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1.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104696, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980050

RESUMO

Combined application of plant essential oils (EOs) with known antimicrobial effects and silica nanocapsules with high loading capacity and protection capability of the EOs make them proper candidates for creating environmentally friendly fungicides. In this study, EOs of the Lemongrass (LGO) and Clove (CO) were used against Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), a causal agent of take-all disease of wheat. To provide controlled delivery of the EOs, they were encapsulated into mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) and then compared to the effects of pure EOs both in- vitro and in- vivo. MSNPs were synthesized via the sol-gel process. Various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to evaluate the successful loading of the EOs into the pore of MSNPs. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) was calculated as high as 84.24% for LGO and 80.69% for CO, while loading efficiency (LE) was determined 36% and 29% for LGO and CO, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) displayed spherical shapes and porous structures with average diameters of 50-70 nm. Recognition of the main components of the EOs via gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) before and after the EO loading, detected eugenol and citral as the most frequent compounds in LGO and CO, respectively. For antifungal test in- vitro, selected concentrations of the pure EOs, EOs loaded in MSNPs (EOs- MSNPs) and Mancozeb ® fungicide based on pre-tests were mixed using potato dextrose agar (PDA). The inhibition percentage (IP) of fungal growth at each concentration, as well as minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were obtained. The results indicated that antifungal effects in the encapsulated form increased by up to three times. In- vivo, the sterile wheat seeds were treated with pure EOs, EOs-MSNPs, and mancozeb at MFC concentration. Also, in order to keep on the EOs-MSNPs around the seeds, sodium alginate was used. The consequences of in- vivo experiments indicated that rate of disease control in presence of EOs-MSNPs and mancozeb was the same (~70%) and higher than pure EOs (LGO: 57.44%, CO: 49%). Also, improving the growth parameters in wheat plant, the covering of the EOs-MSNPs in alginate, had better control (84%) than that of EOs-MSNPs alone. Further, the release kinetics studies showed a gradual release of LGO and CO from MSNPs for four weeks in water and for five weeks in the soil-plant system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the control effect of LGO, CO, and their nanocapsule in MSNPs against the take-all disease of wheat. These results showed that the EOs-MSNPs can be a safe product for the efficient control of take-all disease in wheat crop.


Assuntos
Cymbopogon , Nanopartículas , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Óleo de Cravo/farmacologia , Dióxido de Silício , Triticum
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104679, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980061

RESUMO

Peppermint oil (PO) has widely been reported for their nutritional and biomedical properties. Essential oil (EO) has several properties, usage restricted due to environmental condition, polymer based nanoencapsulation of EOs is developed as one of the promising technique to address this limitation. In this current study emphasizes on developing Peppermint oil (PO) encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs) by ionic gelation method in order to improving its insecticidal potential effective management of two stored grain pest. The nano-encapsulated PO (CS/PO NPs) was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The physicochemical characterization of CS/PO NPs revealed <563.3 nm size, Zeta potential of -12.12 mV, encapsulation efficiency >64% and loading capacity >12.31% respectively. Developed CS/PO NPs demonstrated the toxicity studies have significantly efficacy against both stored product pest compared to control. In-vivo percent inhibition of AChE activity ranged between S. oryzae (52.43% and 37.71% and and T. castaneum (37.80% and 31.29). Overall, these results highlighted that polymer chitosan nanoparticle encapsulated with essential oil is a promising novel design that could be promoted in stored food pest management schedule for T. castaneum and S. oryzae.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Nanopartículas , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Mentha piperita , Controle de Pragas , Óleos Vegetais
3.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104702, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980062

RESUMO

Botanical extracts are an important source of bio-pesticides and are generally considered safe to the environment. Artemisia annua L, a medicinal plant, well known for its antimalarial potential, was evaluated as a source of a type of essential oil collected during vegetative growth stage against Glyphodes pyloalis Walker. The main chemical components of the essential oil at vegetative stage of Artemisia annua was analyzed by GC- MS and contained 1,8-cineole (18.68%), Camphor (11.4%), α-Pinene (9.3%) and 3-Carene (6.3%). The LC50 of this plant oil was estimated to be 0.652% W/V and 2.585 µL/L air incorporated orally and fumigation, respectively. The digestive enzymes such as α-amylases, Proteases, Lipases and α- and ß-glucosidases were considereably inhibited in treated larvae compared with controls. Similarly, the amount of protein, glucose, and triglyceride were decreased in the treated larvae by methods used. The lower hemocyte numbers, nodule formation and activity of phenoloxidases after injection of Beauveria bassiana and latex beads showed its EO effect on immunity. The anatomy of the larval midgut after treatment showed degeneration in digestive cells. Emerging adult's ovaries showed significant changes in the ovarian sheath and lack of yolk spheres. The present investigation in accordance with our previous studies may ultimately lead to a formulation in controlling this notorious pest especially in mulberry orchards where the use of conventional chemicals is restricted.


Assuntos
Artemisia annua , Morus , Mariposas , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Animais , Extratos Vegetais
4.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(3): 463-478, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755521

RESUMO

Malaria still remains to be a public health threat and one of the most important infectious diseases to get attention from World Health Organization. No domestic malaria cases have been reported on the island of Cyprus since 1948, as a result of successful elimination process. All of the malaria cases detected in recent years are imported cases. As known, hundreds of medicines are obtained from plants and traditional medicine are used in endemic places of malaria. The cause of malaria - Plasmodium parasites, are developing resistance to antimalarial drugs. Hence, research on plant extracts and essential oils have gained great interest in recent years to obtain new and safe agents/substances. In our study, it was aimed to investigate the in vivo antimalarial activities of essential oils obtained from Origanum dubium, Origanum majorana, Salvia fruticosa and Laurus nobilis plants which grows in Northern Cyprus against Plasmodium berghei - the rodent malaria agent. Plants were collected in appropriate seasons and were dried to obtain and analyze essential oils via Clevenger Apparatus system. L929 mouse fibroblast cell line and MTT [3-(4.5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl) -2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] kit were used to determine the cytotoxic activities of the essential oils obtained. In our study, total of 36 mice (Balb/c) of 6 groups (6 mice in each group) were formed: chloroquine group (CG) (50 mg/kg) as malaria reference group, untreated control group (UTCG), O.dubium (OD) (20 mg/kg), O.majorana (OM) (20 mg/kg), S.fruticosa (SF) (20 mg/kg) and L.nobilis (LN) (20 mg/kg). The essential oils were given to mice infected with P.berghei strain orally on 0, 1, 2 and 3rd days (4 times in total). Blood was taken from the tail end of each mouse 24 hours after the last treatment and blood collection was continued every two days until the mice died. Withdrawn blood taken from the mice were prepared as a thin smear and stained with Giemsa. Then, parasitemia percentages in each smear were calculated. As a result of the cytotoxicity tests, cytotoxic activity was not found at 100 µg/ml (20 mg/kg) in all oils except OD essential oil. While the mice receiving chloroquine continued their lives with the disappearance of the parasite on the 6thday, the mice in the UTCG died on the 9th day. The parasitemia rate reached 35% in the OM group on the 23rd day, in the OD group on the 21st day and in the other groups (SF and LN) on the 14th day and the mice have died. In our study, the difference between the life span in all groups was found statistically significant (p≤ 0.001). As a result, the essential oils O.majorana (14 days increase according to UTCG) an endemic plant of Cyprus and O.dubium (12 days increase according to UTCG) which had an antimalarial effect, decreased parasitemia and increased the life span of mice more than two times, indicated that they could be a source for the acquisition of new antimalarial molecules.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária , Óleos Voláteis , Origanum , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Chipre , Células Alimentadoras , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Origanum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(8): 941-950, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759552

RESUMO

This study reports the biological activity of essential oils from fertility tree and horseradish tree leaves, and the mechanisms by which these oils promote insecticidal activity using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. Adult D. melanogaster were exposed to these essential oils at a final concentration of 10 µL/g for 24 hours. The exposure of flies to the essential oil resulted in significant decrease in their survival and fecundity. In addition, the essential oils produced significant reduction in acetylcholinesterase activity and induced oxidative stress in the flies as evidenced by an increase in reactive oxygen species, thiol and thiobarbituric reactive substance levels, as well as catalase activity. The essential oils were also characterized by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Constituents such as terpenoids, Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, benzeneacetaldehyde, phytol, octadecane, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- methyl ester, heneicosane, eicosane and others were characterized. Therefore, our results point out to the potential application of fertility tree and horseradish tree leaf essential oils as natural alternatives to synthetic insecticides in agricultural and pest control practices, especially against dipterans.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Bignoniaceae/química , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Inseticidas , Moringa oleifera/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Óleos Voláteis/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Terpenos/análise , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235740, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678859

RESUMO

This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of Origanum majorana Linnaeus essential oil, identified the chemical composition, evaluated the antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant potential. The larvicidal activity was evaluated against larvae of the third stage of Aedes aegypti Linaeus, whereas the chemical composition was identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer, the antimicrobial activity was carried out against the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus auereus, the antioxidant activity was evaluated from of 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazila sequestration and Artemia salina Leach cytotoxicity. Regarding to the results, the larvicidal activity showed that O. majorana L. essential oil caused high mortality in A. aegypti L. larvae. In the chromatographic analysis, the main component found in O. majorana L. essential oil was pulegone (57.05%), followed by the other components verbenone (16.92%), trans-p-menthan-2-one (8.57%), iso-menthone (5.58%), piperitone (2.83%), 3-octanol (2.35%) and isopulegol (1.47%). The antimicrobial activity showed that E. coli and P. aeruginosa bacteria were more sensitive to oil than S. aureus, which was resistant at all concentrations. Essential oil did not present antioxidant activity, but it has high cytotoxic activity against A. salina L.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Origanum/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 330: 108766, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659522

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to explore the antifungal and aflatoxin B1 inhibitory efficacy of nanoencapsulated antifungal formulation. Mixture design response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to design the antifungal formulation (SBC 4:1:1) based on the combination of chemically characterized Ocimum sanctum (S), O. basilicum (B), and O. canum (C) against Aspergillus flavus. The SBC was incorporated inside the chitosan nanomatrix (Ne-SBC) using an ultrasonic probe (40 kHz) and interactions were confirmed by SEM, FTIR and XRD analysis. The results showed that the Ne-SBC possessed enhanced antifungal and aflatoxin B1 inhibitory effect over the free form of SBC. The biochemical and in silico results indicate that the antifungal and aflatoxin B1 inhibitory effect was related to perturbance in the plasma membrane function (ergosterol biosynthesis and membrane cation) mitochondrial membrane potential, C-sources utilization, antioxidant defense system, and the targeted gene products Erg 28, cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va, and Nor-1. In-situ observation revealed that Ne-SBC effectively protects the Avena sativa seeds from A. flavus and AFB1 contamination and preserves its sensory profile. The findings suggest that the fabrication of SBC inside the chitosan nano-matrix has promising use in the food industries as an antifungal agent.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ocimum/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Aflatoxina B1/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/química , Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Ocimum/classificação , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/microbiologia
8.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(9): 2437-2451, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607726

RESUMO

A total of 15 samples of thalassotherapy products, distributed in Tunisia in their intact and final state of production, was analyzed to determine their microbiological safety status. The result shows the absence of pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Salmonella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and coliforms). The incidence of contamination by Gram-positive Bacilli (mesophelic bacteria, aerobic and anaerobic spore forming bacteria, anaerobic sulphite-reducing bacteria) was found to be higher in products composed by mud and extract of alga. The biochemical and molecular identification of the major contaminant show that Bacilli were the most covered from 75% of the thalassotherapy products. Mineral analysis (organic matter, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na d K, Al, Si and Ti) shows strong composition on Aluminum and Silica. Cytotoxicity study of six thalassotherapy products and three essential oil extracts (Menthol, Clove and Eucalyptus) did not show any cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, antibacterial acitivity of 5 essentila oils, against 30 isolates of the genus Bacillus and 10 reference strains, has been characterized showing an interesting bactericidal potential of the extract of menthol and Eucalyptus.


Assuntos
Climatoterapia/normas , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tunísia
9.
Planta Med ; 86(15): 1125-1132, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688401

RESUMO

Clary sage (Salvia sclarea) is a xerophytic biennial plant typical for the Mediterranean region. It is cultivated for its essential oil, which is widely used in the flavor and fragrance industry as well as in aromatherapy for its relaxing and immunomodulatory effect. In this pilot investigation, clary sage essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS as well as GC-FID and examined regarding its effects on pulse, blood pressure and mood in healthy human female and male subjects. Analysis of the used CSEO identified linalylacetat (61.3%) and linalool (22.1%) as main compounds. Sclareol was found at 0.3%. In the first experiment with 30 participants (with 15 female), CSEO, diluted in peanut oil, was administered to the left forearm, leading to an increase in pulse rate in women (peanut oil served as control). In men, pulse rate deceased over time (p = 0.013). In the second experiment (32 participants; 16 females) the oil was inhaled for 30 min (pure water as control). The observed decrease of pulse rate was significantly stronger in women than in men (p = 0.026). To evaluate the influence of the mode of application, a comparison of both experiments was performed showing a significant difference between sexes for the parameter of pulse rate (p = 0.034). Overall, the effects elicited by CSEO may depend on application method (inhaled/dermal) and sex (male/female).


Assuntos
Aromaterapia , Frequência Cardíaca , Óleos Voláteis , Salvia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Projetos Piloto , Fatores Sexuais
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236505, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701970

RESUMO

Multidrug resistance prompts the search for new sources of antibiotics with new targets at bacteria cell. To investigate the antibacterial activity of Cinnamomum cassia L. essential oil (CCeo) alone and in combination with antibiotics against carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the strains was determined by Vitek® 2 and confirmed by MALDI-TOF/TOF. The antibacterial activity of CCeo and its synergism with antibiotics was determined using agar disk diffusion, broth microdilution, time-kill, and checkboard methods. The integrity of the bacterial cell membrane in S. marcescens was monitored by protein leakage assay. CCeo exhibited inhibitory effects with MIC = 281.25 µg.mL-1. The association between CCeo and polymyxin B showed a decrease in terms of viable cell counts on survival curves over time after a 4 hour-treatment with a FIC index value of 0.006. Protein leakage was observed with increasing concentrations for CCeo and CCeo + polymyxin B treatments. CCeo showed antibacterial activity against the studied strains. When associated with polymyxin B, a synergistic effect was able to inhibit bacterial growth rapidly and consistently, making it a potential candidate for the development of an alternative treatment and drug delivery system for carbapenemase-producing strains.


Assuntos
Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Polimixina B/farmacologia , Infecções por Serratia/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Cinnamomum aromaticum/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/genética , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Serratia/genética , Infecções por Serratia/microbiologia , Serratia marcescens/efeitos dos fármacos , Serratia marcescens/patogenicidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , beta-Lactamases/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234661, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544201

RESUMO

Xanthoxylin was the main compound (content 44.92% of total volatiles) in the leaves of Luodian B. balsamifera, which might be the key cause of failure in collecting essential oil (EO) of the leaves using general hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus. A modified hydrodistillation equipped with Clevenger apparatus was designed for isolating EO from the leaves. Six EOs of Luodian B. balsamifera harvested once a month from September to next February were collected successfully. The main components of EOs were δ-elemene, α-cubenene, caryophyllene, caryophyllene epoxide, γ-eudesmol, xanthoxylin, and α-eudesmol. The EOs of Luodian B. balsamifera collected from October to December had higher antioxidant activities (ACs). Combining the principal component analysis of chemical components with the results of ACs and the yields of six EOs, the leaves of Luodian B. balsamifera were suitable to be harvested in November and December to obtain EO with high quality.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Asteraceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , China , Destilação/instrumentação , Destilação/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação
12.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107937, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535114

RESUMO

The chemical composition and acaricidal activity of plant-derived essential oils was assessed against Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. The essential oils of Mentha arvensis, Cymbopogon citratus and C. nardus were assessed for acaricidal activity against Rhipicephalus microplus. Essential oils (EO) of plants were separated by hydrodistillation (three times) and analyzed using gas chromatography - mass spectrometer (GC-MS). For bioassays, engorged females of R. microplus were exposed to C. citratus and C. nardus EO at 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% concentrations; and to M. arvensis EO at 1%, 3%, and 5% for 5 min. The weight egg mass, nutrient index (N.I), egg production index (E.P.I), hatching and control rate were evaluated. Non-feed larvae of R. microplus were exposed to essential oils with 0.25%, 0.5%; 1%; 1.5% and 2% concentrations; the mortality rate was measured after 48 h. Only engorged females presented reduced biological activities (oviposition, E.P.I) after exposure to M. arvensis at 3%, when in comparison to both positive and negative controls. The hatchability of R. microplus larvae ranged from 66.9% (after exposure to C. nardus EO at 5%) to 99.2% (positive control). The nutrition index was lower (46.6%) for the exposure to M. arvensis EO at 5%. M. arvensis at 3% and 5% concentrations was significantly efficient for engorged females when compared to control (53.7% and 47.5%, respectively). C. citratus EO at 1%, 1.5% and 2% concentrations yielded better results in the larval packet test, causing 100% mortality. Nonetheless, C. nardus and M. arvensis EO at 2% yielded 66% and 39% mortality, respectively. The study showed that M. arvensis presented potential for the control of R. microplus engorged females while C. citratus and C. nardus presented potential as a larvicide.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Cymbopogon/química , Mentha/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhipicephalus , Acaricidas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bioensaio/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Destilação/métodos , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Dose Letal Mediana , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
13.
J Nat Med ; 74(4): 710-721, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556946

RESUMO

Cinnamon, clove, and fennel are commonly used as spices and herbal medicines, and one of their medicinal uses is as aromatic stomachics. We investigated the effect on appetite in mice of inhaling volatile compounds contained in essential oils extracted from herbal medicines used as aromatic stomachics. The appetite-enhancing effects of cinnamon and fennel essential oils were similar to those of their main components trans-cinnamaldehyde and trans-anethole, respectively. The appetite-enhancing effects of clove essential oil were observed over a wide range of doses (4.5 × 10-4 to 4.5 × 10-3 mg/cage), even though the active compounds showed effects within a narrow range of doses (eugenol: 4.5 × 10-4 to 2.5 × 10-3 mg/cage; eugenol acetate: 1.1 × 10-3 to 4.5 × 10-3 mg/cage). The increase in appetite at doses that differed by tenfold in mice administered clove oil was due to synergistic effects between eugenol and eugenol acetate in clove oil. Thus, loss of appetite could be treated more effectively using essential oil containing both eugenol and eugenol acetate compared with the active compounds administered separately. Administering essential oils, such as cinnamon and clove, could improve loss of appetite without strict dosage adjustment.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Foeniculum/química , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Syzygium/química , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
14.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 330: 108696, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502760

RESUMO

Synthetic preservatives can have harmful effects on the body, so plant essential oils appear to be an attractive natural alternative. However, the use of essential oils is limited due to the low stability and possible negative effects on the sensory properties of food. Oil encapsulation was suggested as a way to overcome these drawbacks. The objective of this study was to encapsulate thyme essential oil and to evaluate its antioxidant and antimicrobial potential in vitro and in situ in of hamburger-like meat products. The casein-maltodextrin capsules produced by spray-drying were assessed for encapsulation efficiency, thermal stability, chemical compounds and morphology. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, hydroxyl and nitric oxide methods, while antimicrobial activity was evaluated in vitro against four bacteria and in situ in hamburger-like products. The capsule showed high encapsulation efficiency and thermal stability, and spherical and irregular morphology. The casein-maltodextrin encapsulated essential oil showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium tested in vitro and against thermotolerants coliforms and Escherichia coli in situ, showing potential for application as a natural preservative in food.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Thymus (Planta)/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Dessecação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Temperatura Alta , Óleos Voláteis/química
15.
Food Chem ; 330: 127268, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540519

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) are natural, volatile and aromatic liquids extracted from special plants. EOs are complex mixture of secondary metabolites (terpenes, phenolic compounds, alcohol). EOs possess a wide range of biological activities including antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory ones. Particularly, EOs exhibit pronounced antibacterial and food preservative properties that represent a real potential for the food industry. Numerous EOs have the potential to be used as a food preservative for meat and meat products, vegetables and fruits as well as for dairy products. The main obstacles for using EOs as food preservatives are their safety limits, marked organoleptic effects and possible contamination by chemical products such as pesticides. This review aims to provide an overview of current knowledge about EOs food preservative properties with special emphasis on their antibacterial activities and to support their uses as natural, eco-friendly, safe and easily biodegradable agents for food preservation.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Carne , Produtos da Carne , Metabolismo Secundário , Terpenos/análise , Verduras
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20190615, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556053

RESUMO

Hedychium coronarium J. Koening, belonging to Zingiberaceae family, is a perennial herb with fleshly aromatic rhizomes. There are no information about the antiplatelet properties of essential oils (EOs) from rhizomes (HCR) and leaves (HCL) of this herb, additionally, there are reports about the antibacterial activity of the Zingiberaceae species, however, no studies have been carried out in the Colombian Amazon Region. The EOs were characterized by GC-MS, the antiaggregant activity was assessed by ADP and Collagen as platelet agonist and the antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and S. aureus were evidenced by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). A high content of oxygenated monoterpenes were found in HCL essential oil (EO) and 20 compounds were identified in HCR EO. The HCL EO showed antiaggregant activity when collagen was used and HCR EO showed a concentration-dependent activity against ADP and collagen, meanwhile only the HCR EO showed antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and S. aureus.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Zingiberaceae/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Folhas de Planta/química , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/isolamento & purificação , Rizoma/classificação , Zingiberaceae/classificação
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 331: 108732, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521374

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and anti-proteolytic potentials of tarragon essential oil (TEO) and its major compounds against food-associated Pseudomonas spp. The activities were verified by in vitro, in silico and in situ approaches. In this work, methyl eugenol (ME)- and ß-phellandrene (ß-PH)-rich TEO was investigated. TEO at subMIC increased the percentage of saturated fatty acids in the bacterial membranes (from 7 to 22%) and exhibited anti-quorum sensing via decreasing the efficiency of QS autoinducer synthesis [3-oxo-C12-HSL (from 2.028 µg/mL to

Assuntos
Artemisia/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , 4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , 4-Butirolactona/isolamento & purificação , 4-Butirolactona/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Simulação por Computador , Peixes/microbiologia , Homosserina/análogos & derivados , Homosserina/isolamento & purificação , Homosserina/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245065

RESUMO

Essential oils have shown promise as antiviral agents against several pathogenic viruses. In this work we hypothesized that essential oil components may interact with key protein targets of the 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A molecular docking analysis was carried out using 171 essential oil components with SARS-CoV-2 main protease (SARS-CoV-2 Mpro), SARS-CoV-2 endoribonucleoase (SARS-CoV-2 Nsp15/NendoU), SARS-CoV-2 ADP-ribose-1″-phosphatase (SARS-CoV-2 ADRP), SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (SARS-CoV-2 RdRp), the binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SARS-CoV-2 rS), and human angiotensin-converting enzyme (hACE2). The compound with the best normalized docking score to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro was the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (E)-ß-farnesene. The best docking ligands for SARS-CoV Nsp15/NendoU were (E,E)-α-farnesene, (E)-ß-farnesene, and (E,E)-farnesol. (E,E)-Farnesol showed the most exothermic docking to SARS-CoV-2 ADRP. Unfortunately, the docking energies of (E,E)-α-farnesene, (E)-ß-farnesene, and (E,E)-farnesol with SARS-CoV-2 targets were relatively weak compared to docking energies with other proteins and are, therefore, unlikely to interact with the virus targets. However, essential oil components may act synergistically, essential oils may potentiate other antiviral agents, or they may provide some relief of COVID-19 symptoms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Virais/química
19.
Exp Parasitol ; 215: 107919, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442440

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus microplus, the cattle tick, is a major cause of economic losses in bovine production. Due to the widespread acaricidal resistance to commercially available products, as well as their toxicity and environmental impact, alternative control methods are required. Nanoformulations produced from plant extracts as bioactive substances are very promising as innovative acaricidal agents. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro repellent activity of Pilocarpus spicatus essential oil and its nanoemulsion against R. microplus, using larval repellent test (RT). The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The nanoemulsion was prepared with 5% essential oil, 5% tween 80, and 90% water, using the phase inversion method (50 mg/mL). Limonene was the major component (46.8%) of the essential oil, as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and confirmed by flame ionization detection (GC/FID). According to the RT results, the essential oil had a repellent activity greater than 69%, from concentrations of 3.12 mg/mL (69.81 ± 10%) to 50 mg/mL (98.10 ± 0.6%), whereas the nanoemulsion at 50 mg/mL presented repellent activities of 97.14 ± 1.37% and 97.89 ± 0.52% 6 and 10 h after treatment, respectively. These values regarding to total repellency were very close to those calculated for mortality corrected by Abbott's formula. The phase inversion method preserved the chemical and physical characteristics of the essential oil since both reached an equal repellent effect at the same concentration. Therefore, P. spicatus essential oil and nanoemulsion had excellent repellent activities against R. microplus larvae, demonstrating its potential for future use as an alternative for tick control.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pilocarpus/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Emulsões/farmacologia , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Limoneno/análise , Modelos Lineares , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Aleatória , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408699

RESUMO

Essential oils have shown promise as antiviral agents against several pathogenic viruses. In this work we hypothesized that essential oil components may interact with key protein targets of the 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A molecular docking analysis was carried out using 171 essential oil components with SARS-CoV-2 main protease (SARS-CoV-2 Mpro), SARS-CoV-2 endoribonucleoase (SARS-CoV-2 Nsp15/NendoU), SARS-CoV-2 ADP-ribose-1″-phosphatase (SARS-CoV-2 ADRP), SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (SARS-CoV-2 RdRp), the binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SARS-CoV-2 rS), and human angiotensin-converting enzyme (hACE2). The compound with the best normalized docking score to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro was the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (E)-ß-farnesene. The best docking ligands for SARS-CoV Nsp15/NendoU were (E,E)-α-farnesene, (E)-ß-farnesene, and (E,E)-farnesol. (E,E)-Farnesol showed the most exothermic docking to SARS-CoV-2 ADRP. Unfortunately, the docking energies of (E,E)-α-farnesene, (E)-ß-farnesene, and (E,E)-farnesol with SARS-CoV-2 targets were relatively weak compared to docking energies with other proteins and are, therefore, unlikely to interact with the virus targets. However, essential oil components may act synergistically, essential oils may potentiate other antiviral agents, or they may provide some relief of COVID-19 symptoms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Virais/química
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