mg/mL. In the study of anti-bacterial mechanism, the LC-EO was proved with good membrane penetration ability, which could destroy bacterial cell structure and disorder membrane permeability, thereby causing the leakage of intracellular organic matters. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of LC-EO on physiological metabolism of EHEC O157:H7, including respiratory metabolism, enzyme activity, the replication of nucleic acid and the transcription level of main virulence genes (stx1, stx2, ehxA, eae), were also demonstrated in this study. Specially, the possible action mechanism of different components of LC-EO on bacterial genetic material was revealed deeply on molecular level by the molecular docking technology. Finally, the results of application evaluation indicated that the addition of LC-EO at MIC in different vegetable juices could maintain anti-bacterial rate above 99.9% for 4 days without remarkable influence on foods sensory quality. The information in this study provides the necessary theoretical foundation for extending the application of LC-EO in food preservation.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Litsea/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Conservação de Alimentos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 338: 109018, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310340

RESUMO

It is necessary to apply some preservatives for tomato paste since in the harvest season, a high load of tomatoes need to be processed as they are among highly perishable products. Application of antimicrobial extracts or essential oils, as natural preservatives, in their raw forms might reduce their efficiency when they are exposed to environmental conditions. However, microencapsulation is a well-known method to solve this problem. Our main goal was to restrict fungal growth rate in stored tomato paste and increase its storage stability by incorporating encapsulated olive leaf phenolic-rich extract. Total Soluble Solids (TSS), consistency, pH, color indices and diametrical growth rate of Aspergillus flavus were measured for different samples. The treatments designed in terms of considering two levels of non-encapsulated olive phenolics extract with 500 and 1000 ppm (NE500 and NE1000), the same levels with encapsulated extract; i.e., 500 and 1000 ppm (ME500 and ME1000), and similar levels of the common preservative of sodium benzoate with 500 and 1000 ppm (B500 and B1000). Antifungal properties of NE samples were higher than ME ones during storage although ME samples could maintain diametrical growth rate of the fungus more stable than NE ones. NE samples justified lower maximum growth rate than ME samples while ME samples could extend lag phase of microbial growth compared with NE one and delay their internal deteriorative reactions. Among Baranyi, modified Baranyi, Modified Gompertz, and Logistic models, Modified Gompertz model represented the best model and could fit the growth factors of A. flavus on tomato paste with higher R2 index as well as lower RMSE and SSE indices. Based on the results obtained, it could be concluded that usage of encapsulated olive leaf extract in tomato paste is an effective, natural and sustainable approach to improve the shelf life of tomato paste since this natural compound could perform as favourable as preservatives; also it could maintain physicochemical as well as microbial properties of tomato paste for a long term. Thus, it is strongly recommended that application of encapsulated olive leaf extract to be considered seriously by the tomato paste industry as it can effectively reduce the mold and fungal contaminations which are very common and prevalent in the plants. The future work in this regard should focus on sensory evaluations when incorporating encapsulated olive leaf extract into tomato paste.


Assuntos
Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Olea/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
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