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1.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203809

RESUMO

Rhododendron (Ericaceae) extracts contain flavonoids, chromones, terpenoids, steroids, and essential oils and are used in traditional ethnobotanical medicine. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory activity of essential oils isolated from these plants. Thus, we isolated essential oils from the flowers and leaves of R. albiflorum (cascade azalea) and analyzed their chemical composition and innate immunomodulatory activity. Compositional analysis of flower (REOFl) versus leaf (REOLv) essential oils revealed significant differences. REOFl was comprised mainly of monoterpenes (92%), whereas sesquiterpenes were found in relatively low amounts. In contrast, REOLv was primarily composed of sesquiterpenes (90.9%), with a small number of monoterpenes. REOLv and its primary sesquiterpenes (viridiflorol, spathulenol, curzerene, and germacrone) induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in human neutrophils, C20 microglial cells, and HL60 cells transfected with N-formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) or FPR2. On the other hand, pretreatment with these essential oils or component compounds inhibited agonist-induced Ca2+ mobilization and chemotaxis in human neutrophils and agonist-induced Ca2+ mobilization in microglial cells and FPR-transfected HL60 cells, indicating that the direct effect of these compounds on [Ca2+]i desensitized the cells to subsequent agonist activation. Reverse pharmacophore mapping suggested several potential kinase targets for these compounds; however, these targets were not supported by kinase binding assays. Our results provide a cellular and molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial immunotherapeutic properties of the R. albiflorum essential oils and suggest that essential oils from leaves of this plant may be effective in modulating some innate immune responses, possibly by inhibition of neutrophil migration.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/química , Rhododendron/química , Flores/química , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/metabolismo , Rhododendron/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
2.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199618

RESUMO

This study determined the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of lemongrass (LO), thyme (TO), and oregano (OO) essential oils and ethanolic extracts of pomegranate peel (PPE) and grape pomace (GPE) as candidate ingredients for edible coatings. Antifungal effects against Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium spp. were tested using paper disc and well diffusion methods. Radical scavenging activity (RSA) was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid assays. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified limonene (16.59%), α-citral (27.45%), ß-citral (27.43%), thymol (33.31%), paracymene (43.26%), 1,8-cineole (17.53%), and trans-caryphellene (60.84%) as major compounds of the essential oils. From both paper disc and well diffusion methods, LO recorded the widest zone of inhibition against tested microbes (B. cinerea and Penicillium spp.). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of LO against B. cinerea and Penicillium spp., were 15 µL/mL and 30 µL/mL, respectively. The highest (69.95%) and lowest (1.64%) RSA at 1 mg/mL were recorded for PPE and OO. Application of sodium alginate and chitosan-based coatings formulated with LO (15 or 30 µL/mL) completely inhibited spore germination and reduced the decay severity of 'Wonderful' pomegranate. Lemongrass oil proved to be a potential antifungal agent for edible coatings developed to extend shelf life of 'Wonderful' pomegranate.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cymbopogon/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Origanum/química , Thymus (Planta)/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Penicillium/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Terpenos
3.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199656

RESUMO

The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in livestock faces increasing scrutiny and opposition due to concerns about the increased occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Alternative solutions are being sought, and plants of Lamiaceae may provide an alternative to synthetic antibiotics in animal nutrition. In this study, we extracted essential oil from Monarda didyma, a member of the Lamiaceae family. We examined the chemical composition of the essential oil and then evaluated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of M. didyma essential oil and its main compounds in vitro. We then evaluated the effectiveness of M. didyma essential oil in regard to growth performance, feed efficiency, and mortality in both mice and broilers. Carvacrol (49.03%) was the dominant compound in the essential oil extracts. M. didyma essential oil demonstrated antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (MIC = 87 µg·mL-1), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 47 µg·mL-1), and Clostridium perfringens (MIC = 35 µg·mL-1). Supplementing the diet of mice with essential oil at a concentration of 0.1% significantly increased body weight (+5.4%) and feed efficiency (+18.85%). In broilers, M. didyma essential oil significantly improved body weight gain (2.64%). Our results suggest that adding M. didyma essential oil to the diet of broilers offers a potential substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Monarda/química , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Clostridium perfringens/efeitos dos fármacos , Cimenos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206449

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) have been used for centuries, and interest in these compounds has been revived in recent years. Due to their unique chemical composition as well as antimicrobial, immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, EOs are used in pharmacology, cosmetology and, increasingly, in animal breeding and rearing, and processing of animal raw materials. Essential oils have become a natural alternative to preservatives, taste enhancers and, most importantly, antibiotics, because the European Union banned the use of antibiotics in metaphylaxis in animal husbandry in 2006. In the animal production chain, EOs are used mainly as feed additives to improve feed palatability and increase feed intake, improve animal resistance and health status, and to prevent and treat diseases. Recent research indicates that EOs can also be applied to sanitize poultry houses, and they can be used as biopesticides in organic farming. Essential oils effectively preserve meat and milk and, consequently, improve the safety, hygiene and quality of animal-based foods. Novel technologies such as encapsulation may increase the bioavailability of EOs and their application in the production of food and feed additives.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Conservação de Alimentos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais
5.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205060

RESUMO

The medicinal potential and volatile composition of different parts of three cultivars of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) were evaluated for their toxicity and anti-inflammatory activities. Fresh leaf and fruit peel were separately isolated by hydrodistillation for 4 h. The essential oils were subjected to GC/GC-MS analysis for chemical profile. Toxicity of the essential oils in mice were evaluated using Lorke's method, while an anti-inflammatory assay was performed in a rat model using egg albumin-induced oedema. The oils obtained were light yellow in colour, and odour varied from strong citrus smell to mild. Percentage yield of fresh peel oil (0.34-0.57%) was greater than the fresh leaf oil yield (0.21-0.34%). D-limonene (86.70-89.90%) was the major compound identified in the leaf oil, while ß-phellandrene (90.00-91.01%) dominated the peel oil. At a dosage level of 5000 mg/kg, none of the oils showed mortality in mice. An anti-inflammatory bioassay revealed that all the oils caused a significant (p < 0.05-0.01) reduction in oedema size when compared to the negative control group throughout the 5 h post induction assessment period. The study reveals that the oils are non-toxic and demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory activity. Our findings suggest that the leaf and peel oils obtained from waste parts of grapefruit plants can be useful as flavouring agents, as well as anti-inflammatory agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Citrus paradisi/química , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limoneno/análise , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ratos , África do Sul
6.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202776

RESUMO

The chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial properties of three commercially available essential oils: rosemary (REO), lavender (LEO), and mint (MEO), were determined in the current study. Our data revealed that the major components of REO, MEO, and LEO were 1,8-cineole (40.4%), menthol (40.1%), and linalool acetate (35.0%), respectively. The highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity was identified in MEO (36.85 ± 0.49%) among the investigated EOs. Regarding antimicrobial activities, we found that LEO had the strongest inhibitory efficiencies against the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida (C.) tropicalis, MEO against Salmonella (S.) enterica, and REO against Staphylococcus (S.) aureus. The strongest antifungal activity was displayed by mint EO, which totally inhibited the growth of Penicillium (P.) expansum and P. crustosum in all concentrations; the growth of P. citrinum was completely suppressed only by the lowest MEO concentration. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against S. enterica, S. aureus, and C. krusei were assessed for MEO. In situ analysis on the bread model showed that 125 µL/L of REO exhibited the lowest mycelial growth inhibition (MGI) of P. citrinum, and 500 µL/L of MEO caused the highest MGI of P. crustosum. Our results allow us to make conclusion that the analysed EOs have promising potential for use as innovative agents in the storage of bakery products in order to extend their shelf-life.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Pão/microbiologia , Lavandula/química , Mentha/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rosmarinus/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida tropicalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/química
7.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074063

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper was to characterize and investigate the antimicrobial potential of Amorpha fruticosa fruits essential oil (EO). The EO was extracted by hydrodistillation, analyzed by GC-MS, and then evaluated for its interaction with microbial and mammalian cells. The antimicrobial activity was assessed against bacterial and fungal strains, in a planktonic and adherent growth state, using qualitative and quantitative assays. The main components identified in A. fruticosa fruits EO were δ-cadinene, γ-muurolene, and α-muurolene. The Gram-positive strains proved to be more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria and fungal strains. The EO exhibited good antibiofilm activity, inhibiting the microbial adherence to the inert (96-well plates and Foley catheter section) and cellular substrata. The flow cytometry analysis revealed as one of the possible mechanisms of antimicrobial action the alteration of cell membrane hydrophobicity. The cytotoxicity on the L929 cell line occurred at concentrations higher than 0.3 mg/mL. Taken together, our results demonstrate that A. fruticosa fruits EO contains active compounds with selective inhibitory effect on different microbial strains in planktonic and biofilm growth state, explained at least partially by the interference with microbial membranes due to their hydrophobic character.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
8.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065463

RESUMO

The insecticidal activities of essential oils obtained from black pepper, eucalyptus, rosemary, and tea tree and their binary combinations were investigated against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Aphididae: Hemiptera), under laboratory and glasshouse conditions. All the tested essential oils significantly reduced and controlled the green peach aphid population and caused higher mortality. In this study, black pepper and tea tree pure essential oils were found to be an effective insecticide, with 80% mortality when used through contact application. However, for combinations of essential oils from black pepper + tea tree (BT) and rosemary + tea tree (RT) tested as contact treatment, the mortality was 98.33%. The essential oil combinations exhibited synergistic and additive interactions for insecticidal activities. The combination of black pepper + tea tree, eucalyptus + tea tree (ET), and tea tree + rosemary showed enhanced activity, with synergy rates of 3.24, 2.65, and 2.74, respectively. Essential oils formulation was effective on the mortality of aphids. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed that stability of a mixture of essential oils was not affected by store temperature (15, 25, and 35 °C) and the functional groups were not changed during storage. Based on our results, the essential oils can be used as a commercial insecticide against M. persicae.


Assuntos
Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(26): 7334-7343, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170670

RESUMO

The clinical usage of doxorubicin (DOX), a potent anthracycline antineoplastic drug, is limited due to its cardiotoxicity. The aim of this study was to assess the possible cardioprotective effects of nerolidol (NERO) in a rat model of DOX-induced chronic cardiotoxicity and the underlying molecular mechanisms. DOX (2.5 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally once in a week for 5 weeks to induce chronic cardiotoxicity in male albino Wistar rats. The rats were treated with NERO (50 mg/kg, orally) 6 days a week for a duration of 5 weeks. DOX-injected rats showed a significant decline in cardiac function, elevated levels of serum cardiac marker enzymes, and enhanced oxidative stress markers along with altered PI3K/Akt and Nrf2/Keap1/HO-1 signaling pathways. DOX also triggered the activation of NF-κB/MAPK signaling and increased the levels/expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß) and expression of inflammatory mediators (iNOS and COX-2) in the heart. DOX activated NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptotic cell death along with fibrosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage, and apoptosis in the myocardium. Additionally, histological studies, TUNEL staining, and myocardial lesions revealed structural alterations of the myocardium. NERO treatment showed considerable protective effects on the biochemical and molecular parameters studied. The findings demonstrate that NERO protects against DOX-induced chronic cardiotoxicity and the observed cardioprotective effects are attributed to its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Sesquiterpenos , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Apoptose , Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066575

RESUMO

Despite progress achieved, there is limited available information about the antibacterial activity of constituents of essential oils (EOs) from different medicinal-aromatic plants (MAPs) against fish pathogens and the complex interactions of blended EOs thereof. The present study aimed to investigate possible synergistic antimicrobial effects of EOs from seven Greek MAPs with strong potential against Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria, a fish pathogen associated with aquaculture disease outbreaks. The main objective was to evaluate whether blending of these EOs can lead to increased antimicrobial activity against the specific microorganism. A total of 127 combinations of EOs were prepared and their effect on A. veronii bv. sobria growth was tested in vitro. We examined both the inhibitory and bactericidal activities of the individual EOs and compared them to those of the blended EOs. The vast majority of the investigated combinations exhibited significant synergistic and additive effects, while antagonistic effects were evident only in a few cases, such as the mixtures containing EOs from rosemary, lemon balm and pennyroyal. The combination of EOs from Greek oregano and wild carrot, as well as the combinations of those two with Spanish oregano or savoury were the most promising ones. Overall, Greek oregano, savoury and Spanish oregano EOs were the most effective ones when applied either in pure form or blended with other EOs.


Assuntos
Aeromonas veronii/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peixes/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Apiaceae , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Daucus carota , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Melissa , Mentha , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Origanum , Plantas Medicinais/química , Rosmarinus , Satureja
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e002221, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076049

RESUMO

This study reports the action of essential oils (EO) from five plants on the activity of native and recombinant acetylcholinesterases (AChE) from Rhipicephalus microplus. Enzyme activity of native susceptible AChE extract (S.AChE), native resistant AChE extract (R.AChE), and recombinant enzyme (rBmAChE1) was determined. An acetylcholinesterase inhibition test was used to verify the effect of the EO on enzyme activity. EO from Eucalyptus globulus, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus aurantium var.dulcis inhibited the activity of S.AChE and R.AChE. Oils from the two Citrus species inhibited S.AChE and R.AChE in a similar way while showing greater inhibition on R.AChE. The oil from E. globulus inhibited native AChE, but no difference was observed between the S.AChE and R.AChE; however, 71% inhibition for the rBmAChE1 was recorded. Mentha piperita oil also inhibited S.AChE and R.AChE, but there was significant inhibition at the highest concentration tested. Cymbopogon winterianus oil did not inhibit AChE. Further studies are warranted with the oils from the two Citrus species that inhibited R.AChE because of the problem with R. microplus resistant to organophosphates, which target AChE. C. winterianus oil can be used against R. microplus populations that are resistant to organophosphates because its acaricidal properties act by mechanism(s) other than AChE inhibition.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Cymbopogon , Óleos Voláteis , Rhipicephalus/enzimologia , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Larva , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
12.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063337

RESUMO

The functional food market is growing with a compound annual growth rate of 7.9%. Thai food recipes use several kinds of herbs. Lemongrass, garlic, and turmeric are ingredients used in Thai curry paste. Essential oils released in the preparation step create the flavor and fragrance of the famous tom yum and massaman dishes. While the biological activities of these ingredients have been investigated, including the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities, there is still a lack of understanding regarding the responses to the essential oils of these plants. To investigate the effects of essential oil inhalation on the brain and mood responses, electroencephalography was carried out during the non-task resting state, and self-assessment of the mood state was performed. The essential oils were prepared in several dilutions in the range of the supra-threshold level. The results show that Litsea cubeba oil inhalation showed a sedative effect, observed from alpha and beta wave power reductions. The frontal and temporal regions of the brain were involved in the wave alterations. Garlic oil increased the alpha wave power at lower concentrations; however, a sedative effect was also observed at higher concentrations. Lower dilution oil induced changes in the fast alpha activity in the frontal region. The alpha and beta wave powers were decreased with higher dilution oils, particularly in the temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. Both Litsea cubeba and turmeric oils resulted in better positive moods than garlic oil. Garlic oil caused more negative moods than the others. The psychophysiological activities and the related brain functions require further investigation. The knowledge obtained from this study may be used to design functional food products.


Assuntos
Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcuma/química , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Alho/química , Litsea/química , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Administração por Inalação , Ondas Encefálicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimento Funcional/análise , Alimento Funcional/economia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/química , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Odorantes , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068756

RESUMO

Spontaneous emissions of S. dentata Aiton and S. scabra Thunb., as well as the essential oil (EO) composition of the cited species, together with S. aurea L., were investigated. The chemical profile of the first two species is reported here for the first time. Moreover, in vitro tests were performed to evaluate the antifungal activity of these EOs on Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium solani. Secondly, the EO antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus pseudointermedius was examined, and their antiviral efficacy against the H1N1 influenza virus was assessed. Leaf volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as well as the EOs obtained from the arial part of Salvia scabra, were characterized by a high percentage of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (97.8% and 76.6%, respectively), mostly represented by an equal amount of germacrene D (32.8% and 32.7%, respectively). Both leaf and flower spontaneous emissions of S. dentata, as well as the EO composition, showed a prevalence of monoterpenes divided into a more or less equal amount of hydrocarbon and oxygenated compounds. Interestingly, its EO had a non-negligible percentage of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (29.5%). S. aurea EO, on the contrary, was rich in sesquiterpenes, both hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds (41.5% and 33.5%, respectively). S. dentata EO showed good efficacy (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC): 0.5%) against M. canis. The tested EOs were not active against E. coli and S. aureus, whereas a low inhibition of S. dentata EO was observed on S. pseudointermedius (MIC = 10%). Once again, S. dentata EO showed a very good H1N1 inhibition; contrariwise, S. aurea EO was completely inactive against this virus. The low quantity of S. scabra EO made it impossible to test its biological activity. S. dentata EO exhibited interesting new perspectives for medicinal and industrial uses.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Salvia/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/química , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Odorantes , Folhas de Planta/química
14.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068826

RESUMO

Artemisia jordanica (AJ) is one of the folkloric medicinal plants and grows in the arid condition used by Palestinian Bedouins in the Al-Naqab desert for the treatment of diabetes and gastrointestinal infections. The current investigation aimed, for the first time, to characterize the (AJ) essential oil (EO) components and evaluate EO's antioxidant, anti-obesity, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) technique was utilized to characterize the chemical ingredients of (AJ) EO, while validated biochemical approaches were utilized to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-obesity and antidiabetic. The microbicidal efficacy of (AJ) EO was measured utilizing the broth microdilution assay. Besides, the cytotoxic activity was estimated utilizing the (MTS) procedure. Finally, the anti-inflammatory activity was measured utilizing a COX inhibitory screening test kit. The analytical investigation revealed the presence of 19 molecules in the (AJ) EO. Oxygenated terpenoids, including bornyl acetate (63.40%) and endo-borneol (17.75%) presented as major components of the (AJ) EO. The EO exhibited potent antioxidant activity compared with Trolox, while it showed a weak anti-lipase effect compared with orlistat. In addition, the tested EO displayed a potent α-amylase suppressing effect compared with the positive control acarbose. Notably, the (AJ) EO exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibitory potential compared with the positive control acarbose. The EO had has a cytotoxic effect against all the screened tumor cells. In fact, (AJ) EO showed potent antimicrobial properties. Besides, the EO inhibited the enzymes COX-1 and COX-2, compared with the anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen. The (AJ) EO has strong antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-α-amylase, anti-α-glucosidase, and COX inhibitory effects which could be a favorite candidate for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases caused by harmful free radicals, microbial resistance, diabetes, and inflammations. Further in-depth investigations are urgently crucial to explore the importance of such medicinal plants in pharmaceutical production.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Artemisia/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Oriente Médio , Orlistate/farmacologia , Picratos/química , Suínos
15.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066034

RESUMO

The chemical composition of three Citrus limon oils: lemon essential oil (LEO), lemon terpenes (LT) and lemon essence (LE), and their influence in the virulence factors production and motility (swarming and swimming) of two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (ATCC 27853 and a multidrug-resistant HT5) were investigated. The main compound, limonene, was also tested in biological assays. Eighty-four compounds, accounting for a relative peak area of 99.23%, 98.58% and 99.64%, were identified by GC/MS. Limonene (59-60%), γ-terpinene (10-11%) and ß-pinene (7-15%) were the main compounds. All lemon oils inhibited specific biofilm production and bacterial metabolic activities into biofilm in a dose-dependent manner (20-65%, in the range of 0.1-4 mg mL-1) of both strains. Besides, all samples inhibited about 50% of the elastase activity at 0.1 mg mL-1. Pyocyanin biosynthesis decreases until 64% (0.1-4 mg mL-1) for both strains. Swarming motility of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was completely inhibited by 2 mg mL-1 of lemon oils. Furthermore, a decrease (29-55%, 0.1-4 mg mL-1) in the synthesis of Quorum sensing (QS) signals was observed. The oils showed higher biological activities than limonene. Hence, their ability to control the biofilm of P. aeruginosa and reduce the production of virulence factors regulated by QS makes lemon oils good candidates to be applied as preservatives in the food processing industry.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Citrus/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limoneno/química , Limoneno/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Elastase Pancreática/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Piocianina/biossíntese , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
16.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070487

RESUMO

Since ancient times, plant roots have been widely used in traditional medicine for treating various ailments and diseases due to their beneficial effects. A large number of studies have demonstrated that-besides their aromatic properties-their biological activity can often be attributed to volatile constituents. This review provides a comprehensive overview of investigations into the chemical composition of essential oils and volatile components obtained from selected aromatic roots, including Angelica archangelica, Armoracia rusticana, Carlina sp., Chrysopogon zizanioides, Coleus forskohlii, Inula helenium, Sassafras albidum, Saussurea costus, and Valeriana officinalis. Additionally, their most important associated biological impacts are reported, such as anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, pesticidal, and other miscellaneous properties. Various literature and electronic databases-including PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Wiley-were screened and data was obtained accordingly. The results indicate the promising properties of root-essential oils and their potential as a source for natural biologically active products for flavor, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and fragrance industries. However, more research is required to further establish the mechanism of action mediating these bioactivities as well as essential oil standardization because the chemical composition often strongly varies depending on external factors.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20190343, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076085

RESUMO

The chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil extracted from the fresh leaves and stem bark of Grewia lasiocarpa was determined for the first time in this study. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and identified by GC-MS and FTIR. The antibacterial, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of essential oils were determined. The major compounds identified were phytol (22.6%); α-farnesene (8.62%); n-hexadecanoic acid (7.24%); farnesol (4.61%) in the leaves, and 2-methylheptadecane (7.24%); heptacosane (7.60%); heptadecane, 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl (7.30%). The presence of aromatic, alkanes and phenolic compounds were revealed by FTIR analysis. The in silico oral prediction shows that some of the components are orally safe. The essential oil from the leaves showed cytotoxic activity at 1mg/mL(IC50 =555.70 µg/mL) against HeLa cells. The oils exhibited no significant antioxidant activity (IC50 >1 000 µg/mL) with <100 mg/g GAE of total phenol. The essential oils showed different degrees of activities against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 314588) at 10 µg/mL, 5 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL. These results might provide a future reference basis for further exploration of more of its medicinal application.


Assuntos
Grewia , Óleos Voláteis , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes , Células HeLa , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais
18.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(2): 101-107, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103285

RESUMO

Objective: Natural plant products are considered as a source of novel and effective compounds for the treatment of leishmaniasis. In this study, the in vitro activities of essential oils obtained from Origanum dubium (OD), Origanum majorana (OM), Salvia fruticosa (SF) and Laurus nobilis (LN) plants in Northern Cyprus were investigated against Leishmania tropica. Methods: Leishmania tropica strain (MHOM/TR/2012/CBCL-LT) was obtained. RPMI-1640 was added to 96-well plates in 100 µL aliquots, 100 µg/mL essential oil was added to the first well of each row and serial 2-fold dilutions were performed. A promastigote suspension was pipetted into all wells, and the plates were incubated. The promastigotes were enumerated using a haemocytometer. Results: OD essential oil was effective at killing all promastigotes at a minimum inhibitor height (MIC)=0.2 µg/mL and had high activity at the lowest concentrations. Both SF and LN oils had MIC=1.56 µg/mL and LD50=0.78 µg/mL. SF was observed to impair promastigote morphology at the lowest concentrations, while LN did not exert any effect at concentrations <0.2 µg/mL. OM essential oil was found to have a MIC=3.13 µg/mL and a LD50=1.56 µg/mL. Conclusion: All tested essential oils inhibited promastigotes of Leishmania tropica. OD essential oil demonstrated the highest anti-leishmanial activity. Amaç: Bitkilerden elde edilen dogal ürünlerin leishmaniasis tedavisi için yeni ve etkili bilesiklerin üretilmesine öncülük edecegi düsünülmektedir. Çalismamizda, Kuzey Kibris'ta yetisen Origanum dubium (OD), Origanum majorana (OM), Salvia fruticosa (SF) ve Laurus nobilis (LN) bitkilerinden elde edilen uçucu yaglarin Leishmania tropica'ya karsi in vitro etkinlikleri arastirilmistir. Yöntemler: Çalismamizda, Leishmania tropica susu (MHOM/TR/2012/CBCL-LT) kullanildi. Düz tabanli 96'lik plaklarda, tüm kuyucuklara 100 µL RPMI-1640 ve ilk kuyucuklara 100 µg/mL uçucu yaglar eklenerek, seri dilüsyonlari yapildi. Ardindan tüm kuyucuklara Leishmania tropica promastigot süspansiyonundan pipetlendi ve inkübe edildi. Hemositometre yöntemiyle promastigotlarin sayisi incelendi. Bulgular: OD yaginin minimum inhibitör konsantrasyonu (MIK)=0,2 µg/mL'de tüm promastigotlari öldürürken, en düsük konsantrasyonlarda bile etkili oldugu görülmüstür. SF ve LN uçucu yaglarinin ikisinde de MIK=1,56 µg/mL, LD50=0,78 µg/mL olarak saptanmistir. SF'nin en düsük konsantrasyonlarinin bile promastigot morfolojisini bozdugu görülürken, Laurus nobilis'in ise 0,2 µg/mL'den sonraki konsantrasyonlarda etkisini kaybettigi belirlenmistir. OM uçucu yaginin MIK=3,13 µg/mL, LD50=1,56 µg/mL oldugu görülmüstür. Sonuç: Kullanilan tüm uçucu yaglarin Leishmania tropica promastigotlarini inhibe ettigi görülürken, en yüksek anti-leishmanial etkinlik Origanum dubium uçucu yaginda bulunmustur.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Leishmania tropica/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Chipre , Laurus/química , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Origanum/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Salvia/química
19.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247539, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190766

RESUMO

Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils from different Citrus species fruit peel, leaves and flowers. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition, larvicidal and antileishmanial activities of essential oil from Citrus reticulata fruit peel (CR-EO). CR-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Limonene (85.7%), É£-terpinene (6.7%) and myrcene (2.1%) were identified as its major components. CR-EO showed high activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 8.23 µg/mL). CR-EO also exhibited high larvicidal activity against third instar Aedes aegypti larvae at a lethal concentration (LC50 = 58.35 µg/mL) and 100% mortality at 150 µg/mL. This study suggests, for the first time, the potential use of CR-EO against this important mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the genus Aedes.


Assuntos
Aedes , Citrus , Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Frutas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
20.
Food Chem ; 359: 129963, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951609

RESUMO

This research studies the application of a specific nanoemulsion as anti-Escherichia coli agent. The specific mixture was generated by a simplex-centroid design. Physicochemical parameters such as droplet average diameter, pH, viscosity, density, turbidity, whitening index, refractive index, stability (thermal, physical, and osmotic stability), and antibacterial activity kinetic, have been assessed. The mixture nanoemulsions had droplet diameters significantly smaller than those of clove or cinnamon nanoemulsions. Individual and mixture essential oils nanoemulsion exhibited appropriate stability under pH, thermal, and ionic stress as well as after mid-term storage. Antibacterial activity kinetic revealed the fast and pronounced efficacy of mixture nanoemulsions on E. coli (reach 98% of growth inhibition), especially for the nanoemulsion composed of 50% essential oil in the dispersed phase upon 20 days of storage. All data considered, the actual work evidences the promising advantages of using specific nanoemulsions as delivery systems of antibacterial agents in the beverage and food industry.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Emulsões/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Lavandula/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Syzygium/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
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